Abstract

Field determinations of the remote sensing reflectance signal are necessary to validate ocean color satellite sensors. The measurement of the above-water downwelling irradiance signal E d(0+) is commonly made with a reference plaque of a known reflectance. The radiance reflected by the plaque (L dspec) can be used to determine E d(0+) if the plaque is assumed to be near Lambertian. To test this assumption, basic experiments were conducted on a boat under changing sky conditions (clear, cloudy, covered) and with different configurations for simultaneous measurements of L dspec and E d(0+). For all measurement configurations, results were satisfactory under a clear sky. Under cloudy or covered skies, shadow effects on the plaque induced errors up to 100% in the determination of E d(0+). An appropriate measurement configuration was defined, which enabled E d(0+) to be determined with an accuracy of better than ±15% regardless of the sky conditions.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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2003 (3)

S. B. Hooker, A. Morel, “Platform and environmental effects on above-water determination of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. D’Sa, R. L. Miller, “Bio-optical properties in waters influenced by the Mississippi River during low flow conditions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 84, 538–549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “Remote-sensing reflectance of turbid sediment-dominated waters. Reduction of sediment type variations and changing illumination conditions effects by use of reflectance ratios,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2623–2634 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

J. M. Froidefond, L. Gardel, D. Guiral, M. Parra, J. F. Ternon, “Spectral remote sensing reflectances of coastal waters in French Guiana under the Amazon influence,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Lafon, J. M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, P. Castaing, “SPOT shallow water bathymetry of a moderately turbid tidal inlet based on field measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 136–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. J. Lavender, P. Castaing, “Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in sediment-dominated coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079–5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275–295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328–341 (2001).

2000 (1)

1999 (4)

1998 (2)

L. Han, D. C. Runquist, “The impact of a wind-roughened water surface on remote measurements of turbidity,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 195–201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Haner, B. T. McCuckin, R. T. Menzies, C. J. Bruegge, V. Duval, “Directional hemispherical reflectance for Spectralon by integration of its bidirectional reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3996–3999 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Sydor, R. A. Arnone, “Effect of suspended particulate and dissolved organic matter on remote sensing of coastal and riverine waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6905–6912 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Remote sensing estimates of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment,” Remote Sens. Environ. 61, 290–301 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1980 (1)

A. Morel, “In water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

Arnone, R.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Arnone, R. A.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328–341 (2001).

M. Sydor, R. A. Arnone, “Effect of suspended particulate and dissolved organic matter on remote sensing of coastal and riverine waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6905–6912 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Remote sensing estimates of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment,” Remote Sens. Environ. 61, 290–301 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bruegge, C. J.

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and waters properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Castaing, P.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “Remote-sensing reflectance of turbid sediment-dominated waters. Reduction of sediment type variations and changing illumination conditions effects by use of reflectance ratios,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2623–2634 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. J. Lavender, P. Castaing, “Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in sediment-dominated coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079–5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Lafon, J. M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, P. Castaing, “SPOT shallow water bathymetry of a moderately turbid tidal inlet based on field measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 136–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, J. A.

D’Sa, E. J.

E. J. D’Sa, R. L. Miller, “Bio-optical properties in waters influenced by the Mississippi River during low flow conditions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 84, 538–549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Davis, C. O.

Deschamps, P. Y.

Doxaran, D.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “Remote-sensing reflectance of turbid sediment-dominated waters. Reduction of sediment type variations and changing illumination conditions effects by use of reflectance ratios,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2623–2634 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. J. Lavender, P. Castaing, “Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in sediment-dominated coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079–5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drummeter, L. F.

Duval, V.

Fargion, G. S.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Fougnie, B.

Froidefond, J. M.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “Remote-sensing reflectance of turbid sediment-dominated waters. Reduction of sediment type variations and changing illumination conditions effects by use of reflectance ratios,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2623–2634 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. J. Lavender, P. Castaing, “Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Froidefond, L. Gardel, D. Guiral, M. Parra, J. F. Ternon, “Spectral remote sensing reflectances of coastal waters in French Guiana under the Amazon influence,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Lafon, J. M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, P. Castaing, “SPOT shallow water bathymetry of a moderately turbid tidal inlet based on field measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 136–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in sediment-dominated coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079–5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, P. Y. Deschamps, “Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurements of diffuse marine reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3844–3856 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Gardel, L.

J. M. Froidefond, L. Gardel, D. Guiral, M. Parra, J. F. Ternon, “Spectral remote sensing reflectances of coastal waters in French Guiana under the Amazon influence,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gould, R. W.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328–341 (2001).

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Remote sensing estimates of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment,” Remote Sens. Environ. 61, 290–301 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guiral, D.

J. M. Froidefond, L. Gardel, D. Guiral, M. Parra, J. F. Ternon, “Spectral remote sensing reflectances of coastal waters in French Guiana under the Amazon influence,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, L.

L. Han, D. C. Runquist, “The impact of a wind-roughened water surface on remote measurements of turbidity,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 195–201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haner, D. A.

Heuermann, R.

R. Heuermann, Managing Direction, Trios GmbH, Werftweg 15, D-26135 Oldenburg, Germany (personal communication, 2003).

Holben, B.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Hooker, G. H. S.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, A. Morel, “Platform and environmental effects on above-water determination of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knestrick, G. L.

Knobelpiesse, K. D.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Lafon, V.

V. Lafon, J. M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, P. Castaing, “SPOT shallow water bathymetry of a moderately turbid tidal inlet based on field measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 136–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lahet, F.

V. Lafon, J. M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, P. Castaing, “SPOT shallow water bathymetry of a moderately turbid tidal inlet based on field measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 136–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lavender, S. J.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. J. Lavender, P. Castaing, “Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lazin, G.

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, P.

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and waters properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275–295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McCuckin, B. T.

McLean, S.

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Menzies, D. W.

Menzies, R. T.

Miller, M.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Miller, R. L.

E. J. D’Sa, R. L. Miller, “Bio-optical properties in waters influenced by the Mississippi River during low flow conditions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 84, 538–549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and waters properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Morel, A.

S. B. Hooker, A. Morel, “Platform and environmental effects on above-water determination of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275–295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4861 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependance on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, “In water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Mueller, J. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Neumann, M. J.

Parra, M.

J. M. Froidefond, L. Gardel, D. Guiral, M. Parra, J. F. Ternon, “Spectral remote sensing reflectances of coastal waters in French Guiana under the Amazon influence,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Patch, J. S.

Peacock, T. G.

Pietras, C.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Porter, J.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Runquist, D. C.

L. Han, D. C. Runquist, “The impact of a wind-roughened water surface on remote measurements of turbidity,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 195–201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

Smith, R. C.

Steward, R. G.

Sydor, M.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328–341 (2001).

M. Sydor, R. A. Arnone, “Effect of suspended particulate and dissolved organic matter on remote sensing of coastal and riverine waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6905–6912 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ternon, J. F.

J. M. Froidefond, L. Gardel, D. Guiral, M. Parra, J. F. Ternon, “Spectral remote sensing reflectances of coastal waters in French Guiana under the Amazon influence,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toole, D. A.

Voss, K.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Zibordi, G.

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (13)

J. A. Curcio, L. F. Drummeter, G. L. Knestrick, “An atlas of the absorption spectrum of the lower atmosphere from 5400 Å to 8520 Å,” Appl. Opt. 3, 1401–1409 (1964).
[CrossRef]

M. Sydor, R. A. Arnone, “Effect of suspended particulate and dissolved organic matter on remote sensing of coastal and riverine waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6905–6912 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4861 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependance on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Haner, B. T. McCuckin, R. T. Menzies, C. J. Bruegge, V. Duval, “Directional hemispherical reflectance for Spectralon by integration of its bidirectional reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3996–3999 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and waters properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, P. Y. Deschamps, “Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurements of diffuse marine reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3844–3856 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Haner, B. T. McCuckin, C. J. Bruegge, “Polarization characteristics of Spectralon illuminated by coherent light,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6350–6356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, D. W. Menzies, M. J. Neumann, R. C. Smith, “Remote-sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment: impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability,” Appl. Opt. 39, 456–468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “Remote-sensing reflectance of turbid sediment-dominated waters. Reduction of sediment type variations and changing illumination conditions effects by use of reflectance ratios,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2623–2634 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol. (1)

A. Morel, “In water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (3)

L. Han, D. C. Runquist, “The impact of a wind-roughened water surface on remote measurements of turbidity,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 195–201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in sediment-dominated coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079–5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275–295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (2)

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, A. Morel, “Platform and environmental effects on above-water determination of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Coastal Res. (1)

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328–341 (2001).

Remote Sens. Environ. (5)

E. J. D’Sa, R. L. Miller, “Bio-optical properties in waters influenced by the Mississippi River during low flow conditions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 84, 538–549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Froidefond, L. Gardel, D. Guiral, M. Parra, J. F. Ternon, “Spectral remote sensing reflectances of coastal waters in French Guiana under the Amazon influence,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Remote sensing estimates of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment,” Remote Sens. Environ. 61, 290–301 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Lafon, J. M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, P. Castaing, “SPOT shallow water bathymetry of a moderately turbid tidal inlet based on field measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 136–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. J. Lavender, P. Castaing, “Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. Heuermann, Managing Direction, Trios GmbH, Werftweg 15, D-26135 Oldenburg, Germany (personal communication, 2003).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral variations of (a) r spec and (b) diffspec. Measurements were taken under a clear blue sky on 4 September 2003 from 09:15 to 15:45 GMT in the Plymouth Sound (southwest UK).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral variations of (a) r spec and (b) diffspec. Measurements were taken under a covered sky on 3 September 2003 from 11:15 to 17:00 GMT in the Plymouth Sound (southwest UK).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral variations of (a) r spec and (b) diffspec. Measurements were taken under various cloudy and covered skies on 13 November 2003 (13:00 to 14:00 GMT) and on 19 November 2003 (11:00 to 12:00 GMT) in the Plymouth Sound (southwest UK).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ed0+=πRg Ldspec,
rspec=RgEdLdspec
diffspec=πRg-1Ldspec-EdEd×100

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