Abstract

Imaging through scattering materials is an important research area that is generally limited to medical diagnostic applications. Published techniques typically use a method of time- or coherence-gating of ballistic photons that separates these early photons in order to acquire an image without the large background created by the later-arriving diffuse light. Because of the limited number of ballistic photons and the typically low signal-to-noise ratios of these schemes, a large number of averages or scans is necessary. If the desired image is changing rapidly, however, single images of this transient are required. We have therefore evaluated a two-dimensional, single-shot method that can be used for imaging rapid transients in scattering environments.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. H. Lefebvre, Atomization and Sprays, S. Tamburrino, M. Prescott, eds. (Hemisphere, New York, 1989).
  2. S. P. Lin, R. D. Reitz, “Drop and spray formation from a liquid jet,” Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 30, 85–105 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. M. Faeth, “Spray combustion phenomena,” in Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 1593–1612.
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gülder, “Views on the structure of transient diesel sprays,” Atomization Sprays 10, 355–386 (2000).
  5. A. Sappey, “Optical imaging through turbid media with a degenerate four wave mixing correlation time gate,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8346–8354 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium,” Proc. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. HTD-321, 585–588 (1995).
  7. Y. Xiang, T. Raphan, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Image-quality enhancement of objects in turbid media by use of a combined computational-photonics approach,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1045–1053 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. R. Alfano, ed., Semiconductors Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1984), pp. 409–438.
  10. R. Sala, “Optical Kerr effect induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1036–1047 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “The optical Kerr effect in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2170–2187 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Righini, “Ultrafast optical Kerr effect in liquids and solids,” Science 262, 1386–1390 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. E. Parker, L. R. Rainaldi, W. T. Rawlins, “A comparative study of room-temperature and combusting fuel sprays near the injector tip using infrared laser diagnostics,” Atomization Sprays 8, 565–600 (1998).
  14. S. Pålsson, “Methods, instrumentation and mechanisms for optical characterization of tissue and treatment of malignant tumors,” Ph.D. dissertation (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 2003).
  15. T. Furtak, M. Klein, Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986).
  16. Q. Z. Wang, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Fourier spatial filter acts as a temporal gate for light propagating through a turbid medium,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1498–1450 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. A. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging in the liquid core of a spray,” presented at the Ninth Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis Topical Meeting, Annapolis, Md., 9–11 Feb. 2004.
  18. G. M. Faeth, L. P. Hsiang, P. K. Wu, “Structure and breakup properties of sprays,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21 (Supplement), 99–127 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2000

G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gülder, “Views on the structure of transient diesel sprays,” Atomization Sprays 10, 355–386 (2000).

1998

S. P. Lin, R. D. Reitz, “Drop and spray formation from a liquid jet,” Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 30, 85–105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Parker, L. R. Rainaldi, W. T. Rawlins, “A comparative study of room-temperature and combusting fuel sprays near the injector tip using infrared laser diagnostics,” Atomization Sprays 8, 565–600 (1998).

1997

1995

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium,” Proc. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. HTD-321, 585–588 (1995).

Q. Z. Wang, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Fourier spatial filter acts as a temporal gate for light propagating through a turbid medium,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1498–1450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Faeth, L. P. Hsiang, P. K. Wu, “Structure and breakup properties of sprays,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21 (Supplement), 99–127 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

R. Righini, “Ultrafast optical Kerr effect in liquids and solids,” Science 262, 1386–1390 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “The optical Kerr effect in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2170–2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

R. Sala, “Optical Kerr effect induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1036–1047 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Y. Xiang, T. Raphan, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Image-quality enhancement of objects in turbid media by use of a combined computational-photonics approach,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1045–1053 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium,” Proc. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. HTD-321, 585–588 (1995).

Q. Z. Wang, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Fourier spatial filter acts as a temporal gate for light propagating through a turbid medium,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1498–1450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “The optical Kerr effect in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2170–2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Breisacher, K.

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium,” Proc. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. HTD-321, 585–588 (1995).

Faeth, G. M.

G. M. Faeth, L. P. Hsiang, P. K. Wu, “Structure and breakup properties of sprays,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21 (Supplement), 99–127 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Faeth, “Spray combustion phenomena,” in Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 1593–1612.
[CrossRef]

Furtak, T.

T. Furtak, M. Klein, Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Galland, P. A.

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium,” Proc. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. HTD-321, 585–588 (1995).

Gülder, O. L.

G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gülder, “Views on the structure of transient diesel sprays,” Atomization Sprays 10, 355–386 (2000).

Hall, T.

M. A. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging in the liquid core of a spray,” presented at the Ninth Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis Topical Meeting, Annapolis, Md., 9–11 Feb. 2004.

Ho, P. P.

Y. Xiang, T. Raphan, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Image-quality enhancement of objects in turbid media by use of a combined computational-photonics approach,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1045–1053 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium,” Proc. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. HTD-321, 585–588 (1995).

Q. Z. Wang, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Fourier spatial filter acts as a temporal gate for light propagating through a turbid medium,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1498–1450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “The optical Kerr effect in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2170–2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hsiang, L. P.

G. M. Faeth, L. P. Hsiang, P. K. Wu, “Structure and breakup properties of sprays,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21 (Supplement), 99–127 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M.

T. Furtak, M. Klein, Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Lefebvre, A. H.

A. H. Lefebvre, Atomization and Sprays, S. Tamburrino, M. Prescott, eds. (Hemisphere, New York, 1989).

Liang, X.

Linne, M. A.

M. A. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging in the liquid core of a spray,” presented at the Ninth Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis Topical Meeting, Annapolis, Md., 9–11 Feb. 2004.

Liou, L.

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium,” Proc. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. HTD-321, 585–588 (1995).

Liu, F.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lin, S.

S. P. Lin, R. D. Reitz, “Drop and spray formation from a liquid jet,” Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 30, 85–105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paciaroni, M.

M. A. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging in the liquid core of a spray,” presented at the Ninth Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis Topical Meeting, Annapolis, Md., 9–11 Feb. 2004.

Pålsson, S.

S. Pålsson, “Methods, instrumentation and mechanisms for optical characterization of tissue and treatment of malignant tumors,” Ph.D. dissertation (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 2003).

Parker, T.

M. A. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging in the liquid core of a spray,” presented at the Ninth Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis Topical Meeting, Annapolis, Md., 9–11 Feb. 2004.

Parker, T. E.

T. E. Parker, L. R. Rainaldi, W. T. Rawlins, “A comparative study of room-temperature and combusting fuel sprays near the injector tip using infrared laser diagnostics,” Atomization Sprays 8, 565–600 (1998).

Rainaldi, L. R.

T. E. Parker, L. R. Rainaldi, W. T. Rawlins, “A comparative study of room-temperature and combusting fuel sprays near the injector tip using infrared laser diagnostics,” Atomization Sprays 8, 565–600 (1998).

Raphan, T.

Rawlins, W. T.

T. E. Parker, L. R. Rainaldi, W. T. Rawlins, “A comparative study of room-temperature and combusting fuel sprays near the injector tip using infrared laser diagnostics,” Atomization Sprays 8, 565–600 (1998).

Reitz, R. D.

S. P. Lin, R. D. Reitz, “Drop and spray formation from a liquid jet,” Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 30, 85–105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Righini, R.

R. Righini, “Ultrafast optical Kerr effect in liquids and solids,” Science 262, 1386–1390 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sala, R.

R. Sala, “Optical Kerr effect induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1036–1047 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sappey, A.

Smallwood, G. J.

G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gülder, “Views on the structure of transient diesel sprays,” Atomization Sprays 10, 355–386 (2000).

Wang, L.

Y. Xiang, T. Raphan, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Image-quality enhancement of objects in turbid media by use of a combined computational-photonics approach,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1045–1053 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium,” Proc. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. HTD-321, 585–588 (1995).

Q. Z. Wang, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Fourier spatial filter acts as a temporal gate for light propagating through a turbid medium,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1498–1450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. Z.

Wu, P. K.

G. M. Faeth, L. P. Hsiang, P. K. Wu, “Structure and breakup properties of sprays,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21 (Supplement), 99–127 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, Y.

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics

S. P. Lin, R. D. Reitz, “Drop and spray formation from a liquid jet,” Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 30, 85–105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Atomization Sprays

G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gülder, “Views on the structure of transient diesel sprays,” Atomization Sprays 10, 355–386 (2000).

T. E. Parker, L. R. Rainaldi, W. T. Rawlins, “A comparative study of room-temperature and combusting fuel sprays near the injector tip using infrared laser diagnostics,” Atomization Sprays 8, 565–600 (1998).

Int. J. Multiphase Flow

G. M. Faeth, L. P. Hsiang, P. K. Wu, “Structure and breakup properties of sprays,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21 (Supplement), 99–127 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

R. Sala, “Optical Kerr effect induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1036–1047 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “The optical Kerr effect in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2170–2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium,” Proc. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. HTD-321, 585–588 (1995).

Science

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Righini, “Ultrafast optical Kerr effect in liquids and solids,” Science 262, 1386–1390 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. Pålsson, “Methods, instrumentation and mechanisms for optical characterization of tissue and treatment of malignant tumors,” Ph.D. dissertation (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 2003).

T. Furtak, M. Klein, Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986).

M. A. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging in the liquid core of a spray,” presented at the Ninth Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis Topical Meeting, Annapolis, Md., 9–11 Feb. 2004.

R. R. Alfano, ed., Semiconductors Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1984), pp. 409–438.

A. H. Lefebvre, Atomization and Sprays, S. Tamburrino, M. Prescott, eds. (Hemisphere, New York, 1989).

G. M. Faeth, “Spray combustion phenomena,” in Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 1593–1612.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OKE high-speed shutter experimental configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OKE time gate is limited by the molecular relaxation time of the CS2 molecule to ∼1.8 ps. This measurement was performed with the first harmonic of the laser system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image of a 6.3-lp/mm section of the resolution test chart through an aqueous solution of polystyrene spheres (μext = 10 cm-1), with degenerate OKE switching and a 400-μm-pinhole spatial filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MTF and PSF of the system measured with no OKE gating, no spatial filtering, and various volume fractions of PS spheres.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

MTF and PSF of the system measured with no OKE gating, spatial filtering with a 200-μm pinhole, and various volume fractions of PS spheres.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MTF and PSF of the system measured with no OKE gating, spatial filtering with a 400-μm pinhole, and various volume fractions of PS spheres.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

MTF and PSF of the system measured with second-harmonic OKE gating, no spatial filtering, and various volume fractions of PS spheres.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

MTF and PSF of the system measured with second-harmonic OKE gating, spatial filtering with a 400-μm pinhole, and various volume fractions of PS spheres.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

MTF and PSF of the system measured with first-harmonic OKE gating, no spatial filtering, and various volume fractions of PS spheres.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

MTF and PSF of the system measured with first-harmonic OKE gating, spatial filtering with a 200-μm pinhole, and various volume fractions of PS spheres.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

MTF and PSF of the system measured with first-harmonic OKE gating, spatial filtering with a 400-μm pinhole, and various volume fractions of PS spheres.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Ballistic image of soap bubbles emanating from a metal syringe with its 0.5-mm tip immersed in a cuvette of soapy solution.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Image of a water jet taken 25 mm from the jet nozzle with first-harmonic OKE gating and a 400-μm spatial filter. The approximate extinction coefficient of the spray at this location is 5.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δn=n2eE2t+n2oE102τLτoπerf2tτL-τL2τo×exp-τL2τo-τL24τo2,
Δϕt=2π/λLΔn.
I=I0 sin2Δϕ/2sin22θ,
I/I0=exp-μextL,
μext=Nσabs+σscatt,
M=Imax-IminImax+Imin,
MTFu=MiuMou,

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