Abstract

An intercomparison of the algorithms used to retrieve aerosol extinction and backscatter starting from Raman lidar signals has been performed by 11 groups of lidar scientists involved in the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). This intercomparison is part of an extended quality assurance program performed on aerosol lidars in the EARLINET. Lidar instruments and aerosol backscatter algorithms were tested separately. The Raman lidar algorithms were tested by use of synthetic lidar data, simulated at 355, 532, 386, and 607 nm, with realistic experimental and atmospheric conditions taken into account. The intercomparison demonstrates that the data-handling procedures used by all the lidar groups provide satisfactory results. Extinction profiles show mean deviations from the correct solution within 10% in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and backscatter profiles, retrieved by use of algorithms based on the combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar technique, show mean deviations from solutions within 20% up to 2 km. The intercomparison was also carried out for the lidar ratio and produced profiles that show a mean deviation from the solution within 20% in the PBL. The mean value of this parameter was also calculated within a lofted aerosol layer at higher altitudes that is representative of typical layers related to special events such as Saharan dust outbreaks, forest fires, and volcanic eruptions. Here deviations were within 15%.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

M. Sicard, P. Chazette, J. Pelon, J. G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, “Variational method for the retrieval of the optical thickness and backscatter coefficient from multiangle lidar profiles,” Appl. Opt. 41, 493–502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. A. Heilman, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, T. P. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20333–20348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

U. Wandinger, “Multiple-scattering influence on extinction and backscatter coefficient measurements with Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars,” Appl. Opt. 37, 417–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water vapor and temperature profiling: methodology,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3845–3860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. N. Stacey, “Rayleigh’s legacy to modern physics: high resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. J. Phys. 15, 236–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (4)

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of the extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosol in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Ackermann, H. Chung, “Radiative effects of airborne dust and regional energy budget at the top of the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 223–236 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, “Raman lidar measurements of Pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599–1602 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1983 (1)

S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, J. A. Weinman, “A high spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. I. Instrumentation and theory,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3716–3724 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic-monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. F. Kaiser, W. A. Reed, “Data smoothing using low-pass digital filters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1447–1457 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, “A single-ended atmospheric transmissometer,” Opt. Eng. 13, 10–14 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1970 (1)

J. A. Cooney, “Remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor profiles using the Raman component of laser backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 182–184 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cooney, J. Orr, C. Tomasetti, “Measurements separating the gaseous and aerosol components of laser atmospheric backscattering,” Nature 224, 1098–1099 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, F. A.

F. A. Ackermann, H. Chung, “Radiative effects of airborne dust and regional energy budget at the top of the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 223–236 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alpers, M.

A. Amodeo, G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, A. Papayannis, X. Wang, “Raman lidar algorithm intercomparison in the frame of EARLINET,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 349–352.

Amiridis, V.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadembosch, J. A. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amodeo, G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, A. Papayannis, X. Wang, “Raman lidar algorithm intercomparison in the frame of EARLINET,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 349–352.

Amodeo, A.

V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodriguez, V. Simeonov, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Amodeo, G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, A. Papayannis, X. Wang, “Raman lidar algorithm intercomparison in the frame of EARLINET,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 349–352.

Ansmann, A.

Baldasano, J. M.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Balis, D.

V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodriguez, V. Simeonov, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, “EARLINET measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 301–304.

Böckmann, C.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadembosch, J. A. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Boselli, A.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadembosch, J. A. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, “EARLINET measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 301–304.

Bösenberg, J.

V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodriguez, V. Simeonov, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadembosch, J. A. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water vapor and temperature profiling: methodology,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3845–3860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Amodeo, G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, A. Papayannis, X. Wang, “Raman lidar algorithm intercomparison in the frame of EARLINET,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 349–352.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, “EARLINET measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 301–304.

Brasseur, L. A. H.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D. M.

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R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
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D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosol in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
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Freudenthaler, V.

Frioud, M.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadembosch, J. A. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
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A. Amodeo, G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, A. Papayannis, X. Wang, “Raman lidar algorithm intercomparison in the frame of EARLINET,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 349–352.

Griggs, D. J.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, D. Xiaosu, Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 2001).

Gutkowicz-Krusin, D.

Hågård, A.

Heilman, L. A.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. A. Heilman, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, T. P. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20333–20348 (2001).
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J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic-monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
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Houghton, J. T.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, D. Xiaosu, Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 2001).

Iarlori, M.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadembosch, J. A. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
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A. Amodeo, G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, A. Papayannis, X. Wang, “Raman lidar algorithm intercomparison in the frame of EARLINET,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 349–352.

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R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
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King, M. D.

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic-monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Komguem, L.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadembosch, J. A. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodriguez, V. Simeonov, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, “EARLINET measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 301–304.

A. Amodeo, G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, A. Papayannis, X. Wang, “Raman lidar algorithm intercomparison in the frame of EARLINET,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 349–352.

Kreipl, S.

Larchevêque, G.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadembosch, J. A. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, “EARLINET measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 301–304.

A. Amodeo, G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, A. Papayannis, X. Wang, “Raman lidar algorithm intercomparison in the frame of EARLINET,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 349–352.

Lawrence, J. D.

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
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Leonard, D. A.

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, “A single-ended atmospheric transmissometer,” Opt. Eng. 13, 10–14 (1974).
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Matthey, R.

Matthias, V.

V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodriguez, V. Simeonov, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadembosch, J. A. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
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G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, “EARLINET measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 301–304.

A. Amodeo, G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, A. Papayannis, X. Wang, “Raman lidar algorithm intercomparison in the frame of EARLINET,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 349–352.

Mattis, I.

V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodriguez, V. Simeonov, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, “EARLINET measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 301–304.

McCormick, M. P.

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
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R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Application (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Melfi, S. H.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
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D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosol in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, “Raman lidar measurements of Pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599–1602 (1992).
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S. H. Melfi, “Remote measurements of the atmosphere using Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1605–1610 (1972).
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S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
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Michaelis, W.

Mitev, V.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Mona, L.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, “EARLINET measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 301–304.

Murphy, W. F.

Noguer, M.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, D. Xiaosu, Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 2001).

Orr, J.

J. A. Cooney, J. Orr, C. Tomasetti, “Measurements separating the gaseous and aerosol components of laser atmospheric backscattering,” Nature 224, 1098–1099 (1969).
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Papayannis, A.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadembosch, J. A. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, “EARLINET measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 301–304.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

A. Amodeo, G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, A. Papayannis, X. Wang, “Raman lidar algorithm intercomparison in the frame of EARLINET,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 349–352.

Pappalardo, G.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadembosch, J. A. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
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A. Amodeo, G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, A. Papayannis, X. Wang, “Raman lidar algorithm intercomparison in the frame of EARLINET,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 349–352.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, “EARLINET measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 301–304.

Pelon, J.

M. Sicard, P. Chazette, J. Pelon, J. G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, “Variational method for the retrieval of the optical thickness and backscatter coefficient from multiangle lidar profiles,” Appl. Opt. 41, 493–502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Perrone, M. R.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, “EARLINET measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 301–304.

Poellot, M.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in fortran: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, U. Press, Cambridge, 1992), pp. 127–128 and 644–647.

Reagan, J. A.

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic-monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W. A.

J. F. Kaiser, W. A. Reed, “Data smoothing using low-pass digital filters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1447–1457 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Resendes, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Riebesell, M.

Rizi, V.

V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodriguez, V. Simeonov, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, “EARLINET measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 301–304.

Rocadembosch, F.

Rodriguez, J. A.

Roesler, F. L.

S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, J. A. Weinman, “A high spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. I. Instrumentation and theory,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3716–3724 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar measurement of particles and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 71–151.
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadembosch, J. A. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Shcherbakov, V.

Shipley, S. T.

S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, J. A. Weinman, “A high spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. I. Instrumentation and theory,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3716–3724 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sicard, M.

Simeonov, V.

Spinelli, N.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Spinhirne, J. D.

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic-monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sroga, J. T.

S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, J. A. Weinman, “A high spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. I. Instrumentation and theory,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3716–3724 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stacey, D. N.

D. N. Stacey, “Rayleigh’s legacy to modern physics: high resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. J. Phys. 15, 236–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in fortran: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, U. Press, Cambridge, 1992), pp. 127–128 and 644–647.

Tomasetti, C.

J. A. Cooney, J. Orr, C. Tomasetti, “Measurements separating the gaseous and aerosol components of laser atmospheric backscattering,” Nature 224, 1098–1099 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Tooman, T. P.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. A. Heilman, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, T. P. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20333–20348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tracy, D. H.

S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, J. A. Weinman, “A high spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. I. Instrumentation and theory,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3716–3724 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Trauger, J. T.

S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, J. A. Weinman, “A high spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. I. Instrumentation and theory,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3716–3724 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Turner, D. D.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. A. Heilman, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, T. P. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20333–20348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van der Linden, P. J.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, D. Xiaosu, Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 2001).

Vaughan, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in fortran: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, U. Press, Cambridge, 1992), pp. 127–128 and 644–647.

Visconti, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Walsh, N. W.

Wandinger, U.

Wang, X.

V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodriguez, V. Simeonov, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Amodeo, G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, A. Papayannis, X. Wang, “Raman lidar algorithm intercomparison in the frame of EARLINET,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 349–352.

Weinman, J. A.

S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, J. A. Weinman, “A high spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. I. Instrumentation and theory,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3716–3724 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

Whiteman, D.

Whiteman, D. N.

D. N. Whiteman, “Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2571–2592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, W. F. Murphy, N. W. Walsh, K. D. Evans, “Temperature sensitivity of an atmospheric Raman lidar system based on a XeF excimer laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 247–249 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosol in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, “Raman lidar measurements of Pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599–1602 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wiegner, M.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadembosch, J. A. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Won, J. G.

Xiaosu, D.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, D. Xiaosu, Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 2001).

Yoon, S.-C.

Appl. Opt. (12)

S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, J. A. Weinman, “A high spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. I. Instrumentation and theory,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3716–3724 (1983).
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S. H. Melfi, “Remote measurements of the atmosphere using Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1605–1610 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of the extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosol in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “Multiangle lidar performance in the presence of horizontal inhomogeneities in atmospheric extinction and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3266–3272 (1993).
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J. Bösenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water vapor and temperature profiling: methodology,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3845–3860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Whiteman, “Application of statistical methods to the determination of slope in lidar data,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3360–3369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, “Multiple-scattering influence on extinction and backscatter coefficient measurements with Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars,” Appl. Opt. 37, 417–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sicard, P. Chazette, J. Pelon, J. G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, “Variational method for the retrieval of the optical thickness and backscatter coefficient from multiangle lidar profiles,” Appl. Opt. 41, 493–502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, “Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2571–2592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodriguez, V. Simeonov, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadembosch, J. A. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Phys. (1)

D. N. Stacey, “Rayleigh’s legacy to modern physics: high resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. J. Phys. 15, 236–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, “Raman lidar measurements of Pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599–1602 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

F. A. Ackermann, H. Chung, “Radiative effects of airborne dust and regional energy budget at the top of the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 223–236 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cooney, “Remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor profiles using the Raman component of laser backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 182–184 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic-monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. A. Heilman, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, T. P. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20333–20348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. A. Cooney, J. Orr, C. Tomasetti, “Measurements separating the gaseous and aerosol components of laser atmospheric backscattering,” Nature 224, 1098–1099 (1969).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, “A single-ended atmospheric transmissometer,” Opt. Eng. 13, 10–14 (1974).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. F. Kaiser, W. A. Reed, “Data smoothing using low-pass digital filters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1447–1457 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in fortran: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, U. Press, Cambridge, 1992), pp. 127–128 and 644–647.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, “EARLINET measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 301–304.

A. Amodeo, G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, G. Larchevêque, A. Papayannis, X. Wang, “Raman lidar algorithm intercomparison in the frame of EARLINET,” in Proceedings of XXI International Laser Radar Conference—Part I (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Canada, 2002), pp. 349–352.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Application (Wiley, New York, 1984).

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, D. Xiaosu, Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L’Ecole polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet/ .

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar measurement of particles and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 71–151.
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Synthetic Raman lidar signal at 355 nm (on a log scale) with a step structure and the corresponding peaked aerosol extinction profile (on a linear scale) that are zero everywhere except for a series of couples of heights separated by 75, 90, 105, 120, and 135 m, starting from the low heights. (b) Aerosol extinction profiles retrieved by application of the 5-, 7-, and 9-point sliding linear fits to the synthetic Raman lidar stepping signal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Input data for the simulation at 355 nm (thinner curves) and at 532 nm (thicker curves).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) Comparison of the extinction coefficient profiles retrieved at 355 nm and at 532 nm by each lidar station, and the corresponding solutions (thicker curves). (c) Mean deviations and mean quadratic deviations between the solution and the retrieved aerosol extinction profiles at 355 and 532 nm, calculated for two different height ranges (Stage I).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a), (b) Comparison of the extinction coefficient profiles retrieved at 355 nm and at 532 nm by each lidar station, and the corresponding solutions (thicker curves). (c) Mean deviations and mean quadratic deviations between the solution and the retrieved aerosol extinction profiles at 355 and 532 nm, calculated for two different height ranges (Stage II).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a), (b) Comparison of the backscatter coefficient profiles retrieved at 355 nm and 532 nm by each lidar station, and the corresponding solutions (thicker curves). (c) Mean deviations and mean quadratic deviations between the solution and the retrieved aerosol backscatter profiles at 355 and 532 nm, calculated for two different height ranges (Stage I).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a), (b) Comparison of the backscatter coefficient profiles retrieved at 355 and 532 nm by each lidar station, and the corresponding solutions (thicker curves). (c) Mean deviations and mean quadratic deviations between the solution and the retrieved aerosol backscatter profiles at 355 and 532 nm, calculated for two different height ranges (Stage II).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Aerosol backscatter coefficient profiles at 355 and 532 nm used as input in the simulation for the intercomparison. (b), (c) Comparison of the lidar ratio profiles retrieved at 355 and 532 nm by each lidar station, and the corresponding solutions (thicker curves). (d) Mean deviations and mean quadratic deviations between the solution and the retrieved lidar ratio profiles at 355 and 532 nm (Stage I).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Aerosol backscatter coefficient profiles at 355 and 532 nm used as input in the simulation for the intercomparison. (b), (c) Comparison of the lidar ratio profiles retrieved at 355 and 532 nm by each lidar station, and the corresponding solutions (thicker curves). (d) Mean deviations and mean quadratic deviations between the solution and the retrieved lidar ratio profiles at 355 and 532 nm (Stage II).

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Locations of Participating Groups and Raman Algorithms Used

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Table 2 Final Spatial Resolutions for Each Group Used in Stage I

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Table 3 Mean Absolute Deviations of the Aerosol Extinction (×10-4 m-1) for Three Altitude Ranges (Stage I)

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Table 4 Mean Absolute Deviations of the Aerosol Extinction (×10-4 m-1) for Three Altitude Ranges (Stage II)

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Table 5 Mean Absolute Deviations of the Aerosol Backscatter (×10-6 m-1 sr-1) for Three Altitude Ranges (Stage I)

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Table 6 Mean Absolute Deviations of the Aerosol Backscatter (×10-6 m-1 sr-1) for Three Altitude Ranges (Stage II)

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Table 7 Comparison of Mean Lidar Ratio Values Calculated in Height Region 3.6–3.9 km for Each Station with the Value Used in the Simulation

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PλR, z=PλLCRzβRλL, zz2exp-0zαλL, ζ+αλR, ζdζ,
αaerλL, z=ddzlnNzPλR, zz2-αmolλL, z-αmolλR, z1+λL/λRk,
mean deviation=xi-sisiw,
mean quadratic deviation=xi-sisi2w1/2,

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