Abstract

We investigated the influence of a hyperosmotic agent (glycerol) on the normal physiological function of tissue by applying the glycerol in vitro and in vivo to rabbit dura mater to assess the changes in the tissue’s optical properties. We used a laser speckle imaging technique to study the effect of epidurally applied glycerol on resting cerebral blood flow (CBF). Our results showed that resting CBF decreased as the transparency of the dura mater increased. The challenges for the design of an optical clearing technique were not only the clearing effects and the duration of the action of the chemical agents but also the influence of the glycerol on the tissue’s normal physiological function.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, E. Bartfeld, “High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 11,559–11,563 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. M. Chen, B. Heider, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, A. W. Roe, “A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in the monkey,” J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41–49 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2003

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, Y. P. Sinichkin, V. I. Kochubey, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “Glucose and mannitol diffusion in human dura mater,” Biophys. J. 85, 3310–3318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, S. Q. Zeng, J. Cen, W. X. Liang, “Optical dynamic imaging of the regional blood flow in the rat mesentery under the effect of noradrenalin,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 13, 397–400 (2003).

A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, B. J. Tromberg, “Reversible dissociation of collagen in tissues,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121, 1332–1335 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Z. Wang, G. Hui, S. B. Chen, W. X. Liang, S. Q. Zeng, “Efficient characterization of regional mesenteric blood flow using laser speckle imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5759–5764 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, A. W. Roe, “A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in the monkey,” J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41–49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. K. Dunn, Z. Huang, D. A. Boas, A. M. Moskowitz, “Intrinsic brain activity triggers trigeminal meningeal afferents in a migraine model,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 136–142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Vargas, K. F. Chan, S. L. Thomsen, A. J. Welch, “Use of osmotically active agents to alter optical properties of tissue: effects on the detected fluorescence signal measured through skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, “Coherent optical techniques for the analysis of tissue structure and dynamics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 106–124 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1997

G. Taubes, “Play of light opens a new window into the body,” Science 276, 1991–1993 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, B. Chance, “Dependence of tissue optical properties on solute-induced changes in refractive index and osmolarity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200–211 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Briers, S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a non-scanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174–179 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

N. Songsasen, B. C. Buckrell, C. Plante, S. P. Leibo, “In vitro and in vivo survival of cryopreserved sheep embryos,” Cryobiology 32, 78–91 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

V. V. Tuchin, “Lasers and fiber optics in biomedicine,” Laser Phys. 3, 767–950 (1993).

V. V. Tuchin, “Laser light scattering in biomedical diagnostics and therapy,” J. Laser Appl. 5, 43–60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. F. Cilesiz, A. J. Welch, “Light dosimetry: effects of dehydration and thermal damage on the optical properties of the human aorta,” Appl. Opt. 32, 477–487 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

Y. R. Tran Dinh, C. Thurel, A. Serrie, G. Cunin, J. Seylaz, “Glycerol injection into the trigeminal ganglion provokes a selective increase in human cerebral blood flow,” Pain 46, 13–16 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, E. Bartfeld, “High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 11,559–11,563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

V. V. Bakutkin, I. L. Maksimova, P. I. Saprykin, V. V. Tuchin, L. P. Shubochkin, “Light scattering by human eye sclera,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. (USSR) 46, 104–107 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326–329 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Bonner, R. Nossal, “Model for laser Doppler measurements of blood flow in tissue,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2097–2107 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakutkin, V. V.

V. V. Bakutkin, I. L. Maksimova, P. I. Saprykin, V. V. Tuchin, L. P. Shubochkin, “Light scattering by human eye sclera,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. (USSR) 46, 104–107 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bartfeld, E.

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, E. Bartfeld, “High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 11,559–11,563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. K.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashkatov, A. N.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, Y. P. Sinichkin, V. I. Kochubey, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “Glucose and mannitol diffusion in human dura mater,” Biophys. J. 85, 3310–3318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, Y. P. Sinichkin, A. A. Korobov, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “In vitro study of control of human dura mater optical properties by acting of osmotical liquids,” in Controlling Tissue Optical Properties: Applications in Clinical Study, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE4162, 182–188 (2000).

Bashkatov, V. V.

V. V. Bashkatov, I. L. Maksimova, T. N. Semyonova, V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Kon, “Controlling of optical properties of sclera,” in Ophthalmic Technologies V, J.-M. A. Parel, Q. Ren, K. M. Joos, eds., Proc. SPIE2393, 137–141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beauvoit, B.

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, B. Chance, “Dependence of tissue optical properties on solute-induced changes in refractive index and osmolarity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200–211 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. K. Dunn, Z. Huang, D. A. Boas, A. M. Moskowitz, “Intrinsic brain activity triggers trigeminal meningeal afferents in a migraine model,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 136–142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolay, H.

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. K. Dunn, Z. Huang, D. A. Boas, A. M. Moskowitz, “Intrinsic brain activity triggers trigeminal meningeal afferents in a migraine model,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 136–142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonner, R.

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers, S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a non-scanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174–179 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326–329 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Buckrell, B. C.

N. Songsasen, B. C. Buckrell, C. Plante, S. P. Leibo, “In vitro and in vivo survival of cryopreserved sheep embryos,” Cryobiology 32, 78–91 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cen, J.

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, S. Q. Zeng, J. Cen, W. X. Liang, “Optical dynamic imaging of the regional blood flow in the rat mesentery under the effect of noradrenalin,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 13, 397–400 (2003).

Chan, E.

E. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.943–950 (1996).

Chan, E. K.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, K. F.

G. Vargas, K. F. Chan, S. L. Thomsen, A. J. Welch, “Use of osmotically active agents to alter optical properties of tissue: effects on the detected fluorescence signal measured through skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, B. Chance, “Dependence of tissue optical properties on solute-induced changes in refractive index and osmolarity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200–211 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. M.

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, A. W. Roe, “A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in the monkey,” J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41–49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. B.

Cheng, H. Y.

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Z. Wang, G. Hui, S. B. Chen, W. X. Liang, S. Q. Zeng, “Efficient characterization of regional mesenteric blood flow using laser speckle imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5759–5764 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, S. Q. Zeng, J. Cen, W. X. Liang, “Optical dynamic imaging of the regional blood flow in the rat mesentery under the effect of noradrenalin,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 13, 397–400 (2003).

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Z. Wang, S. Q. Zeng, “Laser speckle-imaging system of monitoring the regional velocity distribution,” Chin. J. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Choi, B.

A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, B. J. Tromberg, “Reversible dissociation of collagen in tissues,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121, 1332–1335 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cilesiz, I. F.

Cunin, G.

Y. R. Tran Dinh, C. Thurel, A. Serrie, G. Cunin, J. Seylaz, “Glycerol injection into the trigeminal ganglion provokes a selective increase in human cerebral blood flow,” Pain 46, 13–16 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A.

Dunn, A. K.

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. K. Dunn, Z. Huang, D. A. Boas, A. M. Moskowitz, “Intrinsic brain activity triggers trigeminal meningeal afferents in a migraine model,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 136–142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326–329 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Frostig, R. D.

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, E. Bartfeld, “High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 11,559–11,563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Genina, E. A.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, Y. P. Sinichkin, V. I. Kochubey, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “Glucose and mannitol diffusion in human dura mater,” Biophys. J. 85, 3310–3318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, Y. P. Sinichkin, A. A. Korobov, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “In vitro study of control of human dura mater optical properties by acting of osmotical liquids,” in Controlling Tissue Optical Properties: Applications in Clinical Study, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE4162, 182–188 (2000).

Grinvald, A.

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, E. Bartfeld, “High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 11,559–11,563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Healy, F. L.

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, A. W. Roe, “A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in the monkey,” J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41–49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heider, B.

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, A. W. Roe, “A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in the monkey,” J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41–49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. K. Dunn, Z. Huang, D. A. Boas, A. M. Moskowitz, “Intrinsic brain activity triggers trigeminal meningeal afferents in a migraine model,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 136–142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hui, G.

Jungermann, E.

E. Jungermann, N. O. V. Sonntag, Glycerine: A Key Cosmetic Ingredient (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1991).

Kimura, M.

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, B. Chance, “Dependence of tissue optical properties on solute-induced changes in refractive index and osmolarity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200–211 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kochubey, V. I.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, Y. P. Sinichkin, V. I. Kochubey, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “Glucose and mannitol diffusion in human dura mater,” Biophys. J. 85, 3310–3318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, Y. P. Sinichkin, A. A. Korobov, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “In vitro study of control of human dura mater optical properties by acting of osmotical liquids,” in Controlling Tissue Optical Properties: Applications in Clinical Study, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE4162, 182–188 (2000).

Kon, I. L.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Bashkatov, I. L. Maksimova, T. N. Semyonova, V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Kon, “Controlling of optical properties of sclera,” in Ophthalmic Technologies V, J.-M. A. Parel, Q. Ren, K. M. Joos, eds., Proc. SPIE2393, 137–141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Korobov, A. A.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, Y. P. Sinichkin, A. A. Korobov, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “In vitro study of control of human dura mater optical properties by acting of osmotical liquids,” in Controlling Tissue Optical Properties: Applications in Clinical Study, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE4162, 182–188 (2000).

Lakodina, N. A.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, Y. P. Sinichkin, V. I. Kochubey, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “Glucose and mannitol diffusion in human dura mater,” Biophys. J. 85, 3310–3318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, Y. P. Sinichkin, A. A. Korobov, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “In vitro study of control of human dura mater optical properties by acting of osmotical liquids,” in Controlling Tissue Optical Properties: Applications in Clinical Study, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE4162, 182–188 (2000).

Leibo, S. P.

N. Songsasen, B. C. Buckrell, C. Plante, S. P. Leibo, “In vitro and in vivo survival of cryopreserved sheep embryos,” Cryobiology 32, 78–91 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, W. X.

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, S. Q. Zeng, J. Cen, W. X. Liang, “Optical dynamic imaging of the regional blood flow in the rat mesentery under the effect of noradrenalin,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 13, 397–400 (2003).

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Z. Wang, G. Hui, S. B. Chen, W. X. Liang, S. Q. Zeng, “Efficient characterization of regional mesenteric blood flow using laser speckle imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5759–5764 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, B. Chance, “Dependence of tissue optical properties on solute-induced changes in refractive index and osmolarity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200–211 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q. M.

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Z. Wang, G. Hui, S. B. Chen, W. X. Liang, S. Q. Zeng, “Efficient characterization of regional mesenteric blood flow using laser speckle imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5759–5764 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, S. Q. Zeng, J. Cen, W. X. Liang, “Optical dynamic imaging of the regional blood flow in the rat mesentery under the effect of noradrenalin,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 13, 397–400 (2003).

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Z. Wang, S. Q. Zeng, “Laser speckle-imaging system of monitoring the regional velocity distribution,” Chin. J. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Maksimova, I. L.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Bakutkin, I. L. Maksimova, P. I. Saprykin, V. V. Tuchin, L. P. Shubochkin, “Light scattering by human eye sclera,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. (USSR) 46, 104–107 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Bashkatov, I. L. Maksimova, T. N. Semyonova, V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Kon, “Controlling of optical properties of sclera,” in Ophthalmic Technologies V, J.-M. A. Parel, Q. Ren, K. M. Joos, eds., Proc. SPIE2393, 137–141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mavlutov, A. H.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishin, A. A.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskowitz, A. M.

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. K. Dunn, Z. Huang, D. A. Boas, A. M. Moskowitz, “Intrinsic brain activity triggers trigeminal meningeal afferents in a migraine model,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 136–142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moskowitz, M. A.

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

E. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.943–950 (1996).

Nelson, J. S.

A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, B. J. Tromberg, “Reversible dissociation of collagen in tissues,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121, 1332–1335 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemati, B.

Nossal, R.

O’Neil, M.

E. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.943–950 (1996).

Plante, C.

N. Songsasen, B. C. Buckrell, C. Plante, S. P. Leibo, “In vitro and in vivo survival of cryopreserved sheep embryos,” Cryobiology 32, 78–91 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Protsenko, D.

E. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.943–950 (1996).

Ramsden, B. M.

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, A. W. Roe, “A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in the monkey,” J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41–49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, U.

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. K. Dunn, Z. Huang, D. A. Boas, A. M. Moskowitz, “Intrinsic brain activity triggers trigeminal meningeal afferents in a migraine model,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 136–142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roe, A. W.

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, A. W. Roe, “A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in the monkey,” J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41–49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rylander, H. G.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Nemati, A. Dunn, A. J. Welch, H. G. Rylander, “Optical model for light distribution during transscleral cyclophotocoagulation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 764–771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saprykin, P. I.

V. V. Bakutkin, I. L. Maksimova, P. I. Saprykin, V. V. Tuchin, L. P. Shubochkin, “Light scattering by human eye sclera,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. (USSR) 46, 104–107 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Segur, J. B.

J. B. Segur, “Uses of glycerine,” in Glycerol, C. S. Miner, N. N. Dalton, eds. (Reinhold, New York, 1953), pp. 238–330.

Semyonova, T. N.

V. V. Bashkatov, I. L. Maksimova, T. N. Semyonova, V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Kon, “Controlling of optical properties of sclera,” in Ophthalmic Technologies V, J.-M. A. Parel, Q. Ren, K. M. Joos, eds., Proc. SPIE2393, 137–141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Serrie, A.

Y. R. Tran Dinh, C. Thurel, A. Serrie, G. Cunin, J. Seylaz, “Glycerol injection into the trigeminal ganglion provokes a selective increase in human cerebral blood flow,” Pain 46, 13–16 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seylaz, J.

Y. R. Tran Dinh, C. Thurel, A. Serrie, G. Cunin, J. Seylaz, “Glycerol injection into the trigeminal ganglion provokes a selective increase in human cerebral blood flow,” Pain 46, 13–16 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shubochkin, L. P.

V. V. Bakutkin, I. L. Maksimova, P. I. Saprykin, V. V. Tuchin, L. P. Shubochkin, “Light scattering by human eye sclera,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. (USSR) 46, 104–107 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, R. M.

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, E. Bartfeld, “High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 11,559–11,563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sinichkin, Y. P.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, Y. P. Sinichkin, V. I. Kochubey, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “Glucose and mannitol diffusion in human dura mater,” Biophys. J. 85, 3310–3318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, Y. P. Sinichkin, A. A. Korobov, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “In vitro study of control of human dura mater optical properties by acting of osmotical liquids,” in Controlling Tissue Optical Properties: Applications in Clinical Study, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE4162, 182–188 (2000).

Songsasen, N.

N. Songsasen, B. C. Buckrell, C. Plante, S. P. Leibo, “In vitro and in vivo survival of cryopreserved sheep embryos,” Cryobiology 32, 78–91 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonntag, N. O. V.

E. Jungermann, N. O. V. Sonntag, Glycerine: A Key Cosmetic Ingredient (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1991).

Sorg, B.

E. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.943–950 (1996).

Taubes, G.

G. Taubes, “Play of light opens a new window into the body,” Science 276, 1991–1993 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S. L.

G. Vargas, K. F. Chan, S. L. Thomsen, A. J. Welch, “Use of osmotically active agents to alter optical properties of tissue: effects on the detected fluorescence signal measured through skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thurel, C.

Y. R. Tran Dinh, C. Thurel, A. Serrie, G. Cunin, J. Seylaz, “Glycerol injection into the trigeminal ganglion provokes a selective increase in human cerebral blood flow,” Pain 46, 13–16 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran Dinh, Y. R.

Y. R. Tran Dinh, C. Thurel, A. Serrie, G. Cunin, J. Seylaz, “Glycerol injection into the trigeminal ganglion provokes a selective increase in human cerebral blood flow,” Pain 46, 13–16 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, B. J. Tromberg, “Reversible dissociation of collagen in tissues,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121, 1332–1335 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V. V.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, Y. P. Sinichkin, V. I. Kochubey, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “Glucose and mannitol diffusion in human dura mater,” Biophys. J. 85, 3310–3318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, “Coherent optical techniques for the analysis of tissue structure and dynamics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 106–124 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, “Laser light scattering in biomedical diagnostics and therapy,” J. Laser Appl. 5, 43–60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Tuchin, “Lasers and fiber optics in biomedicine,” Laser Phys. 3, 767–950 (1993).

V. V. Bakutkin, I. L. Maksimova, P. I. Saprykin, V. V. Tuchin, L. P. Shubochkin, “Light scattering by human eye sclera,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. (USSR) 46, 104–107 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Bashkatov, I. L. Maksimova, T. N. Semyonova, V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Kon, “Controlling of optical properties of sclera,” in Ophthalmic Technologies V, J.-M. A. Parel, Q. Ren, K. M. Joos, eds., Proc. SPIE2393, 137–141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, Y. P. Sinichkin, A. A. Korobov, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “In vitro study of control of human dura mater optical properties by acting of osmotical liquids,” in Controlling Tissue Optical Properties: Applications in Clinical Study, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE4162, 182–188 (2000).

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis, Vol. TT38 of SPIE Tutorial Texts in Optical Engineering (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 2000).

Vargas, G.

G. Vargas, K. F. Chan, S. L. Thomsen, A. J. Welch, “Use of osmotically active agents to alter optical properties of tissue: effects on the detected fluorescence signal measured through skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Z. Wang, G. Hui, S. B. Chen, W. X. Liang, S. Q. Zeng, “Efficient characterization of regional mesenteric blood flow using laser speckle imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5759–5764 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Z. Wang, S. Q. Zeng, “Laser speckle-imaging system of monitoring the regional velocity distribution,” Chin. J. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Webster, S.

J. D. Briers, S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a non-scanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174–179 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

G. Vargas, K. F. Chan, S. L. Thomsen, A. J. Welch, “Use of osmotically active agents to alter optical properties of tissue: effects on the detected fluorescence signal measured through skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Nemati, A. Dunn, A. J. Welch, H. G. Rylander, “Optical model for light distribution during transscleral cyclophotocoagulation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 764–771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. F. Cilesiz, A. J. Welch, “Light dosimetry: effects of dehydration and thermal damage on the optical properties of the human aorta,” Appl. Opt. 32, 477–487 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.943–950 (1996).

Williams, G. V.

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, A. W. Roe, “A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in the monkey,” J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41–49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, A. T.

A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, B. J. Tromberg, “Reversible dissociation of collagen in tissues,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121, 1332–1335 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, S. Q.

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Z. Wang, G. Hui, S. B. Chen, W. X. Liang, S. Q. Zeng, “Efficient characterization of regional mesenteric blood flow using laser speckle imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5759–5764 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, S. Q. Zeng, J. Cen, W. X. Liang, “Optical dynamic imaging of the regional blood flow in the rat mesentery under the effect of noradrenalin,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 13, 397–400 (2003).

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Z. Wang, S. Q. Zeng, “Laser speckle-imaging system of monitoring the regional velocity distribution,” Chin. J. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Zimnyakov, D. A.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biophys. J.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, Y. P. Sinichkin, V. I. Kochubey, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “Glucose and mannitol diffusion in human dura mater,” Biophys. J. 85, 3310–3318 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cryobiology

N. Songsasen, B. C. Buckrell, C. Plante, S. P. Leibo, “In vitro and in vivo survival of cryopreserved sheep embryos,” Cryobiology 32, 78–91 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (USSR)

V. V. Bakutkin, I. L. Maksimova, P. I. Saprykin, V. V. Tuchin, L. P. Shubochkin, “Light scattering by human eye sclera,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. (USSR) 46, 104–107 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Briers, S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a non-scanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174–179 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, B. Chance, “Dependence of tissue optical properties on solute-induced changes in refractive index and osmolarity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200–211 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, “Coherent optical techniques for the analysis of tissue structure and dynamics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 106–124 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, B. J. Tromberg, “Reversible dissociation of collagen in tissues,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121, 1332–1335 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laser Appl.

V. V. Tuchin, “Laser light scattering in biomedical diagnostics and therapy,” J. Laser Appl. 5, 43–60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. Methods

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, A. W. Roe, “A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in the monkey,” J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41–49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

V. V. Tuchin, “Lasers and fiber optics in biomedicine,” Laser Phys. 3, 767–950 (1993).

Lasers Surg. Med.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Vargas, K. F. Chan, S. L. Thomsen, A. J. Welch, “Use of osmotically active agents to alter optical properties of tissue: effects on the detected fluorescence signal measured through skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (N.Y.)

H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. K. Dunn, Z. Huang, D. A. Boas, A. M. Moskowitz, “Intrinsic brain activity triggers trigeminal meningeal afferents in a migraine model,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 136–142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326–329 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pain

Y. R. Tran Dinh, C. Thurel, A. Serrie, G. Cunin, J. Seylaz, “Glycerol injection into the trigeminal ganglion provokes a selective increase in human cerebral blood flow,” Pain 46, 13–16 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, E. Bartfeld, “High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 11,559–11,563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Nat. Sci.

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, S. Q. Zeng, J. Cen, W. X. Liang, “Optical dynamic imaging of the regional blood flow in the rat mesentery under the effect of noradrenalin,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 13, 397–400 (2003).

Science

G. Taubes, “Play of light opens a new window into the body,” Science 276, 1991–1993 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

V. V. Bashkatov, I. L. Maksimova, T. N. Semyonova, V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Kon, “Controlling of optical properties of sclera,” in Ophthalmic Technologies V, J.-M. A. Parel, Q. Ren, K. M. Joos, eds., Proc. SPIE2393, 137–141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Z. Wang, S. Q. Zeng, “Laser speckle-imaging system of monitoring the regional velocity distribution,” Chin. J. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, Y. P. Sinichkin, A. A. Korobov, N. A. Lakodina, V. V. Tuchin, “In vitro study of control of human dura mater optical properties by acting of osmotical liquids,” in Controlling Tissue Optical Properties: Applications in Clinical Study, V. V. Tuchin, ed., Proc. SPIE4162, 182–188 (2000).

E. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.943–950 (1996).

E. Jungermann, N. O. V. Sonntag, Glycerine: A Key Cosmetic Ingredient (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1991).

J. B. Segur, “Uses of glycerine,” in Glycerol, C. S. Miner, N. N. Dalton, eds. (Reinhold, New York, 1953), pp. 238–330.

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis, Vol. TT38 of SPIE Tutorial Texts in Optical Engineering (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the LSI system. A He–Ne laser (λ = 632.8 nm; 3 mW) beam is expanded to illuminate the area of interest, which is imaged onto the CCD camera. The computer acquires raw speckle images (shown at the right of the arrow) and relative computer CBF maps (shown on the monitor).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Visual changes in the in vitro turbid rabbit dura mater and the measured optical changes before and after application of glycerol: (a) native dura mater placed over the resolution target, (b) after a 1-min application of glycerol. Each bar marks 1 mm. (c) Values of native dura mater following application of glycerol for 1, 2, and 10 min. The increase in transmittance of light owing to the addition of glycerol is shown. r.u., Relative units.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Visual changes and measured optical changes in in vivo rabbit dura mater before and after epidural treatment with glycerol. (a) Native in vivo turbid dura mater, (b) dura mater after 52nd application of glycerol. Each bar marks 1 mm. (c) Values of native dura mater following epidural application of glycerol for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 70 s. The decrease in reflectance of light and the subsequent increase owing to the application of glycerol and to rehydration are shown. r.u., Relative units.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Blood-flow images following epidural application of glycerol about the exposed area of in vivo dura mater: (a) White-light picture of the area of interest. Four vessels are indicated. In Fig. 5 below, the relative blood flow in four vessels is given. (b)–(h) Blood-flow maps expressed as measured velocity, which is proportional to the blood-flow velocity, during the treatment with glycerol and represented by images at the time points shown in Fig. 5. (b) Imaged blood flow before the application of glycerol (control). (c) Image following 10-s application of glycerol. No obvious change in blood flow was observed. (d) Image following 20-s application of glycerol. Blood flow began to decrease. (e) Image following 30-s application of glycerol. The blood vessels underneath the dura mater began to be clear. (f) Image following 40-s application of glycerol. Blood flow decreased and the transparency of the surrounding dura mater increased. (g) Image following 50-s application of glycerol. More blood vessels could be seen through the dura mater, and the blood flow decreased significantly. (h) Image following 70-s application of glycerol. Blood flow increased and the dura mater became turbid. The bar marks 1 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time course of the changes in relative blood flow in vessels 1–4 shown in Fig. 4(a) before and after the application of glycerol epidurally. After 20 s the blood flow in vessel 2 (arteriole) began to decrease, whereas blood flow in other vessels (veinules) decreased immediately after the application of glycerol. Decreases of blood flow in these vessels were 20–30% of baseline. (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h) Time points of the corresponding images in Figs. 4(b), 4(c), 4(d), 4(e), 4(f), 4(g), and 4(h).

Equations (2)

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K=σsI.
K=σsI=τc2T1-exp-2T/τc1/2,

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