Abstract

The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is a limb-scanning spectrometer that has operated onboard the Environmental Satellite since the end of March 2002. Common features of limb-scanning experiments are both high vertical resolution and poor horizontal resolution. We exploit the two-dimensional geo-fit retrieval approach [Appl. Opt. 40, 1872–1875 (2001)] to investigate the possibility of improving the horizontal resolution of MIPAS measurements. Two different strategies are considered for this purpose, one exploiting the possibility (offered by the geo-fit analysis method) for an arbitrary definition of the retrieval grid, the other based on the possibility of saving measurement time by degrading the spectral resolution of the interferometer. The performances of the two strategies are compared in terms of the trade-off between the attained horizontal resolution and the retrieval precision. We find that for ozone it is possible to improve by a factor of 2 the horizontal resolution, which in the nominal measurement plan is ∼530 km. This improvement corresponds to a degradation of the retrieval precision, which on average varies from a factor of 1.4 to 2.5, depending on the adopted spectral resolution.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Carlotti, “Global fit approach to the analysis of limb-scanning atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3250–3254 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. E. Backus, F. Gilbert, “Uniqueness in the inversion of inaccurate gross Earth data,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 266, 123–192 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. J. Conrath, “Vertical resolution of temperature profiles obtained from remote radiation measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1262–1271 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Carlotti, B. Carli, “Approach to the design and data analysis of a limb-scanning experiment,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3237–3249 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Carlotti, M. Ridolfi, “Derivation of temperature and pressure from submillimetric limb observations,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2398–2409 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. K. Roscoe, J. G. T. Hill, “Vertical resolution of oversampled limb-sounding measurements from satellites and aircraft,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 237–248 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  19. B. Carli, M. Carlotti, M. Höpfner, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, “MIPAS level 2 algorithm theoretical baseline document,” Tech. Rep. ESA contract 11717/95/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).
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  22. G. Redaelli, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67010 L’Aquila, Italy (personal communication, 2004).
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  26. B. M. Dinelli, D. Alpaslan, M. Carlotti, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, “Multitarget retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 84, 141–157 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004

B. M. Dinelli, D. Alpaslan, M. Carlotti, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, “Multitarget retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 84, 141–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, “Modeling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. K. Roscoe, J. G. T. Hill, “Vertical resolution of oversampled limb-sounding measurements from satellites and aircraft,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 237–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

1999

M. Carlotti, M. Ridolfi, “Derivation of temperature and pressure from submillimetric limb observations,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2398–2409 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Chipperfield, “Multiannual simulations with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1781–1805 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1994

1989

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapor continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1976

1972

B. J. Conrath, “Vertical resolution of temperature profiles obtained from remote radiation measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1262–1271 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970

G. E. Backus, F. Gilbert, “Uniqueness in the inversion of inaccurate gross Earth data,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 266, 123–192 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Alpaslan, D.

B. M. Dinelli, D. Alpaslan, M. Carlotti, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, “Multitarget retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 84, 141–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

Arsenin, V. Y.

A. N. Tikhonov, V. Y. Arsenin, Solutions of Ill-Posed Problems (V. H. Winston, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Backus, G. E.

G. E. Backus, F. Gilbert, “Uniqueness in the inversion of inaccurate gross Earth data,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 266, 123–192 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Beer, R.

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003).

Carli, B.

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, B. Carli, “Approach to the design and data analysis of a limb-scanning experiment,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3237–3249 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” Final Report, ESA study 12055-96-NL-CN (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).

B. Carli, M. Carlotti, M. Höpfner, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, “MIPAS level 2 algorithm theoretical baseline document,” Tech. Rep. ESA contract 11717/95/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

Carlotti, M.

B. M. Dinelli, D. Alpaslan, M. Carlotti, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, “Multitarget retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 84, 141–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, B. M. Dinelli, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, “Geo-fit approach to the analysis of satellite limb-scanning measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1872–1885 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, M. Ridolfi, “Derivation of temperature and pressure from submillimetric limb observations,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2398–2409 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, B. Carli, “Approach to the design and data analysis of a limb-scanning experiment,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3237–3249 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Carlotti, “Global fit approach to the analysis of limb-scanning atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3250–3254 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

B. Carli, M. Carlotti, M. Höpfner, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, “MIPAS level 2 algorithm theoretical baseline document,” Tech. Rep. ESA contract 11717/95/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

Castelli, E.

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

Ceccherini, S.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, “Modeling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

Chipperfield, M. P.

M. P. Chipperfield, “Multiannual simulations with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1781–1805 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapor continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Conrath, B. J.

B. J. Conrath, “Vertical resolution of temperature profiles obtained from remote radiation measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1262–1271 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. W.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapor continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dinelli, B. M.

B. M. Dinelli, D. Alpaslan, M. Carlotti, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, “Multitarget retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 84, 141–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, B. M. Dinelli, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, “Geo-fit approach to the analysis of satellite limb-scanning measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1872–1885 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” Final Report, ESA study 12055-96-NL-CN (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

Dudhia, A.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, “Modeling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” Final Report, ESA study 12055-96-NL-CN (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

A. Dudhia, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Planetary Physics, Oxford University, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU, UK (personal communication, 2004).

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

A. Dudhia, “MIPAS microwindow error analysis,” (2002), http://www.atm.ox.ac.uk/group/mipas/err/ .

Echle, G.

T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, “Selection of optimized microwindows for atmospheric spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7661–7669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” Final Report, ESA study 12055-96-NL-CN (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).

Endemann, M.

M. Endemann, “MIPAS instrument concept and performance,” in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space, ISSN 1022-6656 (European Space Research and Technology Center–European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1999), WPP-161, Vol. 1, pp. 29–43.

Flaud, J.-M.

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

Funke, B.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, “Modeling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, F.

G. E. Backus, F. Gilbert, “Uniqueness in the inversion of inaccurate gross Earth data,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 266, 123–192 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J. G. T.

H. K. Roscoe, J. G. T. Hill, “Vertical resolution of oversampled limb-sounding measurements from satellites and aircraft,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 237–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoepfner, M.

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

Höpfner, M.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, “Modeling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, M. Carlotti, M. Höpfner, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, “MIPAS level 2 algorithm theoretical baseline document,” Tech. Rep. ESA contract 11717/95/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

Jay, V.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, “Modeling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

Kerridge, B. J.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, “Modeling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kneizys, F. X.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapor continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

López-Puertas, M.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, “Modeling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Magnani, L.

B. M. Dinelli, D. Alpaslan, M. Carlotti, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, “Multitarget retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 84, 141–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

Morris, P. E.

Norton, R. H.

Oelhaf, H.

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

Payne, V.

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

Piccolo, C.

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

Prosperi, M.

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

Raspollini, P.

M. Carlotti, B. M. Dinelli, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, “Geo-fit approach to the analysis of satellite limb-scanning measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1872–1885 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, M. Carlotti, M. Höpfner, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, “MIPAS level 2 algorithm theoretical baseline document,” Tech. Rep. ESA contract 11717/95/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” Final Report, ESA study 12055-96-NL-CN (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

Reburn, J.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, “Modeling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Redaelli, G.

G. Redaelli, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67010 L’Aquila, Italy (personal communication, 2004).

Remedios, J.

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

Ridolfi, M.

B. M. Dinelli, D. Alpaslan, M. Carlotti, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, “Multitarget retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 84, 141–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, “Modeling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, B. M. Dinelli, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, “Geo-fit approach to the analysis of satellite limb-scanning measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1872–1885 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, M. Ridolfi, “Derivation of temperature and pressure from submillimetric limb observations,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2398–2409 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

B. Carli, M. Carlotti, M. Höpfner, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, “MIPAS level 2 algorithm theoretical baseline document,” Tech. Rep. ESA contract 11717/95/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” Final Report, ESA study 12055-96-NL-CN (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).

Robinson, D. K.

P. R. Bevington, D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003).

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Planetary Physics, Vol. 2 (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

Roscoe, H. K.

H. K. Roscoe, J. G. T. Hill, “Vertical resolution of oversampled limb-sounding measurements from satellites and aircraft,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 237–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schreier, F.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, “Modeling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siddans, R.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, “Modeling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spang, R.

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

Stiller, G.

Tikhonov, A. N.

A. N. Tikhonov, V. Y. Arsenin, Solutions of Ill-Posed Problems (V. H. Winston, Washington, D.C., 1977).

von Clarmann, T.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, “Modeling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, “Selection of optimized microwindows for atmospheric spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7661–7669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wells, R. J.

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Res.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapor continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

B. J. Conrath, “Vertical resolution of temperature profiles obtained from remote radiation measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1262–1271 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

M. P. Chipperfield, “Multiannual simulations with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1781–1805 (1999).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

H. K. Roscoe, J. G. T. Hill, “Vertical resolution of oversampled limb-sounding measurements from satellites and aircraft,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 237–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, “Modeling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Dinelli, D. Alpaslan, M. Carlotti, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, “Multitarget retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 84, 141–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A

G. E. Backus, F. Gilbert, “Uniqueness in the inversion of inaccurate gross Earth data,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 266, 123–192 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Ridolfi, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, J. Remedios, R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 processor performance and verification,” in Proceedings, ENVISAT Validation Workshop of European Space Research Institute, 9–13 November 2002, The Netherlands, ESA SP-531, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

M. Endemann, “MIPAS instrument concept and performance,” in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space, ISSN 1022-6656 (European Space Research and Technology Center–European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1999), WPP-161, Vol. 1, pp. 29–43.

B. Carli, M. Carlotti, M. Höpfner, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, “MIPAS level 2 algorithm theoretical baseline document,” Tech. Rep. ESA contract 11717/95/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

M. Ridolfi, “Development of algorithms for the exploitation of MIPAS special modes measurements,” European Space Agency–European Space Research Institute contract 16700/02/I-LG (2003), http://www.fci.unibo.it/∼ridolfi/mipas_sm_rationale.html .

G. Redaelli, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67010 L’Aquila, Italy (personal communication, 2004).

P. R. Bevington, D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003).

P. Raspollini, D. Alpaslan, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, V. Jay, L. Magnani, H. Oelhaf, C. Piccolo, M. Prosperi, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, R. Spang, “Level 2 near-real-time analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISAT: updated performance assessment,” European Geophysical Society–American Geophysical Union–European Union of Geosciences joint assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003.

A. Dudhia, “MIPAS microwindow error analysis,” (2002), http://www.atm.ox.ac.uk/group/mipas/err/ .

B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” Final Report, ESA study 12055-96-NL-CN (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).

A. N. Tikhonov, V. Y. Arsenin, Solutions of Ill-Posed Problems (V. H. Winston, Washington, D.C., 1977).

A. Dudhia, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Planetary Physics, Oxford University, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU, UK (personal communication, 2004).

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Planetary Physics, Vol. 2 (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Location of the tangent points of MIPAS measurements (solid circles) and possible retrieval grids (intersection between large circles and radii) (on a distorted scale): (a) nominal measurement grid, one retrieved profile per measured limb-scan; (b) nominal measurement grid, four retrieved profiles per measured limb-scan; (c) reduced spectral resolution (1/4 of nominal), one retrieved profile per measured limb-scan.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left, ESD of the retrieved ozone and, right, reduced chi-square as a function of the horizontal resolution quantified in terms of the angular separation between retrieved profiles. The plots represent the trade-off obtained with the variable retrieval grid and nominal measurement grid. Points marked with an arrow refer to the reference retrieval setup in which one vertical profile is retrieved per measured limb-scan.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geographical distribution of the ESD for ozone retrievals: left, trade-off tests with nominal measurement mode and different horizontal resolutions attained by changing the retrieval grid; right, trade-off tests in which different horizontal resolutions are attained by changing the measurement grid. The horizontal resolution is indicated at the top of each map.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ozone retrieval. The map shows the absolute ratio between the deviations (retrieved – true profiles) and the ESD. The map refers to a test case with the nominal measurement grid and the horizontal resolution doubled with respect to the reference case.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Left, ESD of the retrieved ozone, and, right, reduced chi-square as a function of the horizontal resolution quantified in terms of the angular separation between the retrieved profiles. The plots represent the trade-off obtained by varying the spectral resolution. The points marked with an arrow refer to the reference-retrieval setup.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Horizontal Resolution of the Retrieval Grids Considered in the Trade-off Tests with Nominal MIPAS Observation Plan and Variable Retrieval Grid

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Table 2 Estimated Standard Deviation Averaged along the Full Orbit for the Retrieval Altitudes

Equations (6)

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χ2=yobs-yxˆTSy-1yobs-yxˆ,
xˆi+1=xˆi+ KiTSy-1Ki-1KiTSy-1yobs-yxˆi,
Kij, h=yjxhx=xˆi,
Sx= KTSy-1K-1,
σh=Sxh,h1/2 with h=1,, n.
χR2 χ2m-n,

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