Abstract

Thin-film filters used for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) applications are processed by a variety of deposition techniques, including ion-beam sputtering. Ion-beam sputtering produces high-quality coatings and provides flexibility of coating materials. However, DWDM filters consisting of oxide films that are reactively deposited by ion-beam sputtering, as in most sputter techniques, typically exhibit high levels of compressive stress. This affects the thermal characteristics of the filters. We have identified three thermal effects: center wavelength drift with temperature, center wavelength creep, and permanent center wavelength shift. The latter two are strongly dependent on the stress state of the filter. Models are presented that support the data that were taken.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion-assisted deposition of optical thin films: low energy vs. high energy bombardment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 552–559 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. U. J. Gibson, “Ion-beam processing of optical thin films,” in Physics of Thin Films, M. H. Francombe, J. L. Vossen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 13, pp. 109–147.
  3. D. S. Campbell, “Mechanical properties of thin films,” in Handbook of Thin Film Technology, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), pp. 12–36.
  4. S. L. Prins, W. C. Herrmann, A. C. Barron, J. R. McNeil, “Effect of stress on performance of dense wavelength division multiplexing filters: optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 43, 626–632 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Takashashi, “Temperature stability of thin-film narrow-bandpass filters produced by ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 34, 667–675 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. WMS-13 is supplied by OHara Corporation, 50 Columbia Rd., Branchburg, N.J. 08876.
  7. M. Ohring, The Materials Science of Thin Films (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992), pp. 433–436.

2004

1995

1984

Barron, A. C.

Campbell, D. S.

D. S. Campbell, “Mechanical properties of thin films,” in Handbook of Thin Film Technology, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), pp. 12–36.

Gibson, U. J.

U. J. Gibson, “Ion-beam processing of optical thin films,” in Physics of Thin Films, M. H. Francombe, J. L. Vossen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 13, pp. 109–147.

Herrmann, W. C.

McNeil, J. R.

Ohring, M.

M. Ohring, The Materials Science of Thin Films (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992), pp. 433–436.

Prins, S. L.

Takashashi, H.

Wilson, S. R.

Appl. Opt.

Other

U. J. Gibson, “Ion-beam processing of optical thin films,” in Physics of Thin Films, M. H. Francombe, J. L. Vossen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 13, pp. 109–147.

D. S. Campbell, “Mechanical properties of thin films,” in Handbook of Thin Film Technology, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), pp. 12–36.

WMS-13 is supplied by OHara Corporation, 50 Columbia Rd., Branchburg, N.J. 08876.

M. Ohring, The Materials Science of Thin Films (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992), pp. 433–436.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of creep of a 100-GHx filter on a WMS-13 substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the repeatability of creep of a 100-GHx filter on a WMS-13 substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of δΛ C versus time illustrating the behavior predicted by Eq. (10). Data are the same as that for Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characteristics of a 100-GHz filter bake shift (δCW S ) illustrating the quality of the fit to the form illustrated in Eq. (12).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of CTE and TWD for Substrates and Film Stacks

Equations (12)

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τ=ntn0t0=1+δτT+δτC+δτS,
CW=CW0+δCWT+δCWC+δCWS,
Λ=CWCW0=1+δΛT+δΛC+δΛS=τ,
δσx=E1,
δσx=η d2dt,
dδσxdt=-Eδσxη.
lnδσx|δσx0δσx=-Eη t
δσx=δσx0 exp-Eη t.
δy=-νδσxE=-νE δσx0 exp-Eη t.
δτC=δΛC=-νE δσx0 exp-Eη t.
-δx=σ0E1-exp-Etη>0.
δΛS=νσ0E1-exp-Etη.

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