Abstract

The presence of highly aspheric wave fronts in an interferometer leads to a need for system calibration, and this calibration requirement affects the design of the interferometer. Dynamic range, vignetting, and the ability to characterize components all must be considered during the design stages. The interferometer must be designed with respect to wave-front propagation as opposed to reference sphere aberrations. A nonnull interferometer for measurement of aspheric transmitted wave fronts has been developed, and the design process is described. Transmitted wave fronts for a conformal window and a progressive-addition bifocal lens have been measured to demonstrate the applicability of the system to aspheric testing.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. E. Greivenkamp, “Sub-Nyquist interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5245–5258 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. J. Palum, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Sub-Nyquist interferometry: results and implementation issues,” in Laser Interferometry: Quantitative Analysis of Interferograms III, R. J. Pryputniewcz, ed., Proc. SPIE1162, 378–388 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. E. Greivenkamp, A. E. Lowman, R. J. Palum, “Sub-Nyquist interferometry: implementation and measurement capability,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2962–2969 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. E. Lowman, “Calibration of a non-null interferometer for aspheric testing,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1995).
  5. A. E. Lowman, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Interferometer induced wavefront errors when testing in a non-null configuration,” in Interferometry: Techniques and Analysis II, R. J. Pryputniewcz, G. M. Brown, W. P. O. Jueptner, eds., Proc. SPIE2004, 173–181 (1993).
  6. R. O. Gappinger, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Iterative reverse optimization procedure for calibration of aspheric wave-front measurements on a nonnull interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5152–5161 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. E. Lowman, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Modeling an interferometer for non-null testing of aspheres,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, V. J. Doherty, H. P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE2536, 139–147 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Malacara, “Twyman–Green interferometer,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 74–75.
  9. R. Gappinger, G. A. Williby, J. E. Greivenkamp, J. M. Sasian, “Design of afocal components for optical metrology systems,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, Vol. 42 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 115–117.
  10. R. O. Gappinger, J. E. Greivenkamp, C. Borman, “High modulation camera for use with a non-null interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 43, 289–296 (2004).
  11. R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978).
  12. R. R. Shannon, “Overview of conformal optics,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials VI, R. W. Tustison, ed., Proc. SPIE3705, 180–188 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. H. Marushin, J. M. Sasian, T. Y. Lin, B. Robinson, J. Ashkenazi, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Demonstration of a conformal window imaging system: design, fabrication and testing,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials VII, R. W. Tustison, ed., Proc. SPIE4375, 154–159 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. F. Long, “A matrix formalism for decentration problems,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 53, 27–33 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

R. O. Gappinger, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Iterative reverse optimization procedure for calibration of aspheric wave-front measurements on a nonnull interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5152–5161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Gappinger, J. E. Greivenkamp, C. Borman, “High modulation camera for use with a non-null interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 43, 289–296 (2004).

1996

J. E. Greivenkamp, A. E. Lowman, R. J. Palum, “Sub-Nyquist interferometry: implementation and measurement capability,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2962–2969 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987

1976

W. F. Long, “A matrix formalism for decentration problems,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 53, 27–33 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkenazi, J.

P. H. Marushin, J. M. Sasian, T. Y. Lin, B. Robinson, J. Ashkenazi, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Demonstration of a conformal window imaging system: design, fabrication and testing,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials VII, R. W. Tustison, ed., Proc. SPIE4375, 154–159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Borman, C.

R. O. Gappinger, J. E. Greivenkamp, C. Borman, “High modulation camera for use with a non-null interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 43, 289–296 (2004).

Gappinger, R.

R. Gappinger, G. A. Williby, J. E. Greivenkamp, J. M. Sasian, “Design of afocal components for optical metrology systems,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, Vol. 42 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 115–117.

Gappinger, R. O.

R. O. Gappinger, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Iterative reverse optimization procedure for calibration of aspheric wave-front measurements on a nonnull interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5152–5161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Gappinger, J. E. Greivenkamp, C. Borman, “High modulation camera for use with a non-null interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 43, 289–296 (2004).

Greivenkamp, J. E.

R. O. Gappinger, J. E. Greivenkamp, C. Borman, “High modulation camera for use with a non-null interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 43, 289–296 (2004).

R. O. Gappinger, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Iterative reverse optimization procedure for calibration of aspheric wave-front measurements on a nonnull interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5152–5161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Greivenkamp, A. E. Lowman, R. J. Palum, “Sub-Nyquist interferometry: implementation and measurement capability,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2962–2969 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Greivenkamp, “Sub-Nyquist interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5245–5258 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Palum, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Sub-Nyquist interferometry: results and implementation issues,” in Laser Interferometry: Quantitative Analysis of Interferograms III, R. J. Pryputniewcz, ed., Proc. SPIE1162, 378–388 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Interferometer induced wavefront errors when testing in a non-null configuration,” in Interferometry: Techniques and Analysis II, R. J. Pryputniewcz, G. M. Brown, W. P. O. Jueptner, eds., Proc. SPIE2004, 173–181 (1993).

A. E. Lowman, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Modeling an interferometer for non-null testing of aspheres,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, V. J. Doherty, H. P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE2536, 139–147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Gappinger, G. A. Williby, J. E. Greivenkamp, J. M. Sasian, “Design of afocal components for optical metrology systems,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, Vol. 42 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 115–117.

P. H. Marushin, J. M. Sasian, T. Y. Lin, B. Robinson, J. Ashkenazi, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Demonstration of a conformal window imaging system: design, fabrication and testing,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials VII, R. W. Tustison, ed., Proc. SPIE4375, 154–159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kingslake, R.

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978).

Lin, T. Y.

P. H. Marushin, J. M. Sasian, T. Y. Lin, B. Robinson, J. Ashkenazi, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Demonstration of a conformal window imaging system: design, fabrication and testing,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials VII, R. W. Tustison, ed., Proc. SPIE4375, 154–159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Long, W. F.

W. F. Long, “A matrix formalism for decentration problems,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 53, 27–33 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowman, A. E.

J. E. Greivenkamp, A. E. Lowman, R. J. Palum, “Sub-Nyquist interferometry: implementation and measurement capability,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2962–2969 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, “Calibration of a non-null interferometer for aspheric testing,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1995).

A. E. Lowman, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Interferometer induced wavefront errors when testing in a non-null configuration,” in Interferometry: Techniques and Analysis II, R. J. Pryputniewcz, G. M. Brown, W. P. O. Jueptner, eds., Proc. SPIE2004, 173–181 (1993).

A. E. Lowman, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Modeling an interferometer for non-null testing of aspheres,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, V. J. Doherty, H. P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE2536, 139–147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, “Twyman–Green interferometer,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 74–75.

Marushin, P. H.

P. H. Marushin, J. M. Sasian, T. Y. Lin, B. Robinson, J. Ashkenazi, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Demonstration of a conformal window imaging system: design, fabrication and testing,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials VII, R. W. Tustison, ed., Proc. SPIE4375, 154–159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Palum, R. J.

J. E. Greivenkamp, A. E. Lowman, R. J. Palum, “Sub-Nyquist interferometry: implementation and measurement capability,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2962–2969 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Palum, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Sub-Nyquist interferometry: results and implementation issues,” in Laser Interferometry: Quantitative Analysis of Interferograms III, R. J. Pryputniewcz, ed., Proc. SPIE1162, 378–388 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B.

P. H. Marushin, J. M. Sasian, T. Y. Lin, B. Robinson, J. Ashkenazi, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Demonstration of a conformal window imaging system: design, fabrication and testing,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials VII, R. W. Tustison, ed., Proc. SPIE4375, 154–159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

P. H. Marushin, J. M. Sasian, T. Y. Lin, B. Robinson, J. Ashkenazi, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Demonstration of a conformal window imaging system: design, fabrication and testing,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials VII, R. W. Tustison, ed., Proc. SPIE4375, 154–159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Gappinger, G. A. Williby, J. E. Greivenkamp, J. M. Sasian, “Design of afocal components for optical metrology systems,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, Vol. 42 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 115–117.

Shannon, R. R.

R. R. Shannon, “Overview of conformal optics,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials VI, R. W. Tustison, ed., Proc. SPIE3705, 180–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Williby, G. A.

R. Gappinger, G. A. Williby, J. E. Greivenkamp, J. M. Sasian, “Design of afocal components for optical metrology systems,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, Vol. 42 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 115–117.

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt.

W. F. Long, “A matrix formalism for decentration problems,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 53, 27–33 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Eng.

J. E. Greivenkamp, A. E. Lowman, R. J. Palum, “Sub-Nyquist interferometry: implementation and measurement capability,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2962–2969 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Gappinger, J. E. Greivenkamp, C. Borman, “High modulation camera for use with a non-null interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 43, 289–296 (2004).

Other

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978).

R. R. Shannon, “Overview of conformal optics,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials VI, R. W. Tustison, ed., Proc. SPIE3705, 180–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Marushin, J. M. Sasian, T. Y. Lin, B. Robinson, J. Ashkenazi, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Demonstration of a conformal window imaging system: design, fabrication and testing,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials VII, R. W. Tustison, ed., Proc. SPIE4375, 154–159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, “Calibration of a non-null interferometer for aspheric testing,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1995).

A. E. Lowman, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Interferometer induced wavefront errors when testing in a non-null configuration,” in Interferometry: Techniques and Analysis II, R. J. Pryputniewcz, G. M. Brown, W. P. O. Jueptner, eds., Proc. SPIE2004, 173–181 (1993).

R. J. Palum, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Sub-Nyquist interferometry: results and implementation issues,” in Laser Interferometry: Quantitative Analysis of Interferograms III, R. J. Pryputniewcz, ed., Proc. SPIE1162, 378–388 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Modeling an interferometer for non-null testing of aspheres,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, V. J. Doherty, H. P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE2536, 139–147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Malacara, “Twyman–Green interferometer,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 74–75.

R. Gappinger, G. A. Williby, J. E. Greivenkamp, J. M. Sasian, “Design of afocal components for optical metrology systems,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, Vol. 42 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 115–117.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mach–Zehnder interferometer layout for a 150-mm-aperture system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Physical layout of the SNI.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured fringes as seen through the toroidal conformal window. Note the aliased fringes appearing at the edges of the part.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured wave front for the toroidal conformal window.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometric layout of a progressive addition bifocal lens.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fringes through the progressive addition bifocal lens. The additional bulls-eye patterns are due to aliasing of the aspheric fringe pattern with the detector array.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wave front measured for the progressive-spectacle lens.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reverse optimized wave front for the progressive-spectacle lens.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Power maps for the progressive-addition lens.

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ξMAX=1λf/#W,

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