Abstract

The spectral airglow temperature imager is a two-channel, Fabry-Perot spectrometer with an annular field of view and a cooled CCD detector. The detected fringe pattern contains spectral information in the radial direction and azimuthal spatial information from the annular field of view. The instrument measures the rotational temperature from the O2 atmospheric (0,1) nightglow emission layer at 94 km and from the Q branch of the OH Meinel (6,2) band emission layer at 87 km. The method for temperature derivation is based on the temperature dependence of the line-emission rates. This dependence allows a determination of the temperature by a least-squares fit of the measured spectrum to a set of synthetic spectra, an approach that minimizes the effect of noise from the sky background and the detector. The spectral airglow temperature imager was developed to meet a need for monitoring the role of the mesosphere in climate variability through long-term observation of the mean temperature and the gravity waves from a single station, as well as large-scale wave perturbations through the use of multiple stations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  2. G. G. Shepherd, M. E. Hagan, Y. Portnyagin, “PSMOS 2000 Workshop—planetary scale mesopause observing system,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 64, 873–874 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. S. M. L. Melo, R. P. Lowe, W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, B. Williams, C. Y. She, “Effects of a large mesospheric temperature enhancement on the hydroxyl rotational temperature as observed from the ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30381–30388 (2001).
  15. G. G. Shepherd, C. W. Lake, J. R. Miller, L. L. Cogger, “A spatial spectral scanning technique for the Fabry-Perot spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 4, 267–272 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. R. H. Wiens, A. Moise, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, M. J. López-González, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, “SATI: a spectral airglow temperature imager,” Adv. Space Res. 19, 677–680 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. M. J. López-González, E. Rodriguez, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, Y.-M. Cho, “Seasonal variations of O2 atmospheric and OH(6,2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitude from SATI observations,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 819–828 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Shimomai, “Comparison of OH rotational temperature measurements by the spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI) and by a tilting-filter photometer,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 891–897 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, “The impact of L-uncoupling on Einstein coefficients for the OH Meinel (6,2) band: implications for Q-branch rotational temperatures,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 64, 971–983 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. E. Osterbrook, R. T. Waters, T. A. Barlow, “Faint emission lines in the blue and red spectral regions of the night airglow,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific112, 733–741 (2000); http://crvax.sri.com/NVAO/download/Osterbrock.html .
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. J. R. French, G. B. Burns, K. Finlayson, P. A. Greet, R. P. Lowe, P. F. B. Williams, “Hydroxyl (6,2) airglow emission intensity ratios for rotational temperature determination,” Ann. Geophys. 18, 1293–1303 (2000).
  27. See the Bass 2000 Archives, L’Observatoire de Paris, Laboratoire d’Etudes et d’Instrumentation en Astrophysique; http://mesola.obspm.fr/home.php .
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  29. S. Sargoytchev, SATI; http://stpl/cress.yorku.ca .

2004 (2)

M. J. López-González, E. Rodriguez, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, Y.-M. Cho, “Seasonal variations of O2 atmospheric and OH(6,2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitude from SATI observations,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 819–828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Shimomai, “Comparison of OH rotational temperature measurements by the spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI) and by a tilting-filter photometer,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 891–897 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y.-I. Won, Q. Wu, Y.-M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, T. L. Killeen, P. J. Espy, Y. Kim, B. Solheim, “Polar cap observations of mesospheric and lower thermospheric 4-hour waves in temperature,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(7) 30-1–30-4 (2003).

2002 (4)

W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, “The impact of L-uncoupling on Einstein coefficients for the OH Meinel (6,2) band: implications for Q-branch rotational temperatures,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 64, 971–983 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Espy, J. Stegman, “Trends and variability of mesospheric temperature at high latitudes,” Phys. Chem. Earth 27, 543–553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, M. E. Hagan, Y. Portnyagin, “PSMOS 2000 Workshop—planetary scale mesopause observing system,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 64, 873–874 (2002).

Q. Wu, T. L. Killeen, D. McEwen, S. C. Solomon, W. Guo, G. G. Sivjee, J. M. Reeves, “Observation of the mesospheric and lower thermospheric 10-hour wave in the northern polar region,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(A6), (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. G. Shepherd, B. Reid, S. Zhang, B. H. Solheim, G. G. Shepherd, “Retrieval and validation of mesospheric temperatures from wind imaging interferometer observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 24813–24829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. L. Melo, R. P. Lowe, W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, B. Williams, C. Y. She, “Effects of a large mesospheric temperature enhancement on the hydroxyl rotational temperature as observed from the ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30381–30388 (2001).

2000 (1)

W. J. R. French, G. B. Burns, K. Finlayson, P. A. Greet, R. P. Lowe, P. F. B. Williams, “Hydroxyl (6,2) airglow emission intensity ratios for rotational temperature determination,” Ann. Geophys. 18, 1293–1303 (2000).

1999 (2)

H. Takahashi, P. P. Batista, R. A. Buriti, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, S. Fukao, “Response of the airglow OH emission, temperature and mesopause wind to the atmospheric wave propagation over Shigaraki, Japan,” Earth Planets Space 51, 863–875 (1999).

K. Shiokawa, “Development of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTI),” Earth Planets Space 51, 887–896 (1999).

1997 (1)

R. H. Wiens, A. Moise, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, M. J. López-González, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, “SATI: a spectral airglow temperature imager,” Adv. Space Res. 19, 677–680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. F. B. Williams, “OH rotational temperatures at Davis, Antarctica, via scanning spectrometer,” Planet. Space Sci. 44, 163–170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S.-P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, “Gravity waves from O2 nightglow during the AIDA ’89 campaign I: emission rate/temperature observations,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 55, 355–376 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

R. H. Wiens, S.-P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Turnbull, R. P. Lowe, “Temporal variation in the hydroxyl nightglow observed during Aloha-90,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1345–1348 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. O. Hines, D. W. Tarasick, “On the detection and utilization of gravity waves in airglow studies,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 851–866 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

G. Hernandez, “Lower-thermosphere temperatures determined from line profiles of OI 17,924-K (5577-Å) emission in night sky 1. Long-term behavior,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5165–5172 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1965 (1)

Aushev, V. M.

M. J. López-González, E. Rodriguez, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, Y.-M. Cho, “Seasonal variations of O2 atmospheric and OH(6,2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitude from SATI observations,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 819–828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Batista, P. P.

H. Takahashi, P. P. Batista, R. A. Buriti, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, S. Fukao, “Response of the airglow OH emission, temperature and mesopause wind to the atmospheric wave propagation over Shigaraki, Japan,” Earth Planets Space 51, 863–875 (1999).

Brown, S.

M. J. López-González, E. Rodriguez, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, Y.-M. Cho, “Seasonal variations of O2 atmospheric and OH(6,2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitude from SATI observations,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 819–828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, A. Moise, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, M. J. López-González, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, “SATI: a spectral airglow temperature imager,” Adv. Space Res. 19, 677–680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “SATI—spectral airglow temperature imager,” in P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, Proc. SPIE2830, 341–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buriti, R. A.

H. Takahashi, P. P. Batista, R. A. Buriti, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, S. Fukao, “Response of the airglow OH emission, temperature and mesopause wind to the atmospheric wave propagation over Shigaraki, Japan,” Earth Planets Space 51, 863–875 (1999).

Burns, G. B.

W. J. R. French, G. B. Burns, K. Finlayson, P. A. Greet, R. P. Lowe, P. F. B. Williams, “Hydroxyl (6,2) airglow emission intensity ratios for rotational temperature determination,” Ann. Geophys. 18, 1293–1303 (2000).

Cho, Y.-M.

M. J. López-González, E. Rodriguez, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, Y.-M. Cho, “Seasonal variations of O2 atmospheric and OH(6,2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitude from SATI observations,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 819–828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-I. Won, Q. Wu, Y.-M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, T. L. Killeen, P. J. Espy, Y. Kim, B. Solheim, “Polar cap observations of mesospheric and lower thermospheric 4-hour waves in temperature,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(7) 30-1–30-4 (2003).

Cogger, L. L.

Espy, P. J.

Y.-I. Won, Q. Wu, Y.-M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, T. L. Killeen, P. J. Espy, Y. Kim, B. Solheim, “Polar cap observations of mesospheric and lower thermospheric 4-hour waves in temperature,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(7) 30-1–30-4 (2003).

P. J. Espy, J. Stegman, “Trends and variability of mesospheric temperature at high latitudes,” Phys. Chem. Earth 27, 543–553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson, K.

W. J. R. French, G. B. Burns, K. Finlayson, P. A. Greet, R. P. Lowe, P. F. B. Williams, “Hydroxyl (6,2) airglow emission intensity ratios for rotational temperature determination,” Ann. Geophys. 18, 1293–1303 (2000).

French, W. J. R.

W. J. R. French, G. B. Burns, K. Finlayson, P. A. Greet, R. P. Lowe, P. F. B. Williams, “Hydroxyl (6,2) airglow emission intensity ratios for rotational temperature determination,” Ann. Geophys. 18, 1293–1303 (2000).

Fukao, S.

H. Takahashi, P. P. Batista, R. A. Buriti, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, S. Fukao, “Response of the airglow OH emission, temperature and mesopause wind to the atmospheric wave propagation over Shigaraki, Japan,” Earth Planets Space 51, 863–875 (1999).

Gattinger, R. L.

R. L. Gattinger, Synthetic Spectrum of an O2 Atmospheric System (Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics Software, Ottawa, Canada, 1984).

Gault, W. A.

R. H. Wiens, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “SATI—spectral airglow temperature imager,” in P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, Proc. SPIE2830, 341–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, D.

H. Takahashi, P. P. Batista, R. A. Buriti, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, S. Fukao, “Response of the airglow OH emission, temperature and mesopause wind to the atmospheric wave propagation over Shigaraki, Japan,” Earth Planets Space 51, 863–875 (1999).

Greet, P. A.

W. J. R. French, G. B. Burns, K. Finlayson, P. A. Greet, R. P. Lowe, P. F. B. Williams, “Hydroxyl (6,2) airglow emission intensity ratios for rotational temperature determination,” Ann. Geophys. 18, 1293–1303 (2000).

Guo, W.

Q. Wu, T. L. Killeen, D. McEwen, S. C. Solomon, W. Guo, G. G. Sivjee, J. M. Reeves, “Observation of the mesospheric and lower thermospheric 10-hour wave in the northern polar region,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(A6), (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, M. E.

G. G. Shepherd, M. E. Hagan, Y. Portnyagin, “PSMOS 2000 Workshop—planetary scale mesopause observing system,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 64, 873–874 (2002).

Hernandez, G.

G. Hernandez, “Lower-thermosphere temperatures determined from line profiles of OI 17,924-K (5577-Å) emission in night sky 1. Long-term behavior,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5165–5172 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, Fabry-Perot Interferometers (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986).

Hines, C. O.

C. O. Hines, D. W. Tarasick, “On the detection and utilization of gravity waves in airglow studies,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 851–866 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Killeen, T. L.

Y.-I. Won, Q. Wu, Y.-M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, T. L. Killeen, P. J. Espy, Y. Kim, B. Solheim, “Polar cap observations of mesospheric and lower thermospheric 4-hour waves in temperature,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(7) 30-1–30-4 (2003).

Q. Wu, T. L. Killeen, D. McEwen, S. C. Solomon, W. Guo, G. G. Sivjee, J. M. Reeves, “Observation of the mesospheric and lower thermospheric 10-hour wave in the northern polar region,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(A6), (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Y.-I. Won, Q. Wu, Y.-M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, T. L. Killeen, P. J. Espy, Y. Kim, B. Solheim, “Polar cap observations of mesospheric and lower thermospheric 4-hour waves in temperature,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(7) 30-1–30-4 (2003).

Lake, C. W.

Lissberger, P. H.

López-González, M. J.

M. J. López-González, E. Rodriguez, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, Y.-M. Cho, “Seasonal variations of O2 atmospheric and OH(6,2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitude from SATI observations,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 819–828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, A. Moise, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, M. J. López-González, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, “SATI: a spectral airglow temperature imager,” Adv. Space Res. 19, 677–680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

López-Moreno, J. J.

M. J. López-González, E. Rodriguez, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, Y.-M. Cho, “Seasonal variations of O2 atmospheric and OH(6,2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitude from SATI observations,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 819–828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, A. Moise, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, M. J. López-González, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, “SATI: a spectral airglow temperature imager,” Adv. Space Res. 19, 677–680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, R. P.

S. M. L. Melo, R. P. Lowe, W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, B. Williams, C. Y. She, “Effects of a large mesospheric temperature enhancement on the hydroxyl rotational temperature as observed from the ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30381–30388 (2001).

W. J. R. French, G. B. Burns, K. Finlayson, P. A. Greet, R. P. Lowe, P. F. B. Williams, “Hydroxyl (6,2) airglow emission intensity ratios for rotational temperature determination,” Ann. Geophys. 18, 1293–1303 (2000).

D. N. Turnbull, R. P. Lowe, “Temporal variation in the hydroxyl nightglow observed during Aloha-90,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1345–1348 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McEwen, D.

Q. Wu, T. L. Killeen, D. McEwen, S. C. Solomon, W. Guo, G. G. Sivjee, J. M. Reeves, “Observation of the mesospheric and lower thermospheric 10-hour wave in the northern polar region,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(A6), (2002).
[CrossRef]

Melo, S. M. L.

S. M. L. Melo, R. P. Lowe, W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, B. Williams, C. Y. She, “Effects of a large mesospheric temperature enhancement on the hydroxyl rotational temperature as observed from the ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30381–30388 (2001).

Miller, J. R.

Moise, A.

R. H. Wiens, A. Moise, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, M. J. López-González, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, “SATI: a spectral airglow temperature imager,” Adv. Space Res. 19, 677–680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Shimomai, “Comparison of OH rotational temperature measurements by the spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI) and by a tilting-filter photometer,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 891–897 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahashi, P. P. Batista, R. A. Buriti, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, S. Fukao, “Response of the airglow OH emission, temperature and mesopause wind to the atmospheric wave propagation over Shigaraki, Japan,” Earth Planets Space 51, 863–875 (1999).

Ogawa, T.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Shimomai, “Comparison of OH rotational temperature measurements by the spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI) and by a tilting-filter photometer,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 891–897 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, Y.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Shimomai, “Comparison of OH rotational temperature measurements by the spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI) and by a tilting-filter photometer,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 891–897 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pendleton, W. R.

W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, “The impact of L-uncoupling on Einstein coefficients for the OH Meinel (6,2) band: implications for Q-branch rotational temperatures,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 64, 971–983 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. L. Melo, R. P. Lowe, W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, B. Williams, C. Y. She, “Effects of a large mesospheric temperature enhancement on the hydroxyl rotational temperature as observed from the ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30381–30388 (2001).

Peterson, R. N.

R. H. Wiens, A. Moise, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, M. J. López-González, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, “SATI: a spectral airglow temperature imager,” Adv. Space Res. 19, 677–680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S.-P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, “Gravity waves from O2 nightglow during the AIDA ’89 campaign I: emission rate/temperature observations,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 55, 355–376 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S.-P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “SATI—spectral airglow temperature imager,” in P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, Proc. SPIE2830, 341–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Portnyagin, Y.

G. G. Shepherd, M. E. Hagan, Y. Portnyagin, “PSMOS 2000 Workshop—planetary scale mesopause observing system,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 64, 873–874 (2002).

Reeves, J. M.

Q. Wu, T. L. Killeen, D. McEwen, S. C. Solomon, W. Guo, G. G. Sivjee, J. M. Reeves, “Observation of the mesospheric and lower thermospheric 10-hour wave in the northern polar region,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(A6), (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reid, B.

M. G. Shepherd, B. Reid, S. Zhang, B. H. Solheim, G. G. Shepherd, “Retrieval and validation of mesospheric temperatures from wind imaging interferometer observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 24813–24829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, R.

M. J. López-González, E. Rodriguez, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, Y.-M. Cho, “Seasonal variations of O2 atmospheric and OH(6,2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitude from SATI observations,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 819–828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, A. Moise, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, M. J. López-González, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, “SATI: a spectral airglow temperature imager,” Adv. Space Res. 19, 677–680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, E.

M. J. López-González, E. Rodriguez, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, Y.-M. Cho, “Seasonal variations of O2 atmospheric and OH(6,2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitude from SATI observations,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 819–828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sargoytchev, S.

M. J. López-González, E. Rodriguez, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, Y.-M. Cho, “Seasonal variations of O2 atmospheric and OH(6,2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitude from SATI observations,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 819–828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, A. Moise, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, M. J. López-González, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, “SATI: a spectral airglow temperature imager,” Adv. Space Res. 19, 677–680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “SATI—spectral airglow temperature imager,” in P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, Proc. SPIE2830, 341–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

She, C. Y.

S. M. L. Melo, R. P. Lowe, W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, B. Williams, C. Y. She, “Effects of a large mesospheric temperature enhancement on the hydroxyl rotational temperature as observed from the ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30381–30388 (2001).

Shepherd, G. G.

M. J. López-González, E. Rodriguez, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, Y.-M. Cho, “Seasonal variations of O2 atmospheric and OH(6,2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitude from SATI observations,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 819–828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-I. Won, Q. Wu, Y.-M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, T. L. Killeen, P. J. Espy, Y. Kim, B. Solheim, “Polar cap observations of mesospheric and lower thermospheric 4-hour waves in temperature,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(7) 30-1–30-4 (2003).

G. G. Shepherd, M. E. Hagan, Y. Portnyagin, “PSMOS 2000 Workshop—planetary scale mesopause observing system,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 64, 873–874 (2002).

M. G. Shepherd, B. Reid, S. Zhang, B. H. Solheim, G. G. Shepherd, “Retrieval and validation of mesospheric temperatures from wind imaging interferometer observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 24813–24829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, A. Moise, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, M. J. López-González, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, “SATI: a spectral airglow temperature imager,” Adv. Space Res. 19, 677–680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S.-P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, “Gravity waves from O2 nightglow during the AIDA ’89 campaign I: emission rate/temperature observations,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 55, 355–376 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S.-P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, C. W. Lake, J. R. Miller, L. L. Cogger, “A spatial spectral scanning technique for the Fabry-Perot spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 4, 267–272 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “SATI—spectral airglow temperature imager,” in P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, Proc. SPIE2830, 341–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, Spectral Imaging of the Atmosphere, Vol. 82 of the International Geophysics Series (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Shepherd, M. G.

M. J. López-González, E. Rodriguez, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, Y.-M. Cho, “Seasonal variations of O2 atmospheric and OH(6,2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitude from SATI observations,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 819–828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Shepherd, B. Reid, S. Zhang, B. H. Solheim, G. G. Shepherd, “Retrieval and validation of mesospheric temperatures from wind imaging interferometer observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 24813–24829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shimomai, T.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Shimomai, “Comparison of OH rotational temperature measurements by the spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI) and by a tilting-filter photometer,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 891–897 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shiokawa, K.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Shimomai, “Comparison of OH rotational temperature measurements by the spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI) and by a tilting-filter photometer,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 891–897 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiokawa, “Development of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTI),” Earth Planets Space 51, 887–896 (1999).

Sivjee, G. G.

Q. Wu, T. L. Killeen, D. McEwen, S. C. Solomon, W. Guo, G. G. Sivjee, J. M. Reeves, “Observation of the mesospheric and lower thermospheric 10-hour wave in the northern polar region,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(A6), (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, B.

Y.-I. Won, Q. Wu, Y.-M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, T. L. Killeen, P. J. Espy, Y. Kim, B. Solheim, “Polar cap observations of mesospheric and lower thermospheric 4-hour waves in temperature,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(7) 30-1–30-4 (2003).

Solheim, B. H.

M. G. Shepherd, B. Reid, S. Zhang, B. H. Solheim, G. G. Shepherd, “Retrieval and validation of mesospheric temperatures from wind imaging interferometer observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 24813–24829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S. C.

Q. Wu, T. L. Killeen, D. McEwen, S. C. Solomon, W. Guo, G. G. Sivjee, J. M. Reeves, “Observation of the mesospheric and lower thermospheric 10-hour wave in the northern polar region,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(A6), (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stegman, J.

P. J. Espy, J. Stegman, “Trends and variability of mesospheric temperature at high latitudes,” Phys. Chem. Earth 27, 543–553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Shimomai, “Comparison of OH rotational temperature measurements by the spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI) and by a tilting-filter photometer,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 891–897 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahashi, P. P. Batista, R. A. Buriti, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, S. Fukao, “Response of the airglow OH emission, temperature and mesopause wind to the atmospheric wave propagation over Shigaraki, Japan,” Earth Planets Space 51, 863–875 (1999).

Tarasick, D. W.

C. O. Hines, D. W. Tarasick, “On the detection and utilization of gravity waves in airglow studies,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 851–866 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, M. J.

W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, “The impact of L-uncoupling on Einstein coefficients for the OH Meinel (6,2) band: implications for Q-branch rotational temperatures,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 64, 971–983 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. L. Melo, R. P. Lowe, W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, B. Williams, C. Y. She, “Effects of a large mesospheric temperature enhancement on the hydroxyl rotational temperature as observed from the ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30381–30388 (2001).

Tsuda, T.

H. Takahashi, P. P. Batista, R. A. Buriti, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, S. Fukao, “Response of the airglow OH emission, temperature and mesopause wind to the atmospheric wave propagation over Shigaraki, Japan,” Earth Planets Space 51, 863–875 (1999).

Turnbull, D. N.

D. N. Turnbull, R. P. Lowe, “Temporal variation in the hydroxyl nightglow observed during Aloha-90,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1345–1348 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wiens, R. H.

M. J. López-González, E. Rodriguez, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, Y.-M. Cho, “Seasonal variations of O2 atmospheric and OH(6,2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitude from SATI observations,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 819–828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, A. Moise, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, M. J. López-González, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, “SATI: a spectral airglow temperature imager,” Adv. Space Res. 19, 677–680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S.-P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, “Gravity waves from O2 nightglow during the AIDA ’89 campaign I: emission rate/temperature observations,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 55, 355–376 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S.-P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “SATI—spectral airglow temperature imager,” in P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, Proc. SPIE2830, 341–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B.

S. M. L. Melo, R. P. Lowe, W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, B. Williams, C. Y. She, “Effects of a large mesospheric temperature enhancement on the hydroxyl rotational temperature as observed from the ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30381–30388 (2001).

Williams, P. F. B.

W. J. R. French, G. B. Burns, K. Finlayson, P. A. Greet, R. P. Lowe, P. F. B. Williams, “Hydroxyl (6,2) airglow emission intensity ratios for rotational temperature determination,” Ann. Geophys. 18, 1293–1303 (2000).

P. F. B. Williams, “OH rotational temperatures at Davis, Antarctica, via scanning spectrometer,” Planet. Space Sci. 44, 163–170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Won, Y.-I.

Y.-I. Won, Q. Wu, Y.-M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, T. L. Killeen, P. J. Espy, Y. Kim, B. Solheim, “Polar cap observations of mesospheric and lower thermospheric 4-hour waves in temperature,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(7) 30-1–30-4 (2003).

Wu, Q.

Y.-I. Won, Q. Wu, Y.-M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, T. L. Killeen, P. J. Espy, Y. Kim, B. Solheim, “Polar cap observations of mesospheric and lower thermospheric 4-hour waves in temperature,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(7) 30-1–30-4 (2003).

Q. Wu, T. L. Killeen, D. McEwen, S. C. Solomon, W. Guo, G. G. Sivjee, J. M. Reeves, “Observation of the mesospheric and lower thermospheric 10-hour wave in the northern polar region,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(A6), (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

M. G. Shepherd, B. Reid, S. Zhang, B. H. Solheim, G. G. Shepherd, “Retrieval and validation of mesospheric temperatures from wind imaging interferometer observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 24813–24829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.-P.

S.-P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, “Gravity waves from O2 nightglow during the AIDA ’89 campaign I: emission rate/temperature observations,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 55, 355–376 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S.-P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S.-P. Zhang, Gravity Waves from O2 Airglow, Ph.D. dissertation (York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1991).

Adv. Space Res. (1)

R. H. Wiens, A. Moise, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, M. J. López-González, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, “SATI: a spectral airglow temperature imager,” Adv. Space Res. 19, 677–680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys. (2)

W. J. R. French, G. B. Burns, K. Finlayson, P. A. Greet, R. P. Lowe, P. F. B. Williams, “Hydroxyl (6,2) airglow emission intensity ratios for rotational temperature determination,” Ann. Geophys. 18, 1293–1303 (2000).

M. J. López-González, E. Rodriguez, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, S. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, M. G. Shepherd, V. M. Aushev, J. J. López-Moreno, R. Rodrigo, Y.-M. Cho, “Seasonal variations of O2 atmospheric and OH(6,2) airglow and temperature at mid-latitude from SATI observations,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 819–828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Earth Planets Space (2)

H. Takahashi, P. P. Batista, R. A. Buriti, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, S. Fukao, “Response of the airglow OH emission, temperature and mesopause wind to the atmospheric wave propagation over Shigaraki, Japan,” Earth Planets Space 51, 863–875 (1999).

K. Shiokawa, “Development of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTI),” Earth Planets Space 51, 887–896 (1999).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

D. N. Turnbull, R. P. Lowe, “Temporal variation in the hydroxyl nightglow observed during Aloha-90,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1345–1348 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y.-I. Won, Q. Wu, Y.-M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, T. L. Killeen, P. J. Espy, Y. Kim, B. Solheim, “Polar cap observations of mesospheric and lower thermospheric 4-hour waves in temperature,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(7) 30-1–30-4 (2003).

J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. (4)

S.-P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, “Gravity waves from O2 nightglow during the AIDA ’89 campaign I: emission rate/temperature observations,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 55, 355–376 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Shimomai, “Comparison of OH rotational temperature measurements by the spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI) and by a tilting-filter photometer,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 891–897 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, “The impact of L-uncoupling on Einstein coefficients for the OH Meinel (6,2) band: implications for Q-branch rotational temperatures,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 64, 971–983 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, M. E. Hagan, Y. Portnyagin, “PSMOS 2000 Workshop—planetary scale mesopause observing system,” J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 64, 873–874 (2002).

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

G. Hernandez, “Lower-thermosphere temperatures determined from line profiles of OI 17,924-K (5577-Å) emission in night sky 1. Long-term behavior,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5165–5172 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Shepherd, B. Reid, S. Zhang, B. H. Solheim, G. G. Shepherd, “Retrieval and validation of mesospheric temperatures from wind imaging interferometer observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 24813–24829 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. L. Killeen, D. McEwen, S. C. Solomon, W. Guo, G. G. Sivjee, J. M. Reeves, “Observation of the mesospheric and lower thermospheric 10-hour wave in the northern polar region,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(A6), (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. L. Melo, R. P. Lowe, W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, B. Williams, C. Y. She, “Effects of a large mesospheric temperature enhancement on the hydroxyl rotational temperature as observed from the ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30381–30388 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Phys. Chem. Earth (1)

P. J. Espy, J. Stegman, “Trends and variability of mesospheric temperature at high latitudes,” Phys. Chem. Earth 27, 543–553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (3)

R. H. Wiens, S.-P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. F. B. Williams, “OH rotational temperatures at Davis, Antarctica, via scanning spectrometer,” Planet. Space Sci. 44, 163–170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Hines, D. W. Tarasick, “On the detection and utilization of gravity waves in airglow studies,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 851–866 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

G. G. Shepherd, Spectral Imaging of the Atmosphere, Vol. 82 of the International Geophysics Series (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002).

G. Hernandez, Fabry-Perot Interferometers (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986).

D. E. Osterbrook, R. T. Waters, T. A. Barlow, “Faint emission lines in the blue and red spectral regions of the night airglow,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific112, 733–741 (2000); http://crvax.sri.com/NVAO/download/Osterbrock.html .
[CrossRef]

S. Sargoytchev, SATI; http://stpl/cress.yorku.ca .

R. H. Wiens, S. Brown, S. Sargoytchev, R. N. Peterson, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “SATI—spectral airglow temperature imager,” in P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, Proc. SPIE2830, 341–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Gattinger, Synthetic Spectrum of an O2 Atmospheric System (Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics Software, Ottawa, Canada, 1984).

S.-P. Zhang, Gravity Waves from O2 Airglow, Ph.D. dissertation (York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1991).

See the Bass 2000 Archives, L’Observatoire de Paris, Laboratoire d’Etudes et d’Instrumentation en Astrophysique; http://mesola.obspm.fr/home.php .

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SATI instrument.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical design of the MORTI-SATI concept. 1, conical mirror; 2, baffle plane; 3, Fresnel lens; 4, interference filter; 5, camera lens; 6, CCD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detected spectral lines in (a) the OH channel and (b) the O2 channel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interferograms from (a) the O2 channel and (b) the OH channel.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Set of synthetic spectra for the O2 channel convolved with the filter function for a temperature range from 111 K to 300 K, with a step change of 10 K.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between the measured and the synthetic spectra for the OH (top) and the O2 (bottom) channels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Derived temperatures and (b) emission rates of the O2 and the OH layers from one night of observations (12 November 2001) at Resolute Bay, Canada.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative O2 temperatures derived from sectors 1 and 6 of the interferogram for 12 h of observation on 12 November 2001 at Resolute Bay, Canada.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Periodograms from a power spectral analysis of (a) O2 and (b) OH temperatures from 12 h of observational data on 12 November 2001 at Resolute Bay, Canada.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Monthly averaged emission rates and rotational temperatures from the OH channel (open circles) and the O2 channel (filled circles) for the period from October 1998 to April 2002. The measurements were obtained from the SATI located on top of the Sierra Nevada Mountain (2910 m) in Granada, Spain.18 The solid curves are numerical reproductions obtained with amplitudes and phases that best fit the data by consideration of the annual and the semiannual modulations.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SATI Instrument Specifications

Tables Icon

Table 2 Locations of the SATI Instruments

Equations (1)

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sin θ=μ1-λλ021/2

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