Abstract

A 193-nm ArF excimer laser transmission was measured at subablative fluence through varying strength solutions of dissolved collagen, yielding an absorption cross section of 1.14 × 10-17 cm2 for the peptide bond, which accounts for 96% of the total collagen attenuation that is based on additional transmission measurements through solutions of isolated constituent amino acids. The measured absorption cross sections, in combination with typical corneal tissue composition, yield a predicted corneal tissue absorption coefficient of 16,000 cm-1. In addition, dry collagen films were prepared and ablation-rate data were recorded as a function of laser fluence. Ablation rates were modeled by use of a Beer-Lambert blow-off model, incorporating a measured ablation threshold and an absorption coefficient that are based on the measured collagen absorption cross section and the film bond density. The measured ablation rates and those predicted by the model were in very good agreement. The experiments suggest that collagen-based absorption coefficients are consistent with predicted corneal tissue ablation rates and previously observed dynamic changes in tissue properties under ablative conditions.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. T. Fisher, D. W. Hahn, “Determination of excimer laser ablation rates of corneal tissue using wax impressions of ablation craters and white-light interferometry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35, 41–51 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (2)

G. Paltauf, P. E. Dyer, “Photomechanical processes and effects in ablation,” Chem. Rev. 103, 487–518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103, 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. Manns, P. Milne, J. M. Parel, “Ultraviolet corneal photoablation,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 1–5 (2002).

2001 (1)

K. Tsunoda, M. Sugiura, M. Sonoyama, H. Yajima, T. Ishii, J. Taniyama, H. Itoh, “Characterization of water contribution to excimer laser ablation of collagen,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 145, 195–200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

A. Lembares, X.-H. Hu, G. W. Kalmus, “Absorption spectra of corneas in the far ultraviolet region,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1283–1387 (1997).

1996 (3)

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, D. W. Hahn, R. J. Landry, R. P. Weiblinger, K. M. Morehouse, “Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of free radicals in corneal tissue following excimer laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 367–372 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, “Corneal-tissue absorption coefficients for 193- and 213-nm ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3386–3391 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. T. Staveteig, J. T. Walsh, “Dynamic 193-nm optical properties of water,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3392–3403 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34, 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (6)

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, R. P. Weiblinger, “Noninvasive monitoring of excimer laser ablation by time-resolved reflectometry,” Refract. Corneal. Surg. 9, 268–275 (1993).
[PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, R. P. Weiblinger, C. H. Chen, “Transmission of corneal collagen during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 204–210 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, R. Sauerbrey, “Pulsed ultraviolet laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 56, 51–63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. S. Kitai, V. L. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of UV laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. A. Puliafito, K. Wong, R. F. Steinert, “Quantitative and ultrastructural studies of excimer laser ablation of the cornea at 193 and 248 nanometers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 155–159 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Adler, C. M.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

J. V. McGrann, J. Neev, M. W. Berns, “Physical characteristics of excimer laser-tissue interaction,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction III, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1646, 56–68 (1992).

Bor, Z.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, R. P. Weiblinger, C. H. Chen, “Transmission of corneal collagen during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 204–210 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coohill, T. P.

T. P. Coohill, “Uses and effects of ultraviolet radiation on cells and tissues,” in Lasers in Medicine, R. W. Waynant, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2002), pp. 85–107.

Cox, M. M.

D. L. Nelson, M. M. Cox, “Amino acids, peptides, and proteins,” in Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, M. Ryan, ed. (Worth, New York, 2000), pp. 115–158.

D. L. Nelson, M. M. Cox, “The three-dimensional structure of proteins,” in Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, M. Ryan, ed. (Worth, New York, 2000), pp. 159–202.

Dehm, E. J.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Deutsch, T. F.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Dyer, P. E.

G. Paltauf, P. E. Dyer, “Photomechanical processes and effects in ablation,” Chem. Rev. 103, 487–518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M. N.

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, D. W. Hahn, R. J. Landry, R. P. Weiblinger, K. M. Morehouse, “Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of free radicals in corneal tissue following excimer laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 367–372 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, “Corneal-tissue absorption coefficients for 193- and 213-nm ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3386–3391 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34, 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, R. P. Weiblinger, “Noninvasive monitoring of excimer laser ablation by time-resolved reflectometry,” Refract. Corneal. Surg. 9, 268–275 (1993).
[PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, R. P. Weiblinger, C. H. Chen, “Transmission of corneal collagen during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 204–210 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, B. T.

B. T. Fisher, D. W. Hahn, “Determination of excimer laser ablation rates of corneal tissue using wax impressions of ablation craters and white-light interferometry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35, 41–51 (2004).
[PubMed]

Fust, A.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, D. W.

B. T. Fisher, D. W. Hahn, “Determination of excimer laser ablation rates of corneal tissue using wax impressions of ablation craters and white-light interferometry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35, 41–51 (2004).
[PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, D. W. Hahn, R. J. Landry, R. P. Weiblinger, K. M. Morehouse, “Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of free radicals in corneal tissue following excimer laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 367–372 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillenkamp, F.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Hopp, B.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.-H.

A. Lembares, X.-H. Hu, G. W. Kalmus, “Absorption spectra of corneas in the far ultraviolet region,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1283–1387 (1997).

Ishii, T.

K. Tsunoda, M. Sugiura, M. Sonoyama, H. Yajima, T. Ishii, J. Taniyama, H. Itoh, “Characterization of water contribution to excimer laser ablation of collagen,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 145, 195–200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, H.

K. Tsunoda, M. Sugiura, M. Sonoyama, H. Yajima, T. Ishii, J. Taniyama, H. Itoh, “Characterization of water contribution to excimer laser ablation of collagen,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 145, 195–200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kalmus, G. W.

A. Lembares, X.-H. Hu, G. W. Kalmus, “Absorption spectra of corneas in the far ultraviolet region,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1283–1387 (1997).

Keeley, F. W.

R. K. Murray, F. W. Keeley, “The extracellular matrix,” in Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry, J. Foltin, J. Ransom, J. M. Oransky, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003), pp. 535–555.

Kennelly, P. J.

V. W. Rodwell, P. J. Kennelly, “Proteins: higher orders of structure,” in Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry, J. Foltin, J. Ransom, J. M. Oransky, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003), pp. 30–39.

Kharizov, A. A.

M. S. Kitai, V. L. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of UV laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kitai, M. S.

M. S. Kitai, V. L. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of UV laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Landry, R. J.

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, D. W. Hahn, R. J. Landry, R. P. Weiblinger, K. M. Morehouse, “Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of free radicals in corneal tissue following excimer laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 367–372 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lembares, A.

A. Lembares, X.-H. Hu, G. W. Kalmus, “Absorption spectra of corneas in the far ultraviolet region,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1283–1387 (1997).

Lerman, S.

S. Lerman, “Susceptibility of ocular tissues to radiant energy,” in Radiant Energy and the Eye (Macmillan, New York, 1980), pp. 29–114.

Liebman, M. N.

R. M. Schultz, M. N. Liebman, “Proteins I: composition and structure,” in Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, T. M. Devlin, ed. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 2002), pp. 93–157.

Manns, F.

F. Manns, P. Milne, J. M. Parel, “Ultraviolet corneal photoablation,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 1–5 (2002).

Marton, Z.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McGrann, J. V.

J. V. McGrann, J. Neev, M. W. Berns, “Physical characteristics of excimer laser-tissue interaction,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction III, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1646, 56–68 (1992).

Mikic, B. B.

Milne, P.

F. Manns, P. Milne, J. M. Parel, “Ultraviolet corneal photoablation,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 1–5 (2002).

Mohay, J.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morehouse, K. M.

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, D. W. Hahn, R. J. Landry, R. P. Weiblinger, K. M. Morehouse, “Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of free radicals in corneal tissue following excimer laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 367–372 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, R. K.

R. K. Murray, F. W. Keeley, “The extracellular matrix,” in Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry, J. Foltin, J. Ransom, J. M. Oransky, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003), pp. 535–555.

Neev, J.

J. V. McGrann, J. Neev, M. W. Berns, “Physical characteristics of excimer laser-tissue interaction,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction III, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1646, 56–68 (1992).

Nelson, D. L.

D. L. Nelson, M. M. Cox, “Amino acids, peptides, and proteins,” in Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, M. Ryan, ed. (Worth, New York, 2000), pp. 115–158.

D. L. Nelson, M. M. Cox, “The three-dimensional structure of proteins,” in Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, M. Ryan, ed. (Worth, New York, 2000), pp. 159–202.

Nishioka, N. S.

Paltauf, G.

G. Paltauf, P. E. Dyer, “Photomechanical processes and effects in ablation,” Chem. Rev. 103, 487–518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parel, J. M.

F. Manns, P. Milne, J. M. Parel, “Ultraviolet corneal photoablation,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 1–5 (2002).

Pettit, G. H.

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, D. W. Hahn, R. J. Landry, R. P. Weiblinger, K. M. Morehouse, “Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of free radicals in corneal tissue following excimer laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 367–372 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, “Corneal-tissue absorption coefficients for 193- and 213-nm ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3386–3391 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34, 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit, R. Sauerbrey, “Pulsed ultraviolet laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 56, 51–63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, R. P. Weiblinger, “Noninvasive monitoring of excimer laser ablation by time-resolved reflectometry,” Refract. Corneal. Surg. 9, 268–275 (1993).
[PubMed]

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, R. P. Weiblinger, C. H. Chen, “Transmission of corneal collagen during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 204–210 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popkov, V. L.

M. S. Kitai, V. L. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of UV laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

C. A. Puliafito, K. Wong, R. F. Steinert, “Quantitative and ultrastructural studies of excimer laser ablation of the cornea at 193 and 248 nanometers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 155–159 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Racz, B.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ratkay, I.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rodwell, V. W.

V. W. Rodwell, P. J. Kennelly, “Proteins: higher orders of structure,” in Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry, J. Foltin, J. Ransom, J. M. Oransky, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003), pp. 30–39.

Sauerbrey, R.

G. H. Pettit, R. Sauerbrey, “Pulsed ultraviolet laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 56, 51–63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, R. M.

R. M. Schultz, M. N. Liebman, “Proteins I: composition and structure,” in Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, T. M. Devlin, ed. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 2002), pp. 93–157.

Semchishen, V. A.

M. S. Kitai, V. L. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of UV laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sonoyama, M.

K. Tsunoda, M. Sugiura, M. Sonoyama, H. Yajima, T. Ishii, J. Taniyama, H. Itoh, “Characterization of water contribution to excimer laser ablation of collagen,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 145, 195–200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Staveteig, P. T.

Steinert, R. F.

C. A. Puliafito, K. Wong, R. F. Steinert, “Quantitative and ultrastructural studies of excimer laser ablation of the cornea at 193 and 248 nanometers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 155–159 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Sugiura, M.

K. Tsunoda, M. Sugiura, M. Sonoyama, H. Yajima, T. Ishii, J. Taniyama, H. Itoh, “Characterization of water contribution to excimer laser ablation of collagen,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 145, 195–200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suveges, I.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Szabo, G.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, J.

K. Tsunoda, M. Sugiura, M. Sonoyama, H. Yajima, T. Ishii, J. Taniyama, H. Itoh, “Characterization of water contribution to excimer laser ablation of collagen,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 145, 195–200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsunoda, K.

K. Tsunoda, M. Sugiura, M. Sonoyama, H. Yajima, T. Ishii, J. Taniyama, H. Itoh, “Characterization of water contribution to excimer laser ablation of collagen,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 145, 195–200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Venugopalan, V.

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103, 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

Weiblinger, R. P.

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, D. W. Hahn, R. J. Landry, R. P. Weiblinger, K. M. Morehouse, “Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of free radicals in corneal tissue following excimer laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 367–372 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34, 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, R. P. Weiblinger, C. H. Chen, “Transmission of corneal collagen during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 204–210 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, R. P. Weiblinger, “Noninvasive monitoring of excimer laser ablation by time-resolved reflectometry,” Refract. Corneal. Surg. 9, 268–275 (1993).
[PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wetlaufer, D. B.

D. B. Wetlaufer, “Ultraviolet spectra of proteins and amino acids,” in Advances in Protein Chemistry, C. B. Anfinsen, M. L. Anson, K. Bailey, J. T. Edsall, eds. (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. 17, pp. 303–390.
[CrossRef]

Wong, K.

C. A. Puliafito, K. Wong, R. F. Steinert, “Quantitative and ultrastructural studies of excimer laser ablation of the cornea at 193 and 248 nanometers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 155–159 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yablon, A. D.

Yajima, H.

K. Tsunoda, M. Sugiura, M. Sonoyama, H. Yajima, T. Ishii, J. Taniyama, H. Itoh, “Characterization of water contribution to excimer laser ablation of collagen,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 145, 195–200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zubay, G. L.

G. L. Zubay, “The three-dimensional structures of proteins,” in Biochemistry, R. Worthington, ed. (William C. Brown/McGraw-Hill, Dubuque, Iowa, 1998), pp. 79–114.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

G. H. Pettit, R. Sauerbrey, “Pulsed ultraviolet laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 56, 51–63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (2)

G. Paltauf, P. E. Dyer, “Photomechanical processes and effects in ablation,” Chem. Rev. 103, 487–518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103, 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. S. Kitai, V. L. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of UV laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

A. Lembares, X.-H. Hu, G. W. Kalmus, “Absorption spectra of corneas in the far ultraviolet region,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1283–1387 (1997).

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A (1)

K. Tsunoda, M. Sugiura, M. Sonoyama, H. Yajima, T. Ishii, J. Taniyama, H. Itoh, “Characterization of water contribution to excimer laser ablation of collagen,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 145, 195–200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

F. Manns, P. Milne, J. M. Parel, “Ultraviolet corneal photoablation,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 1–5 (2002).

Lasers Surg. Med. (4)

C. A. Puliafito, K. Wong, R. F. Steinert, “Quantitative and ultrastructural studies of excimer laser ablation of the cornea at 193 and 248 nanometers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 155–159 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, D. W. Hahn, R. J. Landry, R. P. Weiblinger, K. M. Morehouse, “Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of free radicals in corneal tissue following excimer laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 367–372 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, R. P. Weiblinger, C. H. Chen, “Transmission of corneal collagen during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 204–210 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging (1)

B. T. Fisher, D. W. Hahn, “Determination of excimer laser ablation rates of corneal tissue using wax impressions of ablation craters and white-light interferometry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35, 41–51 (2004).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens: experimental studies,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (2)

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34, 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Refract. Corneal. Surg. (1)

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, R. P. Weiblinger, “Noninvasive monitoring of excimer laser ablation by time-resolved reflectometry,” Refract. Corneal. Surg. 9, 268–275 (1993).
[PubMed]

Other (10)

J. V. McGrann, J. Neev, M. W. Berns, “Physical characteristics of excimer laser-tissue interaction,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction III, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1646, 56–68 (1992).

V. W. Rodwell, P. J. Kennelly, “Proteins: higher orders of structure,” in Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry, J. Foltin, J. Ransom, J. M. Oransky, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003), pp. 30–39.

R. K. Murray, F. W. Keeley, “The extracellular matrix,” in Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry, J. Foltin, J. Ransom, J. M. Oransky, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003), pp. 535–555.

R. M. Schultz, M. N. Liebman, “Proteins I: composition and structure,” in Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, T. M. Devlin, ed. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 2002), pp. 93–157.

D. L. Nelson, M. M. Cox, “Amino acids, peptides, and proteins,” in Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, M. Ryan, ed. (Worth, New York, 2000), pp. 115–158.

D. L. Nelson, M. M. Cox, “The three-dimensional structure of proteins,” in Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, M. Ryan, ed. (Worth, New York, 2000), pp. 159–202.

G. L. Zubay, “The three-dimensional structures of proteins,” in Biochemistry, R. Worthington, ed. (William C. Brown/McGraw-Hill, Dubuque, Iowa, 1998), pp. 79–114.

S. Lerman, “Susceptibility of ocular tissues to radiant energy,” in Radiant Energy and the Eye (Macmillan, New York, 1980), pp. 29–114.

T. P. Coohill, “Uses and effects of ultraviolet radiation on cells and tissues,” in Lasers in Medicine, R. W. Waynant, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2002), pp. 85–107.

D. B. Wetlaufer, “Ultraviolet spectra of proteins and amino acids,” in Advances in Protein Chemistry, C. B. Anfinsen, M. L. Anson, K. Bailey, J. T. Edsall, eds. (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. 17, pp. 303–390.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Amino acid sequence constituting the primary structure of collagen (C12H17N3O4). Bold lines indicate peptide bonds (C–N) between adjoining amino acids.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Collagen absorption coefficient, with respect to 193-nm radiation, as a function of the number density of peptide bonds contained in solution. The error bars represent ±1 standard deviation, and the solid line represents the least-squares fit line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse-to-pulse progression of the transmission of 193-nm laser light through dry collagen films, normalized by the steady-state value reached after complete film perforation. The error bars represent 1 full standard deviation (N = 12). The dotted lines indicate the 50% transmission point and the corresponding number of laser pulses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ablation crater showing ablation profile of the ArF excimer laser beam. The crater was recorded in bovine corneal tissue.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ablation rate through dry collagen films as a function of laser-pulse energy. The circles represent the experimental data, with the error bars indicating ±1 standard deviation. The solid line represents predicted ablation rates based on a Beer-Lambert blow-off model that incorporates the experimentally measured absorption cross section of collagen.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ix=I0 exp-αx,
dablation=1αlnI0Ith.
αacid=αwater-lnτacid/τwaterL,
αcollagen=αwater-αacid-lnτcollagen solution/τwaterL.
N=Xg/cm33465 bonds/macromolecule6.022×1023 macromolecules/mole308,300 g/mole,

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