Abstract

We propose a computer-aided method of lens manufacture that allows assembly, adjustment, and test phases to be run concurrently until an acceptable level of optical performance is reached. Misalignment of elements within a compound lens is determined by a comparison of the results of physical ray tracing by use of an array of Gaussian laser beams with numerically obtained geometric ray traces. An estimate of misalignment errors is made, and individual elements are adjusted in an iterative manner until performance criteria are achieved. The method is illustrated for the alignment of an air-spaced doublet.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. R. Neal, J. Mansell, “Application of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to optical system calibration and alignment,” in Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000), pp. 234–240.
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. E. Hopkins, “Optical element mounting and alignment technique,” in Geometrical Optics, R. E. Fischer, ed., Proc. SPIE531, 187–195 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. T. Pham, M. Castellani, “Intelligent control of fibre optic components assembly,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 215, Part B9, 1177–1189 (2001).
  4. R. E. Hopkins, “Some thoughts on lens mounting,” Opt. Eng. 15, 428–430 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. CODE V Reference Manual (Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, Calif., 2003).
  6. M. P. Rimmer, “A computer aided optical alignment method,” in Adaptive Optics and Optical Structures, R. K. Tyson, ed., Proc. SPIE1271, 363–368 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, “Laser ray-tracing method for optical testing,” Opt. Lett. 24, 951–953 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the nelder-mead simplex method in low dimensions,” Siam J. Optimization 9, 112–147 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Jaramillo-Nunez, D. M. Gale, A. Cornejo-Rodriguez, “Apparatus for cementing doublet lenses,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3432–3436 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Seifert, J. Liesener, H. J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216, 313–319 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. L. Pedrotti, L. S. Pedrotti, “Characteristics of laser beams,” in Introduction to Optics, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1996), pp. 456–483.
  12. OSLO Premium Edition Revision 6.1 (Lambda Research Corporation, Littleton, Mass., 2001).

2003 (1)

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, H. J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216, 313–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. T. Pham, M. Castellani, “Intelligent control of fibre optic components assembly,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 215, Part B9, 1177–1189 (2001).

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the nelder-mead simplex method in low dimensions,” Siam J. Optimization 9, 112–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Jaramillo-Nunez, D. M. Gale, A. Cornejo-Rodriguez, “Apparatus for cementing doublet lenses,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3432–3436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. E. Hopkins, “Some thoughts on lens mounting,” Opt. Eng. 15, 428–430 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Castellani, M.

D. T. Pham, M. Castellani, “Intelligent control of fibre optic components assembly,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 215, Part B9, 1177–1189 (2001).

Cornejo-Rodriguez, A.

A. Jaramillo-Nunez, D. M. Gale, A. Cornejo-Rodriguez, “Apparatus for cementing doublet lenses,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3432–3436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gale, D. M.

A. Jaramillo-Nunez, D. M. Gale, A. Cornejo-Rodriguez, “Apparatus for cementing doublet lenses,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3432–3436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, R. E.

R. E. Hopkins, “Some thoughts on lens mounting,” Opt. Eng. 15, 428–430 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Hopkins, “Optical element mounting and alignment technique,” in Geometrical Optics, R. E. Fischer, ed., Proc. SPIE531, 187–195 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jaramillo-Nunez, A.

A. Jaramillo-Nunez, D. M. Gale, A. Cornejo-Rodriguez, “Apparatus for cementing doublet lenses,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3432–3436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lagarias, J. C.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the nelder-mead simplex method in low dimensions,” Siam J. Optimization 9, 112–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liesener, J.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, H. J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216, 313–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mansell, J.

R. R. Neal, J. Mansell, “Application of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to optical system calibration and alignment,” in Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000), pp. 234–240.
[CrossRef]

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

Navarro, R.

Neal, R. R.

R. R. Neal, J. Mansell, “Application of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to optical system calibration and alignment,” in Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000), pp. 234–240.
[CrossRef]

Pedrotti, F. L.

F. L. Pedrotti, L. S. Pedrotti, “Characteristics of laser beams,” in Introduction to Optics, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1996), pp. 456–483.

Pedrotti, L. S.

F. L. Pedrotti, L. S. Pedrotti, “Characteristics of laser beams,” in Introduction to Optics, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1996), pp. 456–483.

Pham, D. T.

D. T. Pham, M. Castellani, “Intelligent control of fibre optic components assembly,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 215, Part B9, 1177–1189 (2001).

Reeds, J. A.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the nelder-mead simplex method in low dimensions,” Siam J. Optimization 9, 112–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rimmer, M. P.

M. P. Rimmer, “A computer aided optical alignment method,” in Adaptive Optics and Optical Structures, R. K. Tyson, ed., Proc. SPIE1271, 363–368 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, L.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, H. J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216, 313–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, H. J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216, 313–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wright, M. H.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the nelder-mead simplex method in low dimensions,” Siam J. Optimization 9, 112–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wright, P. E.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the nelder-mead simplex method in low dimensions,” Siam J. Optimization 9, 112–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, H. J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216, 313–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

R. E. Hopkins, “Some thoughts on lens mounting,” Opt. Eng. 15, 428–430 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Jaramillo-Nunez, D. M. Gale, A. Cornejo-Rodriguez, “Apparatus for cementing doublet lenses,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3432–3436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. (1)

D. T. Pham, M. Castellani, “Intelligent control of fibre optic components assembly,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 215, Part B9, 1177–1189 (2001).

Siam J. Optimization (1)

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the nelder-mead simplex method in low dimensions,” Siam J. Optimization 9, 112–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

CODE V Reference Manual (Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, Calif., 2003).

M. P. Rimmer, “A computer aided optical alignment method,” in Adaptive Optics and Optical Structures, R. K. Tyson, ed., Proc. SPIE1271, 363–368 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Neal, J. Mansell, “Application of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to optical system calibration and alignment,” in Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000), pp. 234–240.
[CrossRef]

R. E. Hopkins, “Optical element mounting and alignment technique,” in Geometrical Optics, R. E. Fischer, ed., Proc. SPIE531, 187–195 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Pedrotti, L. S. Pedrotti, “Characteristics of laser beams,” in Introduction to Optics, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1996), pp. 456–483.

OSLO Premium Edition Revision 6.1 (Lambda Research Corporation, Littleton, Mass., 2001).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of optical layout.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Degrees of freedom.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geometric ray trace.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Analysis of physical ray trace.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Minimum ray spacing as a function of beam waist.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Jig assembly.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental configuration.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical CCD image.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optimization of the Complex Multierror Case

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Am,i=fxn,j, rm,k,
Bm,i=gxn,j, rm,k.
E=m=1toM i=1to2Am,i-Am,i2+m=1toM i=1to2Bm,i-Bm,i2,
Am,i=fxn,j, rm,k,
Bm,i=gxn,j, rm,k,
Δxn,j=xn,j-xn,j.
M>5N/4.
rZ=ro1+λZπro221/2.
X¯= IiXi Ii, Y¯= IiYi Ii,

Metrics