Abstract

Cancer diagnosis and classification is extremely complicated and, for the most part, relies on subjective interpretation of biopsy material. Such methods are laborious and in some cases might result in different results depending on the histopathologist doing the examination. Automated, real-time diagnostic procedures would greatly facilitate cancer diagnosis and classification. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used for the first time to our knowledge to distinguish normal and malignant tumor cells from histological sections. We found that the concentration of trace elements in normal and tumor cells was significantly different. For comparison, the tissue samples were also analyzed by an inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPES) system. The results from the LIBS measurement and ICPES analysis were in good agreement.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (4)

2001 (2)

O. Samek, H. H. Telle, D. C. Beddows, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a tool for real-time, in vitro and in vivo identification of carious teeth,” BMC Oral Health 1, 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Hewlett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

M. Z. Martin, M. D. Cheng, “The detection of chromium aerosol using time-resolved laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1279–1285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hanash, “Biomedical applications of two-dimensional electrophoresis using immobilized pH gradients: current status,” Electrophoresis 21, 102–109 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Merchant, S. R. Weinburger, “Recent advances in surface-enhanced surface desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry,” Electrophoresis 21, 1164–1167 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Samek, M. Liska, J. Kaiser, D. C. Beddows, H. H. Telle, S. V. Kukhlevsky, “Clinical application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to the analysis of teeth and dental materials,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 281–289 (2000).

Q. Sun, M. Tran, B. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “In-situ evaluation of barrier-cream performance on human skin using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Contact Dermatitis 43, 259–263 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

I. G. Pallikaris, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, D. Anglos, T. G. Papazoglou, L. P. Naoumidis, “Corneal hydration monitored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 655–660 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (2)

K. Song, Y.-I. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 23, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

B. J. Marquardt, S. R. Goode, S. M. Angel, “In-situ determination of lead in paint by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a fiber-optic probe,” Anal. Chem. 68, 977–981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Kwiatek, T. Drewniak, M. Lekka, A. Wajdowicz, “Investigation of trace elements in cancer kidney tissues by SRIXE and PIXE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 109–110, 284–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

F. Hillenkamp, M. Karas, R. C. Beavis, B. T. Chait, “Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization mass spectrometry of biopolymers,” Anal. Chem. 63, 1193–1203 (1991).

1989 (1)

J. B. Fenn, M. Mann, C. K. Meng, S. F. Wang, “Electrospray ionization for mass spectroscopy of large biomolecules,” Science 246, 64–71 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam, P.

Allen, J. W.

J. Hewlett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amouroux, J.

Angel, S. M.

B. J. Marquardt, S. R. Goode, S. M. Angel, “In-situ determination of lead in paint by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a fiber-optic probe,” Anal. Chem. 68, 977–981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anglos, D.

I. G. Pallikaris, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, D. Anglos, T. G. Papazoglou, L. P. Naoumidis, “Corneal hydration monitored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 655–660 (1998).
[PubMed]

Beavis, R. C.

F. Hillenkamp, M. Karas, R. C. Beavis, B. T. Chait, “Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization mass spectrometry of biopolymers,” Anal. Chem. 63, 1193–1203 (1991).

Beddows, D. C.

O. Samek, H. H. Telle, D. C. Beddows, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a tool for real-time, in vitro and in vivo identification of carious teeth,” BMC Oral Health 1, 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Samek, M. Liska, J. Kaiser, D. C. Beddows, H. H. Telle, S. V. Kukhlevsky, “Clinical application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to the analysis of teeth and dental materials,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 281–289 (2000).

Bito, R.

R. Bito, T. Shikano, H. Kawabata, “Isolation and characterization of denatured serum albumin from rats with endotoxicosis,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1646, 100–111 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castle, B. C.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chait, B. T.

F. Hillenkamp, M. Karas, R. C. Beavis, B. T. Chait, “Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization mass spectrometry of biopolymers,” Anal. Chem. 63, 1193–1203 (1991).

Cheng, M. D.

Corsi, M.

Cristoforetti, G.

DeLucia, F. C.

Drewniak, T.

W. M. Kwiatek, T. Drewniak, M. Lekka, A. Wajdowicz, “Investigation of trace elements in cancer kidney tissues by SRIXE and PIXE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 109–110, 284–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, J. B.

J. B. Fenn, M. Mann, C. K. Meng, S. F. Wang, “Electrospray ionization for mass spectroscopy of large biomolecules,” Science 246, 64–71 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, J.

J. Hewlett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ginis, H. S.

I. G. Pallikaris, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, D. Anglos, T. G. Papazoglou, L. P. Naoumidis, “Corneal hydration monitored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 655–660 (1998).
[PubMed]

Goode, S. R.

B. J. Marquardt, S. R. Goode, S. M. Angel, “In-situ determination of lead in paint by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a fiber-optic probe,” Anal. Chem. 68, 977–981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hanash, S. M.

S. M. Hanash, “Biomedical applications of two-dimensional electrophoresis using immobilized pH gradients: current status,” Electrophoresis 21, 102–109 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hewlett, J.

J. Hewlett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hidalgo, M.

Hillenkamp, F.

F. Hillenkamp, M. Karas, R. C. Beavis, B. T. Chait, “Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization mass spectrometry of biopolymers,” Anal. Chem. 63, 1193–1203 (1991).

Ibbotson, S.

J. Hewlett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, J.

O. Samek, M. Liska, J. Kaiser, D. C. Beddows, H. H. Telle, S. V. Kukhlevsky, “Clinical application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to the analysis of teeth and dental materials,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 281–289 (2000).

Karas, M.

F. Hillenkamp, M. Karas, R. C. Beavis, B. T. Chait, “Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization mass spectrometry of biopolymers,” Anal. Chem. 63, 1193–1203 (1991).

Kawabata, H.

R. Bito, T. Shikano, H. Kawabata, “Isolation and characterization of denatured serum albumin from rats with endotoxicosis,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1646, 100–111 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kounis, G. A.

I. G. Pallikaris, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, D. Anglos, T. G. Papazoglou, L. P. Naoumidis, “Corneal hydration monitored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 655–660 (1998).
[PubMed]

Kukhlevsky, S. V.

O. Samek, M. Liska, J. Kaiser, D. C. Beddows, H. H. Telle, S. V. Kukhlevsky, “Clinical application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to the analysis of teeth and dental materials,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 281–289 (2000).

Kwiatek, W. M.

W. M. Kwiatek, T. Drewniak, M. Lekka, A. Wajdowicz, “Investigation of trace elements in cancer kidney tissues by SRIXE and PIXE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 109–110, 284–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-I.

K. Song, Y.-I. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 23, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Legnaioli, S.

Lekka, M.

W. M. Kwiatek, T. Drewniak, M. Lekka, A. Wajdowicz, “Investigation of trace elements in cancer kidney tissues by SRIXE and PIXE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 109–110, 284–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leone, N.

Liska, M.

O. Samek, M. Liska, J. Kaiser, D. C. Beddows, H. H. Telle, S. V. Kukhlevsky, “Clinical application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to the analysis of teeth and dental materials,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 281–289 (2000).

Mann, M.

J. B. Fenn, M. Mann, C. K. Meng, S. F. Wang, “Electrospray ionization for mass spectroscopy of large biomolecules,” Science 246, 64–71 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquardt, B. J.

B. J. Marquardt, S. R. Goode, S. M. Angel, “In-situ determination of lead in paint by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a fiber-optic probe,” Anal. Chem. 68, 977–981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. Z.

McNesby, K. L.

Meng, C. K.

J. B. Fenn, M. Mann, C. K. Meng, S. F. Wang, “Electrospray ionization for mass spectroscopy of large biomolecules,” Science 246, 64–71 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merchant, M.

M. Merchant, S. R. Weinburger, “Recent advances in surface-enhanced surface desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry,” Electrophoresis 21, 1164–1167 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miziolek, A. W.

Morel, S.

Moseley, H.

J. Hewlett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, V.

J. Hewlett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Naoumidis, L. P.

I. G. Pallikaris, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, D. Anglos, T. G. Papazoglou, L. P. Naoumidis, “Corneal hydration monitored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 655–660 (1998).
[PubMed]

Padgett, M.

J. Hewlett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Palleschi, V.

Pallikaris, I. G.

I. G. Pallikaris, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, D. Anglos, T. G. Papazoglou, L. P. Naoumidis, “Corneal hydration monitored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 655–660 (1998).
[PubMed]

Papazoglou, T. G.

I. G. Pallikaris, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, D. Anglos, T. G. Papazoglou, L. P. Naoumidis, “Corneal hydration monitored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 655–660 (1998).
[PubMed]

Pappas, G. S.

G. S. Pappas, Laboratory Manual of Histology (Brown, Dubuque, Iowa, 1990).

Rusak, D. A.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salvetti, A.

Samek, O.

O. Samek, H. H. Telle, D. C. Beddows, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a tool for real-time, in vitro and in vivo identification of carious teeth,” BMC Oral Health 1, 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Samek, M. Liska, J. Kaiser, D. C. Beddows, H. H. Telle, S. V. Kukhlevsky, “Clinical application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to the analysis of teeth and dental materials,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 281–289 (2000).

Samuels, A. C.

Shikano, T.

R. Bito, T. Shikano, H. Kawabata, “Isolation and characterization of denatured serum albumin from rats with endotoxicosis,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1646, 100–111 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

J. Hewlett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J. P.

F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, “Elemental analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2000).

Smith, B.

Q. Sun, M. Tran, B. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “In-situ evaluation of barrier-cream performance on human skin using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Contact Dermatitis 43, 259–263 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, B. W.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sneddon, J.

K. Song, Y.-I. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 23, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.

K. Song, Y.-I. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 23, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, M. Tran, B. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “In-situ evaluation of barrier-cream performance on human skin using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Contact Dermatitis 43, 259–263 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Telle, H. H.

O. Samek, H. H. Telle, D. C. Beddows, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a tool for real-time, in vitro and in vivo identification of carious teeth,” BMC Oral Health 1, 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Samek, M. Liska, J. Kaiser, D. C. Beddows, H. H. Telle, S. V. Kukhlevsky, “Clinical application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to the analysis of teeth and dental materials,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 281–289 (2000).

Tognoni, E.

Tran, M.

Q. Sun, M. Tran, B. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “In-situ evaluation of barrier-cream performance on human skin using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Contact Dermatitis 43, 259–263 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallebona, C.

Wajdowicz, A.

W. M. Kwiatek, T. Drewniak, M. Lekka, A. Wajdowicz, “Investigation of trace elements in cancer kidney tissues by SRIXE and PIXE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 109–110, 284–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. F.

J. B. Fenn, M. Mann, C. K. Meng, S. F. Wang, “Electrospray ionization for mass spectroscopy of large biomolecules,” Science 246, 64–71 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinburger, S. R.

M. Merchant, S. R. Weinburger, “Recent advances in surface-enhanced surface desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry,” Electrophoresis 21, 1164–1167 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winefordner, J. D.

Q. Sun, M. Tran, B. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “In-situ evaluation of barrier-cream performance on human skin using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Contact Dermatitis 43, 259–263 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yueh, F. Y.

F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, “Elemental analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2000).

Zhang, H.

F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, “Elemental analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2000).

Anal. Chem. (2)

F. Hillenkamp, M. Karas, R. C. Beavis, B. T. Chait, “Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization mass spectrometry of biopolymers,” Anal. Chem. 63, 1193–1203 (1991).

B. J. Marquardt, S. R. Goode, S. M. Angel, “In-situ determination of lead in paint by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a fiber-optic probe,” Anal. Chem. 68, 977–981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

K. Song, Y.-I. Lee, J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 23, 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

R. Bito, T. Shikano, H. Kawabata, “Isolation and characterization of denatured serum albumin from rats with endotoxicosis,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1646, 100–111 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

BMC Oral Health (1)

O. Samek, H. H. Telle, D. C. Beddows, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a tool for real-time, in vitro and in vivo identification of carious teeth,” BMC Oral Health 1, 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Contact Dermatitis (1)

Q. Sun, M. Tran, B. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “In-situ evaluation of barrier-cream performance on human skin using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Contact Dermatitis 43, 259–263 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (1)

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electrophoresis (2)

S. M. Hanash, “Biomedical applications of two-dimensional electrophoresis using immobilized pH gradients: current status,” Electrophoresis 21, 102–109 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Merchant, S. R. Weinburger, “Recent advances in surface-enhanced surface desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry,” Electrophoresis 21, 1164–1167 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. (1)

O. Samek, M. Liska, J. Kaiser, D. C. Beddows, H. H. Telle, S. V. Kukhlevsky, “Clinical application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to the analysis of teeth and dental materials,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 281–289 (2000).

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

I. G. Pallikaris, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, D. Anglos, T. G. Papazoglou, L. P. Naoumidis, “Corneal hydration monitored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 655–660 (1998).
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental diagram of the LIBS setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LIBS spectrum of the blood sample of a chicken.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LIBS spectra of the liver tissue of a dog in two different spectral regions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LIBS spectra of tissue. Top, thin tissue; bottom, bulk tissue.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the Results of Tissue Analysis from LIBS and ICPES.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Tissue Analysis by ICPES

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Table 2 Intensity Ratio from LIBS Spectra of Normal and Malignant Tissue

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Table 3 Comparison of LIBS and ICPES Results

Metrics