We propose a new design method for periodic diffraction gratings to be fabricated with direct-writing electron-beam lithography. When the grating has a small period, the proximity effect of electron scattering restricts the grating profile after developing. Our design method optimizes the electron-dose profile and grating profile simultaneously to obtain the desired diffraction efficiency under the restriction of the proximity effect. The optimization is made with rigorous electromagnetic grating analysis and the resist development simulator. When we designed the diffraction grating with a period of 1.0 µm to obtain the highest efficiency of the first-order diffracted light of a 633-nm wavelength, the calculated grating profile was really different from the profile optimized only with rigorous electromagnetic grating analysis. Moreover, the diffraction grating of the electron-beam resist was fabricated according to the simulation result. The estimated diffraction efficiency was 82%, and the measured efficiency was 70%.
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