Abstract

As the development of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography progresses, interest grows in the extension of traditional optical components to the EUV regime. Because of the strong absorption of EUV by most materials and because of its extremely short wavelength, however, it is difficult to implement many components that are commonplace in the longer-wavelength regimes. One such example is the diffuser that is often implemented with ordinary ground glass in the visible light regime. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of reflective EUV diffusers with high efficiency within a controllable bandwidth. Using these techniques, we have fabricated diffusers with efficiencies exceeding 10% within a moderate angular single-sided bandwidth of approximately 0.06 rad.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. V. R. K. Murty, “Interference between wave fronts rotated or reversed with respect to each other and its relation to spatial coherence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1187–1190 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Martienssen, E. Spiller, “Coherence and fluctuations in light beams,” Am. J. Phys. 32, 919–926 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, P. Batson, P. Denham, S. Rekawa, J. Bokor, “Adding static printing capabilities to the EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 639–645 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Chang, P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, “Spatial coherence characterization of undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 182, 24–34 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis. “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chap. 8, pp. 361–464.
  9. Ref. 8, Chap. 7, pp. 286–360.
  10. P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime,” Opt. Commun. 200, 27–34 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, E. Spiller, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates,” Opt. Commun. 229, 109–116 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. A. Liddle, F. Salmassi, P. Naulleau, E. Gullikson, “Nanoscale topography control for the fabrication of advanced diffractive optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2980–2984 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. van Delft, J. Weterings, A. van Langen-Suurling, H. Romijn, “Hydrogen silsesquioxane/Novolak bilayer resist for high aspect ratio nanoscale electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3419–3423 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. H. Anderson, V. Boegli, L. P. Muray, “Electron beam lithography digital pattern generator and electronics for generalized curvlinear structures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2529–2534 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970–2975 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Stearns, R. Rosen, S. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Spiller, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, V. Sperry, E. Gullikson, D. Stearns, “High performance Mo/Si multilayer coatings for EUV lithography using ion beam deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4049–4068 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the advanced light source,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 363–373 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (3)

P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, E. Spiller, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates,” Opt. Commun. 229, 109–116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Liddle, F. Salmassi, P. Naulleau, E. Gullikson, “Nanoscale topography control for the fabrication of advanced diffractive optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2980–2984 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, V. Sperry, E. Gullikson, D. Stearns, “High performance Mo/Si multilayer coatings for EUV lithography using ion beam deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4049–4068 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime,” Opt. Commun. 200, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. van Delft, J. Weterings, A. van Langen-Suurling, H. Romijn, “Hydrogen silsesquioxane/Novolak bilayer resist for high aspect ratio nanoscale electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3419–3423 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Chang, P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, “Spatial coherence characterization of undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 182, 24–34 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

E. H. Anderson, V. Boegli, L. P. Muray, “Electron beam lithography digital pattern generator and electronics for generalized curvlinear structures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2529–2534 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis. “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Stearns, R. Rosen, S. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1964 (2)

Anderson, E.

P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime,” Opt. Commun. 200, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Chang, P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, “Spatial coherence characterization of undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 182, 24–34 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, P. Batson, P. Denham, S. Rekawa, J. Bokor, “Adding static printing capabilities to the EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 639–645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, E. Spiller, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates,” Opt. Commun. 229, 109–116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Anderson, V. Boegli, L. P. Muray, “Electron beam lithography digital pattern generator and electronics for generalized curvlinear structures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2529–2534 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Chang, P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, “Spatial coherence characterization of undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 182, 24–34 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S.

Batson, P.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, P. Batson, P. Denham, S. Rekawa, J. Bokor, “Adding static printing capabilities to the EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 639–645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beguiristain, R.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boegli, V.

E. H. Anderson, V. Boegli, L. P. Muray, “Electron beam lithography digital pattern generator and electronics for generalized curvlinear structures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2529–2534 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime,” Opt. Commun. 200, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, P. Batson, P. Denham, S. Rekawa, J. Bokor, “Adding static printing capabilities to the EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 639–645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.

C. Chang, P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, “Spatial coherence characterization of undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 182, 24–34 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis. “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Denbeaux, G.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Denham, P.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, P. Batson, P. Denham, S. Rekawa, J. Bokor, “Adding static printing capabilities to the EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 639–645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, K.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, P. Batson, P. Denham, S. Rekawa, J. Bokor, “Adding static printing capabilities to the EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 639–645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chap. 8, pp. 361–464.

Gullikson, E.

E. Spiller, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, V. Sperry, E. Gullikson, D. Stearns, “High performance Mo/Si multilayer coatings for EUV lithography using ion beam deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4049–4068 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Liddle, F. Salmassi, P. Naulleau, E. Gullikson, “Nanoscale topography control for the fabrication of advanced diffractive optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2980–2984 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime,” Opt. Commun. 200, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, E. Spiller, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates,” Opt. Commun. 229, 109–116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis. “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the advanced light source,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 363–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harteneck, B.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis. “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, B.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the advanced light source,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 363–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, E. Spiller, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates,” Opt. Commun. 229, 109–116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Liddle, F. Salmassi, P. Naulleau, E. Gullikson, “Nanoscale topography control for the fabrication of advanced diffractive optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2980–2984 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lucero, A.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martienssen, W.

W. Martienssen, E. Spiller, “Coherence and fluctuations in light beams,” Am. J. Phys. 32, 919–926 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Medecki, H.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mirkarimi, P.

E. Spiller, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, V. Sperry, E. Gullikson, D. Stearns, “High performance Mo/Si multilayer coatings for EUV lithography using ion beam deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4049–4068 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, E. Spiller, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates,” Opt. Commun. 229, 109–116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the advanced light source,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 363–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muray, L. P.

E. H. Anderson, V. Boegli, L. P. Muray, “Electron beam lithography digital pattern generator and electronics for generalized curvlinear structures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2529–2534 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Murty, M. V. R. K.

Naulleau, P.

P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, E. Spiller, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates,” Opt. Commun. 229, 109–116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Liddle, F. Salmassi, P. Naulleau, E. Gullikson, “Nanoscale topography control for the fabrication of advanced diffractive optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2980–2984 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime,” Opt. Commun. 200, 27–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Chang, P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, “Spatial coherence characterization of undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 182, 24–34 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, P. Batson, P. Denham, S. Rekawa, J. Bokor, “Adding static printing capabilities to the EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 639–645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Olynick, D. L.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rekawa, S.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, P. Batson, P. Denham, S. Rekawa, J. Bokor, “Adding static printing capabilities to the EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 639–645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Romijn, H.

F. van Delft, J. Weterings, A. van Langen-Suurling, H. Romijn, “Hydrogen silsesquioxane/Novolak bilayer resist for high aspect ratio nanoscale electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3419–3423 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R.

D. Stearns, R. Rosen, S. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Salmassi, F.

P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, E. Spiller, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates,” Opt. Commun. 229, 109–116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Liddle, F. Salmassi, P. Naulleau, E. Gullikson, “Nanoscale topography control for the fabrication of advanced diffractive optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2980–2984 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sperry, V.

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, V. Sperry, E. Gullikson, D. Stearns, “High performance Mo/Si multilayer coatings for EUV lithography using ion beam deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4049–4068 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, E. Spiller, “Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates,” Opt. Commun. 229, 109–116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Martienssen, E. Spiller, “Coherence and fluctuations in light beams,” Am. J. Phys. 32, 919–926 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D.

E. Spiller, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, V. Sperry, E. Gullikson, D. Stearns, “High performance Mo/Si multilayer coatings for EUV lithography using ion beam deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4049–4068 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stearns, R. Rosen, S. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R.

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D.

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tejnil, E.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Delft, F.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Definition of diffuser efficacy based on time-averaged diffraction calculations and assuming a moving diffuser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Exposure data set definition for a deterministically fabricated Gaussian diffuser. The diffuser is defined as a grid of square cells in which the height of each cell is assigned a random number from a Gaussian distribution limited to values that fall within ±3σ from the mean.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Demonstration of the relevance of proximity effects in small length scale direct gray-scale patterning of a resist. (a) AFM image of a patterned large 3-μm wedge in the resist. Large features are relatively unaffected by proximity effects, enabling the target 35-nm modulation to be achieved. (b) Prescription for an alternating polarity 100-nm-wide wedge pattern and (c) AFM image of the corresponding patterned structure in a resist that suffers an approximately 10% loss in modulation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated position-dependent peak-to-valley modulation from the AFM image in Fig. 3(c). Each point in the plot corresponds to a separate row in the patterned structure of Fig. 3(c). The high-modulation edges in the plot correspond to the top and bottom rows of the structure in Fig. 3(c), and the low-modulation center of the plot corresponds to the central row in the patterned structure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representative (a) exposure pattern and (b) AFM image of the print for modulation calibration accounting for proximity effects. The exposure pattern is a checkerboard that comprises 100-nm squares at two different doses. The complete calibration is based on a series of exposures, each with a different relative dose between the two levels. The process is repeated for a series of different nominal dose values.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) AFM image of a multilayer coated HSQ diffuser and (b) normalized histogram of height distributions (approximation of the probability-density function).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Line scan through the center of the measured far-field EUV diffraction pattern from the e-beam fabricated diffuser. No significant specular peak can be observed. The measured total efficiency of the diffuser is 20.6%, and the efficiency within the target 100-nm correlation length (0.059-rad collection angle) is 10.3%.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Line scan through the center of the measured far-field EUV diffraction pattern from the sputtered chrome diffuser. No significant specular peak can be observed. The measured total efficiency of the diffuser is 14.9%, and the efficiency within the target 100-nm correlation length (0.059-rad collection angle) is 2.2%.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mo Transmission Diffuser Properties as a Function of Modulation Depth

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mo Transmission Diffuser Case Study

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