Abstract

The curvature- or bend-sensing response of long-period gratings (LPGs) UV inscribed in D-shaped fiber has been investigated experimentally. Strong fiber-orientation dependence of the spectral response when such LPGs are subjected to bending at different directions has been observed and is shown to form the basis for a new class of single-device sensor with vector-sensing capability. Potential applications utilizing the linear response and unique bend-orientation characteristics of the devices are discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692–694 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. V. Bhatia, D. Campbell, R. O. Claus, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement with long-period gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22, 648–650 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, E. Anemogiannis, “Tuning, attenuating, and switching by controlled flexure of long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Lett. 26, 61–63 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bend sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1773–1774 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, “Optical bend sensor based on measurement of resonance mode splitting of long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531–533 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, “Axial rotation dependence of resonances in curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1354–1355 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. J. Patrick, “Self-aligning bipolar bend transducer based on long period grating written in eccentric core fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1763–1764 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Implementation of vector bending sensors using long-period gratings UV-inscribed in flat-clad and 4-core fibres,” in 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-16, Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 2003), pp. 794–797.
  10. H. J. Patrick, S. T. Vohra, “Directional shape sensing using bend sensitivity of long period fibre gratings,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Y. Kim, K. Hotate, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, pp. 561–564.

2003 (1)

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, E. Anemogiannis, “Tuning, attenuating, and switching by controlled flexure of long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Lett. 26, 61–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, “Optical bend sensor based on measurement of resonance mode splitting of long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531–533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, “Axial rotation dependence of resonances in curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1354–1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, “Self-aligning bipolar bend transducer based on long period grating written in eccentric core fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1763–1764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bend sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1773–1774 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

Anemogiannis, E.

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, E. Anemogiannis, “Tuning, attenuating, and switching by controlled flexure of long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Lett. 26, 61–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, “Axial rotation dependence of resonances in curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1354–1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, “Optical bend sensor based on measurement of resonance mode splitting of long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531–533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Implementation of vector bending sensors using long-period gratings UV-inscribed in flat-clad and 4-core fibres,” in 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-16, Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 2003), pp. 794–797.

Bhatia, V.

Braiwish, M. I.

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, E. Anemogiannis, “Tuning, attenuating, and switching by controlled flexure of long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Lett. 26, 61–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, “Axial rotation dependence of resonances in curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1354–1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, D.

Chang, C. C.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bend sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1773–1774 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. O.

Davis, D. D.

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, E. Anemogiannis, “Tuning, attenuating, and switching by controlled flexure of long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Lett. 26, 61–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, “Axial rotation dependence of resonances in curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1354–1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, B. D.

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, “Axial rotation dependence of resonances in curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1354–1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, E. Anemogiannis, “Tuning, attenuating, and switching by controlled flexure of long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Lett. 26, 61–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, “Axial rotation dependence of resonances in curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1354–1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, E. Anemogiannis, “Tuning, attenuating, and switching by controlled flexure of long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Lett. 26, 61–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, “Axial rotation dependence of resonances in curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1354–1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, “Optical bend sensor based on measurement of resonance mode splitting of long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531–533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, “Self-aligning bipolar bend transducer based on long period grating written in eccentric core fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1763–1764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bend sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1773–1774 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, S. T. Vohra, “Directional shape sensing using bend sensitivity of long period fibre gratings,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Y. Kim, K. Hotate, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, pp. 561–564.

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

VanWiggeren, G. D.

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, E. Anemogiannis, “Tuning, attenuating, and switching by controlled flexure of long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Lett. 26, 61–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, “Axial rotation dependence of resonances in curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1354–1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Vohra, S. T.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bend sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1773–1774 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, S. T. Vohra, “Directional shape sensing using bend sensitivity of long period fibre gratings,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Y. Kim, K. Hotate, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, pp. 561–564.

Williams, J. A. R.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, “Optical bend sensor based on measurement of resonance mode splitting of long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531–533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, “Optical bend sensor based on measurement of resonance mode splitting of long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531–533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Implementation of vector bending sensors using long-period gratings UV-inscribed in flat-clad and 4-core fibres,” in 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-16, Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 2003), pp. 794–797.

Zhao, D.

D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Implementation of vector bending sensors using long-period gratings UV-inscribed in flat-clad and 4-core fibres,” in 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-16, Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 2003), pp. 794–797.

Electron. Lett. (3)

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bend sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1773–1774 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, “Axial rotation dependence of resonances in curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1354–1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, “Self-aligning bipolar bend transducer based on long period grating written in eccentric core fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1763–1764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, “Optical bend sensor based on measurement of resonance mode splitting of long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531–533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optics Lett. (1)

G. D. VanWiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, E. Anemogiannis, “Tuning, attenuating, and switching by controlled flexure of long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Lett. 26, 61–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Zhao, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Implementation of vector bending sensors using long-period gratings UV-inscribed in flat-clad and 4-core fibres,” in 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-16, Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 2003), pp. 794–797.

H. J. Patrick, S. T. Vohra, “Directional shape sensing using bend sensitivity of long period fibre gratings,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Y. Kim, K. Hotate, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, pp. 561–564.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectrum of the DLPG. Two series of peaks corresponding to the two polarization states.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Different fiber orientations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength shift of the DLPG against curvature at different orientations. (a) Peak at 1630 nm; (b) peak at 1645 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of wavelength space between two peaks under bending.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of a DLPG-based two-axis bending sensor configuration.

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