Abstract

We have clarified the influences of water-vapor absorption lines in air on femtosecond pulse propagations from experimental and theoretical points of view. Precise measurements for the femtosecond pulse shapes after propagation of as much as 300 m through air have been made in a semiunderground optical testing tunnel. We observed the pulse splitting and the enhancement of the pulse broadening due to the 100-m propagation in air. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis by use of the HITRAN database at the edge and the center of the water-vapor absorption regions in air. Measured autocorrelation traces are mostly reproduced by those calculated with only the real part (dispersion) of the refractive index modulated by water-vapor absorption lines in air. This fact enables us to conclude that the pulse deformations due to water absorption lines in air are caused mainly by the real part (dispersion), not by the imaginary part (absorption), of the refractive index of air.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Killinger, “Free space optics for laser communication through the air,” Opt. Photon. News, October2002, pp. 36–42.
  2. Y. S. Galkin, R. A. Tatevian, “Influence of resonances on the phase and the group refractive indices of air,” J. Geodesy 71, 680–684 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Edlén, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Muijlwijk, “Update of the Edlén formulae for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 25, 189–189 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. E. Ciddor, “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1566–1573 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568–3571 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Winderler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, “Compact system of wavelength-tunable femtosecond soliton pulse generation using optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 325–327 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, J. D. Harvey, “Commercial semiconductor devices for two-photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8142–8144 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2001).
  12. R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1973).

2002 (1)

D. Killinger, “Free space optics for laser communication through the air,” Opt. Photon. News, October2002, pp. 36–42.

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Winderler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, “Compact system of wavelength-tunable femtosecond soliton pulse generation using optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 325–327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, J. D. Harvey, “Commercial semiconductor devices for two-photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8142–8144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. S. Galkin, R. A. Tatevian, “Influence of resonances on the phase and the group refractive indices of air,” J. Geodesy 71, 680–684 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1988 (1)

R. Muijlwijk, “Update of the Edlén formulae for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 25, 189–189 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

B. Edlén, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2001).

Barry, L. P.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ciddor, P. E.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Winderler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Winderler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

Edlén, B.

B. Edlén, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galkin, Y. S.

Y. S. Galkin, R. A. Tatevian, “Influence of resonances on the phase and the group refractive indices of air,” J. Geodesy 71, 680–684 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goto, T.

N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, “Compact system of wavelength-tunable femtosecond soliton pulse generation using optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 325–327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Winderler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. D.

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Winderler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Killinger, D.

D. Killinger, “Free space optics for laser communication through the air,” Opt. Photon. News, October2002, pp. 36–42.

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1973).

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mccann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muijlwijk, R.

R. Muijlwijk, “Update of the Edlén formulae for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 25, 189–189 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, N.

N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, “Compact system of wavelength-tunable femtosecond soliton pulse generation using optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 325–327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Winderler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichert, J.

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Winderler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tatevian, R. A.

Y. S. Galkin, R. A. Tatevian, “Influence of resonances on the phase and the group refractive indices of air,” J. Geodesy 71, 680–684 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, B.

Udem, T.

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Winderler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Winderler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, “Compact system of wavelength-tunable femtosecond soliton pulse generation using optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 325–327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geodesy (1)

Y. S. Galkin, R. A. Tatevian, “Influence of resonances on the phase and the group refractive indices of air,” J. Geodesy 71, 680–684 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (2)

B. Edlén, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. Muijlwijk, “Update of the Edlén formulae for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 25, 189–189 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News (1)

D. Killinger, “Free space optics for laser communication through the air,” Opt. Photon. News, October2002, pp. 36–42.

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Winderler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2001).

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1973).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measurement of pulse deformation due to water-vapor absorption lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Line intensities for water-vapor absorption lines in air.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured autocorrelation traces at four wavelengths (1809, 1846, 1877, and 1926 nm) after the pulses were propagated 100 m. (b) Calculated autocorrelation traces under identical experimental conditions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Autocorrelation traces calculated with only the real part of the phase-refractive-index change due to water-vapor absorptions at 1877 and 1926 nm. (b) Autocorrelation traces calculated with the imaginary part only.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Autocorrelation traces at 1786 nm after propagation for various distances.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimentally obtained variation of pulse width with propagation distance shown by open circles at 1708 nm, filled circles at 1769 nm, and open triangles at 1786 nm. Solid, dashed, and dotted curves show calculation results for C = 0, C = +0.13, and C = -0.13, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated pulse propagation behavior in the case in which the effect of the water-vapor absorption lines in air is excluded. (a) Initial pulse spectrum (dotted curve) and the real part of the phase refractive index of air (solid curve). (b) Pulse shapes at 0 m (solid curve), 200 m (dotted curve), and 400 m (dotted-dashed curve).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated pulse propagation behavior in the case in which the effect of the water-vapor absorption lines in air is included. Inset in (a) shows the magnification of the phase-refractive-index change.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Behavior of the pulse propagating as much as 400 m (solid curve, 0 m; dotted curve, 200 m; and dotted-dashed curve, 400 m) calculated with the real and imaginary parts of the phase-refractive-index change due to water-vapor absorption lines. (b) Calculated pulse behavior with the real part of the phase-refractive-index change only. (c) Calculated pulse behavior with the imaginary part of the phase-refractive-index change only.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Variation of the real part of the phase refractive index of air with (solid curve) and without (dotted curve) water-vapor absorption lines.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Et, z=Eω, 0exp-ikωzexpiωtdω,
kω=nωω/c.
fedω=fed,stωDt,p/Dst.
nω-1=fedω+fab,realω+fab,imagω.

Metrics