Abstract

UV-induced self-volume growth of the hybrid sol-gel glass was investigated for fabrication of an arbitrary-surface relief structure with a user-defined gray scale mask. The gray scale mask was generated through exposure of a high-energy beam-sensitive glass under an electron beam. Saw-tooth gratings of different periods were fabricated by a simple UV exposure through the gray-scale mask. Experimental results showed that the smaller the period is, the shallower the depth obtained owing to the self-volume growth effect is.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, S. I. Najafi, “Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication,” Opt. Commun. 143, 199–202 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2003 (1)

2002 (1)

D. Blanc, S. Pelissier, J. M. Bergheau, “A solid mechanics approach to surface relief formation in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. A 75, 1–3 (2002).

2001 (1)

P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, “A photopolymerizable glass with different diffraction efficiency near 100% for holographic storage,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 1490–1492 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

Andrews, M. P.

S. Pelissier, D. Blanc, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, “Single-step UV recording of sinusoidal surface gratings in hybrid solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6744–6748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Blanc, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S. I. Najafi, M. P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface relief gratings in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Äyräs, P.

Bergheau, J. M.

D. Blanc, S. Pelissier, J. M. Bergheau, “A solid mechanics approach to surface relief formation in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. A 75, 1–3 (2002).

Blanc, D.

D. Blanc, S. Pelissier, J. M. Bergheau, “A solid mechanics approach to surface relief formation in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. A 75, 1–3 (2002).

D. Blanc, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S. I. Najafi, M. P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface relief gratings in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Pelissier, D. Blanc, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, “Single-step UV recording of sinusoidal surface gratings in hybrid solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6744–6748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Calvo, M. L.

P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, “A photopolymerizable glass with different diffraction efficiency near 100% for holographic storage,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 1490–1492 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, “A photopolymerizable glass with different diffraction efficiency near 100% for holographic storage,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 1490–1492 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coudray, P.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, S. I. Najafi, “Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication,” Opt. Commun. 143, 199–202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Däschner, W.

Descour, M. R.

Etienne, P.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, S. I. Najafi, “Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication,” Opt. Commun. 143, 199–202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

Kip, D.

Lee, S. H.

Levy, R.

Long, P.

Moreau, Y.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, S. I. Najafi, “Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication,” Opt. Commun. 143, 199–202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

S. Pelissier, D. Blanc, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, “Single-step UV recording of sinusoidal surface gratings in hybrid solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6744–6748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Blanc, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S. I. Najafi, M. P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface relief gratings in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, S. I. Najafi, “Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication,” Opt. Commun. 143, 199–202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, J.

Parriaux, O.

Pelissier, S.

D. Blanc, S. Pelissier, J. M. Bergheau, “A solid mechanics approach to surface relief formation in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. A 75, 1–3 (2002).

D. Blanc, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S. I. Najafi, M. P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface relief gratings in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Pelissier, D. Blanc, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, “Single-step UV recording of sinusoidal surface gratings in hybrid solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6744–6748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Porque, J.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, S. I. Najafi, “Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication,” Opt. Commun. 143, 199–202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rantala, J. T.

Saravanamuttu, K.

D. Blanc, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S. I. Najafi, M. P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface relief gratings in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stein, R.

Tishchenko, A. V.

Wieking, K. S.

Wu, C.

Yu, W. X.

Yuan, X.-C.

Adv. Mater. (1)

D. Blanc, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S. I. Najafi, M. P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface relief gratings in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phy. Lett. (1)

P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, “A photopolymerizable glass with different diffraction efficiency near 100% for holographic storage,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 78, 1490–1492 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

D. Blanc, S. Pelissier, J. M. Bergheau, “A solid mechanics approach to surface relief formation in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. A 75, 1–3 (2002).

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, S. I. Najafi, “Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication,” Opt. Commun. 143, 199–202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

J. T. Rantala, A. H. O. Kärkkäinen, J. A. Hiltunen, M. Keränen, T. Kololuoma, M. R. Descour, “UV light induced surface expansion phenomenon of hybrid glass thin films,” Optics Express8, 682–687 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .

X.-C. Yuan, W. X. Yu, N. Q. Ngo, W. C. Cheong, “Cost-effective fabrication of microlenses on hybrid sol-gel glass with a high-energy beam-sensitive gray-scale mask,” Optics Express10, 303–308 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .

W. X. Yu, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. X. Que, W. C. Cheong, K. V. Koudriachov, “Single-step fabrication of continuous micro-optical elements in hybrid sol-gel glass by laser direct writing,” Optics Express10, 443–448 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup by use of a gray-scale mask.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calibration curve of sol-gel surface relief thickness against electron-beam dosage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of volume-growth phenomenon.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Atomic force microscope picture of a saw-tooth grating with a period of 11 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface roughness of self-volume-growth sol-gel film after exposure.

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