Abstract

Nonlinear optical properties of Co2+-doped magnesium aluminosilicate glass ceramics prepared under normal and reducing conditions are studied in the range of the 4A24T1(4F) transition of tetrahedral Co2+ ions. The results of passive Q switching of a 1.54-μm Er3+:glass laser with saturable absorbers made of Co2+-doped glass ceramics prepared at different conditions are presented. Q-switched pulses of 60 ns in duration and of 4.6 mJ in energy, corresponding to ∼20% of the Q-switching conversion efficiency, are achieved.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. D. Stulz, M. B. Carmargo, M. Birnbaum, “Divalent uranium and cobalt saturable absorber Q-switches at 1.5 μm,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 460–464.
  2. Ph. Thony, B. Ferrand, E. Molva, “1.55 μm passive Q-switched microchip laser,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 150–152.
  3. B. Denker, B. Galagan, E. Godovikova, M. Meilman, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, “The efficient saturable absorber for 1.54 μm Er glass lasers,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 618–620.
  4. K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, V. P. Mikhailov, R. Moncorge, D. Vivien, B. Ferrand, Y. Guyot, “Nonlinear spectroscopy and passive Q-switching operation of a Co2+:LaMgAl11O19 crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2189–2194 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. P. Mikhailov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, “Cr2+:ZnSe and Co2+:ZnSe saturable-absorber Q switches for 1.54-μm Er:glass lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 960–962 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T.-Y. Tsai, M. Birnbaum, “Co2+:ZnS and Co2+:ZnSe saturable absorber Q switches,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 25–29 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. A. Denisov, M. I. Demchyk, N. V. Kuleshov, K. V. Yumashev, “Co2+:LiGa5O8 saturable absorber passive Q-switch for 1.34 μm Nd3+:YalO3 and 1.54 μm Er3+:glass lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2455–2457 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, V. P. Mikhailov, “Nonlinear absorption properties of Co2+:MgAl2O4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 179–184 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Boiko, A. Okhrimchuk, A. Shestakov, “Glass ceramics Co2+: saturable absorber Q-switch for 1.3–1.6 μm spectral region,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 185–188.
  10. A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, U. Kang, “Cobalt-doped transparent glass ceramic as a saturable absorber Q switch for erbium:glass lasers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4322–4325 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. H. Beall, L. R. Pinckney, “Nanophase glass ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 5–16 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Wu, H. Chen, Z. Sun, H. Zeng, “Broadband saturable absorber with cobalt-doped tellurite glasses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1692–1694 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. W. McMillan, Glass Ceramics, 2nd ed. (Academic, London, 1979).
  14. A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, “Optical absorption and luminescence study of cobalt-doped magnesium aluminosilicate glass ceramics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1815–1821 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. A. Denisov, Yu. V. Volk, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, U. Kang, K.-H. Lee, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of cobalt-doped zinc aluminum glass-ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3827–3831 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Vogel, Glass Chemistry (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 464.
  17. R. Ya. Khodakovskaya, Chemistry of Titanium-Containing Glasses and Glass-Ceramics (Chemistry, Moscow, 1978; in Russian).
  18. The spinel was kindly supplied by L. V. Udalova.
  19. A. Szabo, R. A. Stein, “Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1562–1566 (1965).
    [CrossRef]

2003

E. Wu, H. Chen, Z. Sun, H. Zeng, “Broadband saturable absorber with cobalt-doped tellurite glasses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1692–1694 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Denisov, Yu. V. Volk, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, U. Kang, K.-H. Lee, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of cobalt-doped zinc aluminum glass-ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3827–3831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

2000

T.-Y. Tsai, M. Birnbaum, “Co2+:ZnS and Co2+:ZnSe saturable absorber Q switches,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 25–29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Denisov, M. I. Demchyk, N. V. Kuleshov, K. V. Yumashev, “Co2+:LiGa5O8 saturable absorber passive Q-switch for 1.34 μm Nd3+:YalO3 and 1.54 μm Er3+:glass lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2455–2457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, V. P. Mikhailov, “Nonlinear absorption properties of Co2+:MgAl2O4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 179–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1965

A. Szabo, R. A. Stein, “Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1562–1566 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Beall, G. H.

G. H. Beall, L. R. Pinckney, “Nanophase glass ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 5–16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, M.

T.-Y. Tsai, M. Birnbaum, “Co2+:ZnS and Co2+:ZnSe saturable absorber Q switches,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 25–29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Stulz, M. B. Carmargo, M. Birnbaum, “Divalent uranium and cobalt saturable absorber Q-switches at 1.5 μm,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 460–464.

Boiko, R.

R. Boiko, A. Okhrimchuk, A. Shestakov, “Glass ceramics Co2+: saturable absorber Q-switch for 1.3–1.6 μm spectral region,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 185–188.

Carmargo, M. B.

R. D. Stulz, M. B. Carmargo, M. Birnbaum, “Divalent uranium and cobalt saturable absorber Q-switches at 1.5 μm,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 460–464.

Chen, H.

Demchyk, M. I.

I. A. Denisov, M. I. Demchyk, N. V. Kuleshov, K. V. Yumashev, “Co2+:LiGa5O8 saturable absorber passive Q-switch for 1.34 μm Nd3+:YalO3 and 1.54 μm Er3+:glass lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2455–2457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Denisov, I. A.

I. A. Denisov, Yu. V. Volk, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, U. Kang, K.-H. Lee, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of cobalt-doped zinc aluminum glass-ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3827–3831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, “Optical absorption and luminescence study of cobalt-doped magnesium aluminosilicate glass ceramics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1815–1821 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, U. Kang, “Cobalt-doped transparent glass ceramic as a saturable absorber Q switch for erbium:glass lasers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4322–4325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Denisov, M. I. Demchyk, N. V. Kuleshov, K. V. Yumashev, “Co2+:LiGa5O8 saturable absorber passive Q-switch for 1.34 μm Nd3+:YalO3 and 1.54 μm Er3+:glass lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2455–2457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, V. P. Mikhailov, “Nonlinear absorption properties of Co2+:MgAl2O4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 179–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, V. P. Mikhailov, R. Moncorge, D. Vivien, B. Ferrand, Y. Guyot, “Nonlinear spectroscopy and passive Q-switching operation of a Co2+:LaMgAl11O19 crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2189–2194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Denker, B.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, E. Godovikova, M. Meilman, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, “The efficient saturable absorber for 1.54 μm Er glass lasers,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 618–620.

Dymshits, O. S.

Ferrand, B.

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, V. P. Mikhailov, R. Moncorge, D. Vivien, B. Ferrand, Y. Guyot, “Nonlinear spectroscopy and passive Q-switching operation of a Co2+:LaMgAl11O19 crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2189–2194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Thony, B. Ferrand, E. Molva, “1.55 μm passive Q-switched microchip laser,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 150–152.

Galagan, B.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, E. Godovikova, M. Meilman, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, “The efficient saturable absorber for 1.54 μm Er glass lasers,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 618–620.

Godovikova, E.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, E. Godovikova, M. Meilman, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, “The efficient saturable absorber for 1.54 μm Er glass lasers,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 618–620.

Guyot, Y.

Kang, U.

I. A. Denisov, Yu. V. Volk, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, U. Kang, K.-H. Lee, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of cobalt-doped zinc aluminum glass-ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3827–3831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, U. Kang, “Cobalt-doped transparent glass ceramic as a saturable absorber Q switch for erbium:glass lasers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4322–4325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khodakovskaya, R. Ya.

R. Ya. Khodakovskaya, Chemistry of Titanium-Containing Glasses and Glass-Ceramics (Chemistry, Moscow, 1978; in Russian).

Kuleshov, N. V.

I. A. Denisov, M. I. Demchyk, N. V. Kuleshov, K. V. Yumashev, “Co2+:LiGa5O8 saturable absorber passive Q-switch for 1.34 μm Nd3+:YalO3 and 1.54 μm Er3+:glass lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2455–2457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. P. Mikhailov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, “Cr2+:ZnSe and Co2+:ZnSe saturable-absorber Q switches for 1.54-μm Er:glass lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 960–962 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-H.

I. A. Denisov, Yu. V. Volk, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, U. Kang, K.-H. Lee, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of cobalt-doped zinc aluminum glass-ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3827–3831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levchenko, V. I.

Malyarevich, A. M.

McMillan, P. W.

P. W. McMillan, Glass Ceramics, 2nd ed. (Academic, London, 1979).

Meilman, M.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, E. Godovikova, M. Meilman, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, “The efficient saturable absorber for 1.54 μm Er glass lasers,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 618–620.

Mikhailov, V. P.

Molva, E.

Ph. Thony, B. Ferrand, E. Molva, “1.55 μm passive Q-switched microchip laser,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 150–152.

Moncorge, R.

Okhrimchuk, A.

R. Boiko, A. Okhrimchuk, A. Shestakov, “Glass ceramics Co2+: saturable absorber Q-switch for 1.3–1.6 μm spectral region,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 185–188.

Osiko, V.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, E. Godovikova, M. Meilman, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, “The efficient saturable absorber for 1.54 μm Er glass lasers,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 618–620.

Pinckney, L. R.

G. H. Beall, L. R. Pinckney, “Nanophase glass ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 5–16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Podlipensky, A. V.

Posnov, N. N.

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, V. P. Mikhailov, “Nonlinear absorption properties of Co2+:MgAl2O4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 179–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, V. P. Mikhailov, R. Moncorge, D. Vivien, B. Ferrand, Y. Guyot, “Nonlinear spectroscopy and passive Q-switching operation of a Co2+:LaMgAl11O19 crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2189–2194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prokoshin, P. V.

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, V. P. Mikhailov, “Nonlinear absorption properties of Co2+:MgAl2O4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 179–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbitsky, V. G.

Shestakov, A.

R. Boiko, A. Okhrimchuk, A. Shestakov, “Glass ceramics Co2+: saturable absorber Q-switch for 1.3–1.6 μm spectral region,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 185–188.

Stein, R. A.

A. Szabo, R. A. Stein, “Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1562–1566 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, R. D.

R. D. Stulz, M. B. Carmargo, M. Birnbaum, “Divalent uranium and cobalt saturable absorber Q-switches at 1.5 μm,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 460–464.

Sun, Z.

Sverchkov, S.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, E. Godovikova, M. Meilman, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, “The efficient saturable absorber for 1.54 μm Er glass lasers,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 618–620.

Szabo, A.

A. Szabo, R. A. Stein, “Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1562–1566 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Thony, Ph.

Ph. Thony, B. Ferrand, E. Molva, “1.55 μm passive Q-switched microchip laser,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 150–152.

Tsai, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Tsai, M. Birnbaum, “Co2+:ZnS and Co2+:ZnSe saturable absorber Q switches,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 25–29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, D.

Vogel, W.

W. Vogel, Glass Chemistry (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 464.

Volk, Yu. V.

I. A. Denisov, Yu. V. Volk, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, U. Kang, K.-H. Lee, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of cobalt-doped zinc aluminum glass-ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3827–3831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

Yakimovich, V. N.

Yumashev, K. V.

I. A. Denisov, Yu. V. Volk, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, U. Kang, K.-H. Lee, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of cobalt-doped zinc aluminum glass-ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3827–3831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, “Optical absorption and luminescence study of cobalt-doped magnesium aluminosilicate glass ceramics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1815–1821 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, U. Kang, “Cobalt-doped transparent glass ceramic as a saturable absorber Q switch for erbium:glass lasers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4322–4325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Denisov, M. I. Demchyk, N. V. Kuleshov, K. V. Yumashev, “Co2+:LiGa5O8 saturable absorber passive Q-switch for 1.34 μm Nd3+:YalO3 and 1.54 μm Er3+:glass lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2455–2457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, V. P. Mikhailov, “Nonlinear absorption properties of Co2+:MgAl2O4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 179–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, V. P. Mikhailov, R. Moncorge, D. Vivien, B. Ferrand, Y. Guyot, “Nonlinear spectroscopy and passive Q-switching operation of a Co2+:LaMgAl11O19 crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2189–2194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

Zhilin, A. A.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, V. P. Mikhailov, “Nonlinear absorption properties of Co2+:MgAl2O4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 179–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. A. Denisov, M. I. Demchyk, N. V. Kuleshov, K. V. Yumashev, “Co2+:LiGa5O8 saturable absorber passive Q-switch for 1.34 μm Nd3+:YalO3 and 1.54 μm Er3+:glass lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2455–2457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

G. H. Beall, L. R. Pinckney, “Nanophase glass ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 5–16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T.-Y. Tsai, M. Birnbaum, “Co2+:ZnS and Co2+:ZnSe saturable absorber Q switches,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 25–29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Szabo, R. A. Stein, “Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1562–1566 (1965).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Denisov, Yu. V. Volk, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, O. S. Dymshits, A. A. Zhilin, U. Kang, K.-H. Lee, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of cobalt-doped zinc aluminum glass-ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3827–3831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Other

W. Vogel, Glass Chemistry (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 464.

R. Ya. Khodakovskaya, Chemistry of Titanium-Containing Glasses and Glass-Ceramics (Chemistry, Moscow, 1978; in Russian).

The spinel was kindly supplied by L. V. Udalova.

R. D. Stulz, M. B. Carmargo, M. Birnbaum, “Divalent uranium and cobalt saturable absorber Q-switches at 1.5 μm,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 460–464.

Ph. Thony, B. Ferrand, E. Molva, “1.55 μm passive Q-switched microchip laser,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 150–152.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, E. Godovikova, M. Meilman, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, “The efficient saturable absorber for 1.54 μm Er glass lasers,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 618–620.

P. W. McMillan, Glass Ceramics, 2nd ed. (Academic, London, 1979).

R. Boiko, A. Okhrimchuk, A. Shestakov, “Glass ceramics Co2+: saturable absorber Q-switch for 1.3–1.6 μm spectral region,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 185–188.

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