Abstract

Thin-film filters used for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) applications are processed by a variety of deposition techniques, including ion-beam sputtering. Ion-beam sputtering produces high-quality coatings and provides flexibility of coating materials. However, DWDM filters consisting of oxide films that are reactively deposited by ion-beam sputtering, as in most sputter techniques, typically exhibit high levels of compressive stress. This affects the optical characteristics of the filters. Details of the filter passband characteristics and wave-front distortion illustrate the influence of the stress. Spatial variation of the stress on the filter surface causes the filter center wavelength to have spatial variation, and it causes the filter to have an asymmetric passband characteristic.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion-assisted deposition of optical thin films: low energy vs. high energy bombardment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 552–559 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. U. J. Gibson, “Ion-beam processing of optical thin films,” in Physics of Thin Films, M. H. Francombe, J. L. Vossen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 13, pp. 109–147.
  3. D. S. Campbell, “Mechanical properties of thin films,” in Handbook of Thin Film Technology, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), pp. 12–36.
  4. S. L. Prins, W. C. Herrmann, A. C. Barron, J. R. McNeil, “Effect of stress on performance of dense wavelength division multiplexing filters: thermal properties,” Appl. Opt. 43, 633–637 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

1984 (1)

Barron, A. C.

Campbell, D. S.

D. S. Campbell, “Mechanical properties of thin films,” in Handbook of Thin Film Technology, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), pp. 12–36.

Gibson, U. J.

U. J. Gibson, “Ion-beam processing of optical thin films,” in Physics of Thin Films, M. H. Francombe, J. L. Vossen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 13, pp. 109–147.

Herrmann, W. C.

McNeil, J. R.

Prins, S. L.

Wilson, S. R.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Other (2)

U. J. Gibson, “Ion-beam processing of optical thin films,” in Physics of Thin Films, M. H. Francombe, J. L. Vossen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 13, pp. 109–147.

D. S. Campbell, “Mechanical properties of thin films,” in Handbook of Thin Film Technology, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), pp. 12–36.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coupling loss caused by transmission through a 100-GHz filter placed between two GRIN lens collimators for different filter lateral dimensions and substrate thickness. The collimators were optimized for 10-mm separation; they were separated by 10 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of transmission through a 50-GHz filter on coupling efficiency and optimal GRIN separation. 1.5 in. (3.8 cm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of CW of a 100-GHz DWDM filter at different locations as a function of filter dimensions. All filter substrates were 1 mm thick.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmitted wave-front distortion of a 50-GHz DWDM filter for different wavelengths. The CW filter was approximately 1550.12 nm; it was 2.0 mm × 2.0 mm and 1 mm thick.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmitted intensity (i.e., single-beam) patterns of a large segment of 100-GHz filter material at different wavelengths; CW of the filter was 1563.80 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmitted wave-front distortion of four 100-GHz DWDM filters, all taken at the CW of each filter. Filter lateral dimensions were 1.4 mm × 1.4 mm and 1.9 mm × 1.9 mm; filter thicknesses were 0.55 and 1.0 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflected wave-front characteristic of a 100-GHz filter, 1.4 mm × 1.4 mm and 1 mm thick. The filter CW was 1564.60 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflected wave-front distortion of four 100-GHz DWDM filters, all taken at wavelengths 8 nm from the CW of each filter. Filter lateral dimensions were 1.4 mm × 1.4 mm and 1.9 mm × 1.9 mm; filter thickness was 0.55 and 1.0 mm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Passband asymmetry of a 100-GHz filter measured with a large-area detector compared with measurements of the same filter measured by two GRIN collimators.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Passband characteristics of two 50-GHz DWDM filters measured with a large-area detector; both filters were 1 mm thick, one filter was 1.4 mm × 1.4 mm and the other was 2.0 mm × 2.0 mm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Illustration of filter diffraction effects in transmission through the filter (a) at the filter CW and (b) at wavelengths that are slightly shorter than the filter CW and just outside the filter passband.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Illustration of transmitted group-delay variation over the passband of a 100-GHz filter.

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