Abstract

We report the fabrication of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on a silver ion-exchanged glass waveguide with a patterned overlay of sputter-deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si). Using this high-refractive-index overlay DBR technology, we demonstrate a fully functional glass-integrated optic add–drop multiplexer (OADM). The OADM consists of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) containing overlay DBR gratings in both arms. The design, fabrication, and characterization procedures of the sputter-deposited a-Si overlay DBR and the ion-exchanged glass waveguide MZI are discussed in detail. The completed 3-cm-long OADM exhibited a 24-dB transmission dip with a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.5 nm. The 1-cm-long a-Si overlay DBR induced an additional attenuation of 1.2 dB. A simplified method for overlay DBR fabrication that utilizes a lift-off technique is also proposed and demonstrated.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2002

J. Kim, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, M. McCoy, “Design and fabrication of low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon overlay DBR for glass waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1307–1315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Low-loss planar lightwave circuit OADM with high isolation and no polarization dependence,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 346–348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, J. S. Hayden, “Arrays of distributed-Bragg-reflector waveguide lasers at 1536 nm in Yb/Er codoped phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789–791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Ribeiro, L. R. Kawase, W. Margulis, B. Lesche, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, K. Kleveby, “All-optical control of Bragg grating in semiconductor-coated D-shaped fiber,” Opt. Lett. 24, 454–456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. De Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, E. Terzini, “Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997–1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Kewitsch, G. A. Rakuljic, P. A. Williems, A. Yariv, “All fiber zero insertion loss add drop filter for WDM,” Opt. Lett. 23, 106–108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Conese, R. Tavlykaev, C. P. Hussell, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Finite element analysis of LiNbO3 waveguides with Si or Si/SiO2 overlay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1113–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Erdogan, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, E. J. Laskowski, C. H. Henry, G. E. Kohnke, “Integrated-optical Mach–Zehnder add–drop filter fabricated by a single UV-induced grating exposure,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7838–7845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hussell, R. V. Ramaswamy, “High-index overlay for high-reflectance DBR gratings in LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 636–638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

I. Baumann, J. Seifert, W. Nowak, M. Sauer, “Compact all-fiber add–drop multiplexer using fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1331–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Laser-trimmed four-port bandpass filter fabricated in single-mode photosensitive Ge-doped planar waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 191–193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. E. Roman, K. A. Winick, “Neodymium-doped glass channel waveguide laser containing integrated distributed Bragg reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2744–2746 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Zelikson, J. Salzman, K. Weiser, J. Kanicki, “Enhanced electro-optic effect in amorphous hydrogenated silicon based waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1664–1666 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

1987

D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, S. Faucher, “New design concept for a narrowband wavelength-selective optical tap and combiner,” Electron. Lett. 23, 668–669 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1973

Abe, M.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Low-loss planar lightwave circuit OADM with high isolation and no polarization dependence,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 346–348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Laser-trimmed four-port bandpass filter fabricated in single-mode photosensitive Ge-doped planar waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 191–193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Low-loss planar lightwave circuit OADM with high isolation and no polarization dependence,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 346–348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Batchman, T. E.

Baumann, I.

I. Baumann, J. Seifert, W. Nowak, M. Sauer, “Compact all-fiber add–drop multiplexer using fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1331–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Low-loss planar lightwave circuit OADM with high isolation and no polarization dependence,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 346–348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, S. Faucher, “New design concept for a narrowband wavelength-selective optical tap and combiner,” Electron. Lett. 23, 668–669 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Carson, R. F.

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. De Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, E. Terzini, “Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997–1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Conese, T.

De Rosa, R.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. De Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, E. Terzini, “Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997–1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Della Corte, F. G.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. De Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, E. Terzini, “Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997–1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

Faucher, S.

D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, S. Faucher, “New design concept for a narrowband wavelength-selective optical tap and combiner,” Electron. Lett. 23, 668–669 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Florea, C.

J. Kim, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, M. McCoy, “Design and fabrication of low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon overlay DBR for glass waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1307–1315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Funk, D. S.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, J. S. Hayden, “Arrays of distributed-Bragg-reflector waveguide lasers at 1536 nm in Yb/Er codoped phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789–791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geraghty, D. F.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchange waveguide add–drop filter,” in Integrated Optics Devices V, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 85–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, A.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, K.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Low-loss planar lightwave circuit OADM with high isolation and no polarization dependence,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 346–348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, J. S.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, J. S. Hayden, “Arrays of distributed-Bragg-reflector waveguide lasers at 1536 nm in Yb/Er codoped phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789–791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Helfert, S.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

Hibino, Y.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Low-loss planar lightwave circuit OADM with high isolation and no polarization dependence,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 346–348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Low-loss planar lightwave circuit OADM with high isolation and no polarization dependence,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 346–348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, S. Faucher, “New design concept for a narrowband wavelength-selective optical tap and combiner,” Electron. Lett. 23, 668–669 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchange waveguide add–drop filter,” in Integrated Optics Devices V, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 85–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hussell, C. P.

T. Conese, R. Tavlykaev, C. P. Hussell, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Finite element analysis of LiNbO3 waveguides with Si or Si/SiO2 overlay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1113–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hussell, R. V. Ramaswamy, “High-index overlay for high-reflectance DBR gratings in LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 636–638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Low-loss planar lightwave circuit OADM with high isolation and no polarization dependence,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 346–348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, S. Faucher, “New design concept for a narrowband wavelength-selective optical tap and combiner,” Electron. Lett. 23, 668–669 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kanicki, J.

M. Zelikson, J. Salzman, K. Weiser, J. Kanicki, “Enhanced electro-optic effect in amorphous hydrogenated silicon based waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1664–1666 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Laser-trimmed four-port bandpass filter fabricated in single-mode photosensitive Ge-doped planar waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 191–193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, L. R.

Kewitsch, A. S.

Kim, J.

J. Kim, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, M. McCoy, “Design and fabrication of low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon overlay DBR for glass waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1307–1315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, T.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Low-loss planar lightwave circuit OADM with high isolation and no polarization dependence,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 346–348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kleveby, K.

Kohnke, G. E.

Laskowski, E. J.

Lesche, B.

Margulis, W.

Maxwell, G. D.

R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Laser-trimmed four-port bandpass filter fabricated in single-mode photosensitive Ge-doped planar waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 191–193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McCoy, M.

J. Kim, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, M. McCoy, “Design and fabrication of low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon overlay DBR for glass waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1307–1315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Milbrodt, M. A.

Morrell, M. M.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchange waveguide add–drop filter,” in Integrated Optics Devices V, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 85–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nowak, W.

I. Baumann, J. Seifert, W. Nowak, M. Sauer, “Compact all-fiber add–drop multiplexer using fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1331–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchange waveguide add–drop filter,” in Integrated Optics Devices V, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 85–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pregla, R.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Provenzano, D.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchange waveguide add–drop filter,” in Integrated Optics Devices V, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 85–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rakuljic, G. A.

Ramaswamy, R. V.

Rendina, I.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. De Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, E. Terzini, “Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997–1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, R. M.

Riziotis, C.

Roman, J. E.

J. E. Roman, K. A. Winick, “Neodymium-doped glass channel waveguide laser containing integrated distributed Bragg reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2744–2746 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rubino, A.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. De Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, E. Terzini, “Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997–1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sahlgren, B.

Salzman, J.

M. Zelikson, J. Salzman, K. Weiser, J. Kanicki, “Enhanced electro-optic effect in amorphous hydrogenated silicon based waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1664–1666 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sanford, N. A.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, J. S. Hayden, “Arrays of distributed-Bragg-reflector waveguide lasers at 1536 nm in Yb/Er codoped phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789–791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, M.

I. Baumann, J. Seifert, W. Nowak, M. Sauer, “Compact all-fiber add–drop multiplexer using fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1331–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scarmozzino, R.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schlereth, K.-H.

K.-H. Schlereth, M. Tacke, “The complex propagation constant of multilayer waveguides: an algorithm for a personal computer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 627–630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, J.

I. Baumann, J. Seifert, W. Nowak, M. Sauer, “Compact all-fiber add–drop multiplexer using fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1331–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

Strasser, T. A.

Stubbe, R.

Tacke, M.

K.-H. Schlereth, M. Tacke, “The complex propagation constant of multilayer waveguides: an algorithm for a personal computer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 627–630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tavlykaev, R.

Terzini, E.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. De Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, E. Terzini, “Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997–1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Torge, R.

Ulrich, R.

Veasey, D. L.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, J. S. Hayden, “Arrays of distributed-Bragg-reflector waveguide lasers at 1536 nm in Yb/Er codoped phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789–791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weiser, K.

M. Zelikson, J. Salzman, K. Weiser, J. Kanicki, “Enhanced electro-optic effect in amorphous hydrogenated silicon based waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1664–1666 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Williems, P. A.

Winick, K. A.

J. Kim, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, M. McCoy, “Design and fabrication of low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon overlay DBR for glass waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1307–1315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roman, K. A. Winick, “Neodymium-doped glass channel waveguide laser containing integrated distributed Bragg reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2744–2746 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. S. Kewitsch, G. A. Rakuljic, P. A. Williems, A. Yariv, “All fiber zero insertion loss add drop filter for WDM,” Opt. Lett. 23, 106–108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchange waveguide add–drop filter,” in Integrated Optics Devices V, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 85–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zelikson, M.

M. Zelikson, J. Salzman, K. Weiser, J. Kanicki, “Enhanced electro-optic effect in amorphous hydrogenated silicon based waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1664–1666 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

Zhenguang, H.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, J. S. Hayden, “Arrays of distributed-Bragg-reflector waveguide lasers at 1536 nm in Yb/Er codoped phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789–791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roman, K. A. Winick, “Neodymium-doped glass channel waveguide laser containing integrated distributed Bragg reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2744–2746 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Zelikson, J. Salzman, K. Weiser, J. Kanicki, “Enhanced electro-optic effect in amorphous hydrogenated silicon based waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1664–1666 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, S. Faucher, “New design concept for a narrowband wavelength-selective optical tap and combiner,” Electron. Lett. 23, 668–669 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K.-H. Schlereth, M. Tacke, “The complex propagation constant of multilayer waveguides: an algorithm for a personal computer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 627–630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of an OADM based on the MZI structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the overlay-waveguide structure showing enhanced interaction between the overlay and the guided mode. The enhancement can improve the DBR reflectivity after a grating on the overlay is patterned.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Overlay DBR fabrication procedures: (a) Conventional: 1, ion exchange; 2, a-Si overlay deposition; 3, PR grating patterning; 4, pattern transfer to the overlay by RIE. (b) Lift-off: 1, ion exchange; 2, PR grating patterning; 3, a-Si deposition; 4, PR grating removal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top-view SEM picture of an a-Si overlay DBR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission dip of the completed MZI OADM with an overlay DBR.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Experimental setup for drop-efficiency measurement. (b) Measured power of dropped signal fitted to a FP reflectivity curve as a function of the incidence angle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission dip of an a-Si overlay DBR fabricated by the lift-off technique.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Change in Waveguide MZI Characteristics at Each Fabrication Step

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