Abstract

The Sea-Viewing Wide-Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) has made monthly observations of the Moon since 1997. Using 66 monthly measurements, the SeaWiFS calibration team has developed a correction for the instrument’s on-orbit response changes. Concurrently, a lunar irradiance model has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from extensive Earth-based observations of the Moon. The lunar irradiances measured by SeaWiFS are compared with the USGS model. The comparison shows essentially identical response histories for SeaWiFS, with differences from the model of less than 0.05% per thousand days in the long-term trends. From the SeaWiFS experience we have learned that it is important to view the entire lunar image at a constant phase angle from measurement to measurement and to understand, as best as possible, the size of each lunar image. However, a constant phase angle is not required for using the USGS model. With a long-term satellite lunar data set it is possible to determine instrument changes at a quality level approximating that from the USGS lunar model. However, early in a mission, when the dependence on factors such as phase and libration cannot be adequately determined from satellite measurements alone, the USGS model is critical to an understanding of trends in instruments that use the Moon for calibration. This is the case for SeaWiFS.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  30. B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 4, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).
  31. F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).
  32. R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2003

R. A. Barnes, E. F. Zalewski, “Reflectance-based calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Calibration coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1629–1647 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, E. F. Zalewski, “Reflectance-based calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Conversion to radiance,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1648–1660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

2000

1999

J. M. Anderson, K. J. Becker, H. H. Kieffer, D. N. Dodd, “Real-time control of the Robotic Lunar Observatory,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 737–749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Changes in the radiometric sensitivity of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4649–4664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. H. Kieffer, “Photometric stability of the lunar surface,” Icarus 130, 323–327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. J. Buratti, J. K. Hillier, M. Wang, “The lunar opposition surge: observations by Clementine,” Icarus 124, 490–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner ‘system calibration’: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987

P. Helfenstein, J. Veverka, “Photometric properties of lunar terrains derived from Hapke’s equations,” Icarus 72, 342–357 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

A. P. Lane, W. M. Irvine, “Monochromatic phase curves and albedos for the lunar disk,” Astron. J. 78, 267–277 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Acker, J. G.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

Ainsworth, E. J.

C. R. McClain, E. J. Ainsworth, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 9, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Anderson, F.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, J. M.

J. M. Anderson, K. J. Becker, H. H. Kieffer, D. N. Dodd, “Real-time control of the Robotic Lunar Observatory,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 737–749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer, J. M. Anderson, “Use of the Moon for spacecraft calibration over 350–2500 nm,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 325–336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Austin, R. W.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. W.

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

C. R. McClain, E. J. Ainsworth, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 9, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Baker, E. T.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ball, D.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, P. Y.

P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, A. C. Paar, Spectral Reflectance, NIST Spec. Publ. SP 250-48 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1998).

Barnes, R.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Barnes, R. A.

R. A. Barnes, E. F. Zalewski, “Reflectance-based calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Calibration coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1629–1647 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Barnes, E. F. Zalewski, “Reflectance-based calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Conversion to radiance,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1648–1660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Changes in the radiometric sensitivity of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4649–4664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, “SeaWiFS measurements of the Moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 311–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “The calibration of SeaWiFS after two years on orbit,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 214–227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” in Earth Observing Systems IX, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5542 (to be published).

C. R. McClain, E. J. Ainsworth, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 9, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, R. A. Barnes, S. Bender, R. E. Eplee, J. Mendenhall, L. Ong, “On-orbit radiometric calibration over time and between spacecraft using the Moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites VI, H. Fujisada, J. B. Lurie, M. L. Aten, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE4881, 287–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 4, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Barnes, W.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Barnes, W. L.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

Becker, K. J.

J. M. Anderson, K. J. Becker, H. H. Kieffer, D. N. Dodd, “Real-time control of the Robotic Lunar Observatory,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 737–749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone, H. H. Kieffer, K. J. Becker, “Modeling the radiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems VIII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE5151, 463–470 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bender, S.

H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, R. A. Barnes, S. Bender, R. E. Eplee, J. Mendenhall, L. Ong, “On-orbit radiometric calibration over time and between spacecraft using the Moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites VI, H. Fujisada, J. B. Lurie, M. L. Aten, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE4881, 287–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berk, A.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “modtran: a moderate resolution model for lowtran7,” Tech. Rep. GL-TR-90-0122 (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “modtran: a moderate resolution model for lowtran7,” Tech. Rep. GL-TR-90-0122 (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

Biggar, S. F.

Buratti, B. J.

B. J. Buratti, J. K. Hillier, M. Wang, “The lunar opposition surge: observations by Clementine,” Icarus 124, 490–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Caffrey, R. T.

B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 4, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Clark, D. K.

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dodd, D. N.

J. M. Anderson, K. J. Becker, H. H. Kieffer, D. N. Dodd, “Real-time control of the Robotic Lunar Observatory,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 737–749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Early, E. A.

P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, A. C. Paar, Spectral Reflectance, NIST Spec. Publ. SP 250-48 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1998).

B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 4, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

El-Sayed, S. Z.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endres, D.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Eplee, R. E.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Changes in the radiometric sensitivity of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4649–4664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, “SeaWiFS measurements of the Moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 311–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, E. J. Ainsworth, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 9, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” in Earth Observing Systems IX, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5542 (to be published).

H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, R. A. Barnes, S. Bender, R. E. Eplee, J. Mendenhall, L. Ong, “On-orbit radiometric calibration over time and between spacecraft using the Moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites VI, H. Fujisada, J. B. Lurie, M. L. Aten, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE4881, 287–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 4, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Esaias, W. E.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Evans, R. H.

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner ‘system calibration’: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Firestone, E. R.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

Foujols, T.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B. A.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Frouin, R.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Gales, J.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Gillotay, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ginsberg, I. W.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, NBS Monogr. 160 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Gordon, H. R.

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner ‘system calibration’: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gould, R. W.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Guenther, B.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Helfenstein, P.

P. Helfenstein, J. Veverka, “Photometric properties of lunar terrains derived from Hapke’s equations,” Icarus 72, 342–357 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hersé, M.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hillier, J. K.

B. J. Buratti, J. K. Hillier, M. Wang, “The lunar opposition surge: observations by Clementine,” Icarus 124, 490–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. W.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

Hooker, S. B.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Hovis, W. A.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsia, J. J.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, NBS Monogr. 160 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Irvine, W. M.

A. P. Lane, W. M. Irvine, “Monochromatic phase curves and albedos for the lunar disk,” Astron. J. 78, 267–277 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. C.

B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 4, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Kieffer, H. H.

J. M. Anderson, K. J. Becker, H. H. Kieffer, D. N. Dodd, “Real-time control of the Robotic Lunar Observatory,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 737–749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer, “Photometric stability of the lunar surface,” Icarus 130, 323–327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, R. A. Barnes, S. Bender, R. E. Eplee, J. Mendenhall, L. Ong, “On-orbit radiometric calibration over time and between spacecraft using the Moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites VI, H. Fujisada, J. B. Lurie, M. L. Aten, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE4881, 287–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone, H. H. Kieffer, “Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE4814, 211–221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer, J. M. Anderson, “Use of the Moon for spacecraft calibration over 350–2500 nm,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 325–336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone, H. H. Kieffer, K. J. Becker, “Modeling the radiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems VIII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE5151, 463–470 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Labs, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lane, A. P.

A. P. Lane, W. M. Irvine, “Monochromatic phase curves and albedos for the lunar disk,” Astron. J. 78, 267–277 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Limperis, T.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, NBS Monogr. 160 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Mandel, H.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martinolich, P. M.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

McClain, C. R.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Changes in the radiometric sensitivity of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4649–4664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “The calibration of SeaWiFS after two years on orbit,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 214–227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, E. J. Ainsworth, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 9, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” in Earth Observing Systems IX, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5542 (to be published).

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Meister, G.

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” in Earth Observing Systems IX, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5542 (to be published).

Mendenhall, J.

H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, R. A. Barnes, S. Bender, R. E. Eplee, J. Mendenhall, L. Ong, “On-orbit radiometric calibration over time and between spacecraft using the Moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites VI, H. Fujisada, J. B. Lurie, M. L. Aten, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE4881, 287–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Mueller, J. L.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicodemus, F. E.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, NBS Monogr. 160 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977).

O’Reilly, J. E.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Ong, L.

H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, R. A. Barnes, S. Bender, R. E. Eplee, J. Mendenhall, L. Ong, “On-orbit radiometric calibration over time and between spacecraft using the Moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites VI, H. Fujisada, J. B. Lurie, M. L. Aten, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE4881, 287–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paar, A. C.

P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, A. C. Paar, Spectral Reflectance, NIST Spec. Publ. SP 250-48 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1998).

Patt, F. S.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Changes in the radiometric sensitivity of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4649–4664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, “SeaWiFS measurements of the Moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 311–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” in Earth Observing Systems IX, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5542 (to be published).

C. R. McClain, E. J. Ainsworth, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 9, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Ransibrahmanakul, V.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Richmond, J. C.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, NBS Monogr. 160 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Robertson, D. C.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “modtran: a moderate resolution model for lowtran7,” Tech. Rep. GL-TR-90-0122 (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

Robinson, W. D.

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

C. R. McClain, E. J. Ainsworth, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 9, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Schmidt, G. M.

Simon, P. C.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slater, P. N.

Stone, T. C.

T. C. Stone, H. H. Kieffer, K. J. Becker, “Modeling the radiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems VIII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE5151, 463–470 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone, H. H. Kieffer, “Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE4814, 211–221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, R. A. Barnes, S. Bender, R. E. Eplee, J. Mendenhall, L. Ong, “On-orbit radiometric calibration over time and between spacecraft using the Moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites VI, H. Fujisada, J. B. Lurie, M. L. Aten, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE4881, 287–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stumpf, R. P.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Sturm, B.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svitek, T.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

Thome, K. J.

Thuillier, G.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veverka, J.

P. Helfenstein, J. Veverka, “Photometric properties of lunar terrains derived from Hapke’s equations,” Icarus 72, 342–357 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Buratti, J. K. Hillier, M. Wang, “The lunar opposition surge: observations by Clementine,” Icarus 124, 490–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, E. J. Ainsworth, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 9, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Wehrli, C.

C. Wehrli, “Spectral solar irradiance data,” World Climate Research Program (WCRP)Publ. Ser. 7, WMO ITD 149 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1986), pp. 119–126.

Werdell, P. J.

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Wilson, W. H.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wrigley, R. C.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yentsch, C. S.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoder, J. A.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

Zalewski, E. F.

Appl. Opt.

Astron. J.

A. P. Lane, W. M. Irvine, “Monochromatic phase curves and albedos for the lunar disk,” Astron. J. 78, 267–277 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Icarus

P. Helfenstein, J. Veverka, “Photometric properties of lunar terrains derived from Hapke’s equations,” Icarus 72, 342–357 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Buratti, J. K. Hillier, M. Wang, “The lunar opposition surge: observations by Clementine,” Icarus 124, 490–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer, “Photometric stability of the lunar surface,” Icarus 130, 323–327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner ‘system calibration’: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

J. M. Anderson, K. J. Becker, H. H. Kieffer, D. N. Dodd, “Real-time control of the Robotic Lunar Observatory,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 737–749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Phys.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. C. Stone, H. H. Kieffer, K. J. Becker, “Modeling the radiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems VIII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE5151, 463–470 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, NBS Monogr. 160 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977).

P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, A. C. Paar, Spectral Reflectance, NIST Spec. Publ. SP 250-48 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1998).

R. A. Barnes, “SeaWiFS data: actual and simulated” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), available from http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEAWIFS/IMAGES/spectra1.dat and /spectra2.dat .

C. Wehrli, “Spectral solar irradiance data,” World Climate Research Program (WCRP)Publ. Ser. 7, WMO ITD 149 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1986), pp. 119–126.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “modtran: a moderate resolution model for lowtran7,” Tech. Rep. GL-TR-90-0122 (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 4, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O’Reilly, J. A. Yoder, in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

H. H. Kieffer, J. M. Anderson, “Use of the Moon for spacecraft calibration over 350–2500 nm,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 325–336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, “SeaWiFS measurements of the Moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 311–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, R. A. Barnes, S. Bender, R. E. Eplee, J. Mendenhall, L. Ong, “On-orbit radiometric calibration over time and between spacecraft using the Moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites VI, H. Fujisada, J. B. Lurie, M. L. Aten, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE4881, 287–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone, H. H. Kieffer, “Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE4814, 211–221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “The calibration of SeaWiFS after two years on orbit,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 214–227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, E. J. Ainsworth, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 9, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” in Earth Observing Systems IX, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5542 (to be published).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the SeaWiFS scanner.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Along-track section of the Moon measured by SeaWiFS. This comes from Fig. 2 of Barnes et al.10 and has been normalized to the range from zero to unity. The diamonds give the calculated edges for the cross section. DN, digital numbers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Response of band 4 before correction for libration. The responses are normalized to the initial value. The straight line gives a linear fit to the responses. Epoch 2000 has a reference of unity for the first day of the year 2000.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependencies of the SeaWiFS measurements on the lunar libration variables. The data points give the residuals about the line in Fig. 3 for each variable. The lines give the linear fits for these residuals.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated libration effects for SeaWiFS band 4. The normalization factors are the inverses of the effects.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Response of band 4 before and after correction for libration. The responses are normalized to the initial values. The lines give linear fits to the responses.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated slopes for the response of SeaWiFS band 4. The slopes are calculated by use of linear fits. The unit for the slopes is percent change per thousand days. The slope for measurements 1–6 is +1.1%. The slope for measurements 1–7 is +1.9%. The slope for measurements 1–66 is -0.27%. No slope was calculated for measurements 1–5. The change in slope, as new measurements are added, dampens over time.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Response of band 4 before and after removal of the oversampling error. The responses are normalized to the initial values. The lines give linear fits to the responses. The slopes for the two linear fits are identical. (a) Same as Fig. 6(b), except for an expanded vertical scale here.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Responses of the SeaWiFS bands. The responses are normalized to the initial values. The lines are fitted curves. For bands 3–5 the fitted curves are linear. For bands 1, 2, and 6–8 the fitted curves are exponentials.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic of the ROLO telescope assembly. The single fork mount holds two telescopes pointed at zenith. The VNIR camera and telescope are mounted to the right of the declination ring.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic of the VNIR telescope and camera optics. The dashed lines show the optical path through the instrument.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Differences of the SeaWiFS lunar irradiances from the USGS model. The differences are in percent.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Differences of the SeaWiFS lunar irradiances from the USGS model after correction for the oversampling scatter in the SeaWiFS measurements. The differences are in percent.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Coefficients for the Fitted Curves in Fig. 9, a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Scatter in the SeaWiFS Values about Their Fitted Curves in Fig. 9 a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Instrument Changes before the First Lunar Measurementa

Tables Icon

Table 4 Center Wavelengths and Bandwidths for the ROLO VNIR Filtersa

Tables Icon

Table 5 Slopes and Intercepts for the Linear Regressions in Fig. 12 a

Tables Icon

Table 6 Slopes and Intercepts for the Linear Regressions in Fig. 13 a

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Sn=i=1Np Li,n,
SAn=SnDSM1 AU2DMV384,400 km2,
SBn=SAni=02 vigi1+εng-7,
SCn=SBn3474.8 km/DMVYM,
SDn=SCn1+w1Φ1+w2θ1+w3ϕ-1,
y=z0+z1t+z2 exp-z3t+z4 exp-z5t,
Ik=Ωpi=1Np Li,k,
Ik=IkDSM1 AU2DMV384,400 km2,
Ik=AkΩMEkπ,
Ak=π Ik/ΩMEk,
ln Ak=i=03 aikgi+j=13 bjkΦ2j-1+c1θ+c2ϕ+c3Φθ+c4Φϕ+d1k exp-g/p1+d2k exp-g/p2+d3k cosg-p3/p4,
λeff=λ1λ2 λAλEλRλdλλ1λ2 AλEλRλdλ,
In=AnΩMEnπ,
En=λ1λ2 EλRλdλλ1λ2 Rλdλ.

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