Abstract

The adaptive-optics (AO) system at the W. M. Keck Observatory is characterized. We calculate the error budget of the Keck AO system operating in natural guide star mode with a near-infrared imaging camera. The measurement noise and bandwidth errors are obtained by modeling the control loops and recording residual centroids. Results of sky performance tests are presented: The AO system is shown to deliver images with average Strehl ratios of as much as 0.37 at 1.58 μm when a bright guide star is used and of 0.19 for a magnitude 12 star. The images are consistent with the predicted wave-front error based on our error budget estimates.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

2002 (2)

L. C. Roberts, C. R. Neyman, “Characterization of the AEOS system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1260–1266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Winters, “Modeling and control of a deformable mirror,” J. Dynamic Syst. Meas. Control 124, 297–302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

P. L. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Véran, G. Herriot, “Centroid gain compensation in Shack-Hartmann adaptive optics systems with natural or laser guide star,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1430–1439 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Chanan, C. Ohara, M. Troy, “Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck telescopes. II. The narrowband phasing algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4706–4714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope adaptive optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

N. F. Law, R. G. Lane, “Wavefront estimation at low light levels,” Opt. Commun. 126, 19–24 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. G. Loefdahl, G. B. Scharmer, “Wavefront sensing and image restoration from focused and defocused solar images,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 107, 243–264 (1994).

1987 (1)

R. G. Lane, W. R. Fright, R. H. T. Bates, “Direct phase retrieval,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. ASSP-35, 520–526 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

1972 (1)

R. Gerchberg, W. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane picture,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

1966 (1)

Acton, D. S.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Acton, P. L. Wizinowich, P. J. Stomski, J. C. Shelton, O. Lai, J. M. Brase, “Laboratory calibration of the W. M. Keck Observatory adaptive optics facility,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 125–131 (1998).

E. M. Johansson, D. S. Acton, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, J. M. Brase, C. J. Carrano, J. Gathright, D. T. Gavel, R. L. Hurd, O. Lai, W. Lupton, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, J. C. Shelton, P. J. Stomski, K. Tsubota, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, P. L. Wizinowich, “Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 600–607 (2000). 30

An, J.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

An, J. R.

E. M. Johansson, D. S. Acton, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, J. M. Brase, C. J. Carrano, J. Gathright, D. T. Gavel, R. L. Hurd, O. Lai, W. Lupton, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, J. C. Shelton, P. J. Stomski, K. Tsubota, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, P. L. Wizinowich, “Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 600–607 (2000). 30

Arsenault, R.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope adaptive optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Avicola, K.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Johansson, D. S. Acton, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, J. M. Brase, C. J. Carrano, J. Gathright, D. T. Gavel, R. L. Hurd, O. Lai, W. Lupton, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, J. C. Shelton, P. J. Stomski, K. Tsubota, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, P. L. Wizinowich, “Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 600–607 (2000). 30

Bates, R. H. T.

R. G. Lane, W. R. Fright, R. H. T. Bates, “Direct phase retrieval,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. ASSP-35, 520–526 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, B.

D. Gavel, E. Gates, C. Max, S. Olivier, B. Bauman, D. Pennington, B. Macintosh, J. Patience, C. Brown, P. Danforth, R. Hurd, S. Severson, J. Lloyd, “Recent science and engineering results with the laser guidestar adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 354–359 (2003).

Beeman, B. V.

E. M. Johansson, D. S. Acton, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, J. M. Brase, C. J. Carrano, J. Gathright, D. T. Gavel, R. L. Hurd, O. Lai, W. Lupton, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, J. C. Shelton, P. J. Stomski, K. Tsubota, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, P. L. Wizinowich, “Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 600–607 (2000). 30

Bloemhof, E. E.

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. L. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, B. R. Brandl, “Palomar adaptive optics project: status and performance,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 31–40 (2000).

Boyer, C.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope adaptive optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brack, G. L.

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. L. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, B. R. Brandl, “Palomar adaptive optics project: status and performance,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 31–40 (2000).

Brandl, B. R.

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. L. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, B. R. Brandl, “Palomar adaptive optics project: status and performance,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 31–40 (2000).

Brase, J.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brase, J. M.

D. S. Acton, P. L. Wizinowich, P. J. Stomski, J. C. Shelton, O. Lai, J. M. Brase, “Laboratory calibration of the W. M. Keck Observatory adaptive optics facility,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 125–131 (1998).

E. M. Johansson, D. S. Acton, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, J. M. Brase, C. J. Carrano, J. Gathright, D. T. Gavel, R. L. Hurd, O. Lai, W. Lupton, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, J. C. Shelton, P. J. Stomski, K. Tsubota, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, P. L. Wizinowich, “Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 600–607 (2000). 30

Brown, C.

D. Gavel, E. Gates, C. Max, S. Olivier, B. Bauman, D. Pennington, B. Macintosh, J. Patience, C. Brown, P. Danforth, R. Hurd, S. Severson, J. Lloyd, “Recent science and engineering results with the laser guidestar adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 354–359 (2003).

Carrano, C. J.

E. M. Johansson, D. S. Acton, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, J. M. Brase, C. J. Carrano, J. Gathright, D. T. Gavel, R. L. Hurd, O. Lai, W. Lupton, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, J. C. Shelton, P. J. Stomski, K. Tsubota, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, P. L. Wizinowich, “Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 600–607 (2000). 30

Chanan, G.

Crampton, D.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope adaptive optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Danforth, P.

D. Gavel, E. Gates, C. Max, S. Olivier, B. Bauman, D. Pennington, B. Macintosh, J. Patience, C. Brown, P. Danforth, R. Hurd, S. Severson, J. Lloyd, “Recent science and engineering results with the laser guidestar adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 354–359 (2003).

Dekany, R. G.

B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, R. G. Dekany, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. A. Ealey, T. R. Price, “Investigating a Xinetics Inc. deformable mirror,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3126, 569–580 (1997).

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. L. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, B. R. Brandl, “Palomar adaptive optics project: status and performance,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 31–40 (2000).

Dekens, F. G.

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. L. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, B. R. Brandl, “Palomar adaptive optics project: status and performance,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 31–40 (2000).

Ealey, M. A.

B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, R. G. Dekany, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. A. Ealey, T. R. Price, “Investigating a Xinetics Inc. deformable mirror,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3126, 569–580 (1997).

Ellerbroek, B. L.

B. L. Ellerbroek, A.U.R.A., 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, Ariz., 85719 (personal communication, 2002).

Fletcher, J. M.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope adaptive optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

Fright, W. R.

R. G. Lane, W. R. Fright, R. H. T. Bates, “Direct phase retrieval,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. ASSP-35, 520–526 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gates, E.

D. Gavel, E. Gates, C. Max, S. Olivier, B. Bauman, D. Pennington, B. Macintosh, J. Patience, C. Brown, P. Danforth, R. Hurd, S. Severson, J. Lloyd, “Recent science and engineering results with the laser guidestar adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 354–359 (2003).

Gathright, J.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Johansson, D. S. Acton, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, J. M. Brase, C. J. Carrano, J. Gathright, D. T. Gavel, R. L. Hurd, O. Lai, W. Lupton, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, J. C. Shelton, P. J. Stomski, K. Tsubota, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, P. L. Wizinowich, “Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 600–607 (2000). 30

Gavel, D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, E. Gates, C. Max, S. Olivier, B. Bauman, D. Pennington, B. Macintosh, J. Patience, C. Brown, P. Danforth, R. Hurd, S. Severson, J. Lloyd, “Recent science and engineering results with the laser guidestar adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 354–359 (2003).

Gavel, D. T.

E. M. Johansson, D. S. Acton, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, J. M. Brase, C. J. Carrano, J. Gathright, D. T. Gavel, R. L. Hurd, O. Lai, W. Lupton, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, J. C. Shelton, P. J. Stomski, K. Tsubota, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, P. L. Wizinowich, “Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 600–607 (2000). 30

Gerchberg, R.

R. Gerchberg, W. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane picture,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Ghez, A.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gigan, P.

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M. Schoeck, D. Le Mignant, G. Chanan, P. L. Wizinowich, M. A. van Dam, “Atmospheric characterization with the Keck adaptive optics system. I. Open-loop data,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3705–3720 (2003).
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F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope adaptive optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
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E. M. Johansson, D. S. Acton, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, J. M. Brase, C. J. Carrano, J. Gathright, D. T. Gavel, R. L. Hurd, O. Lai, W. Lupton, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, J. C. Shelton, P. J. Stomski, K. Tsubota, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, P. L. Wizinowich, “Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 600–607 (2000). 30

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E. M. Johansson, D. S. Acton, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, J. M. Brase, C. J. Carrano, J. Gathright, D. T. Gavel, R. L. Hurd, O. Lai, W. Lupton, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, J. C. Shelton, P. J. Stomski, K. Tsubota, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, P. L. Wizinowich, “Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 600–607 (2000). 30

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M. Schoeck, D. Le Mignant, G. Chanan, P. L. Wizinowich, M. A. van Dam, “Atmospheric characterization with the Keck adaptive optics system. I. Open-loop data,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3705–3720 (2003).
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P. L. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, O. Lai, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Ghez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
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E. M. Johansson, D. S. Acton, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, J. M. Brase, C. J. Carrano, J. Gathright, D. T. Gavel, R. L. Hurd, O. Lai, W. Lupton, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, J. C. Shelton, P. J. Stomski, K. Tsubota, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, P. L. Wizinowich, “Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 600–607 (2000). 30

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D. Gavel, E. Gates, C. Max, S. Olivier, B. Bauman, D. Pennington, B. Macintosh, J. Patience, C. Brown, P. Danforth, R. Hurd, S. Severson, J. Lloyd, “Recent science and engineering results with the laser guidestar adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 354–359 (2003).

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M. A. van Dam, B. A. Macintosh, “Characterization of adaptive optics at Keck Observatory,” in Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, M. Lloyd-Hart, eds., Proc. SPIE5169, 1–10 (2003).

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D. S. Acton, P. L. Wizinowich, P. J. Stomski, J. C. Shelton, O. Lai, J. M. Brase, “Laboratory calibration of the W. M. Keck Observatory adaptive optics facility,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 125–131 (1998).

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E. M. Johansson, D. S. Acton, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. V. Beeman, J. M. Brase, C. J. Carrano, J. Gathright, D. T. Gavel, R. L. Hurd, O. Lai, W. Lupton, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, S. S. Olivier, J. C. Shelton, P. J. Stomski, K. Tsubota, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, P. L. Wizinowich, “Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 600–607 (2000). 30

F. J. Rigaut, J.-P. Véran, O. Lai, “Analytical model for Shack-Hartmann-based adaptive optics systems,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 1038–1048 (1998).

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