Abstract

We report on the analysis and prototype characterization of a dual-electrode electro-optic modulator that can generate both amplitude and phase modulations with a selectable relative phase, termed a quadrature variable modulator (QVM). All modulation states can be reached by tuning only the electrical inputs, facilitating real-time tuning, and the device has shown good suppression and stability properties. A mathematical analysis is presented, including the development of a geometric-phase representation for modulation. The experimental characterization of the device shows that relative suppressions of 38, 39, and 30 dB for phase, single sideband, and carrier-suppressed modulations, respectively, can be obtained as well as that the device is well behaved when scanning continuously through the parameter space of modulations. The QVM is compared with existing optical configurations that can produce amplitude and phase-modulation combinations in the context of applications such as the tuning of lock points in optical-locking schemes, single-sideband applications, modulation fast-switching applications, and applications requiring combined modulations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Davies, J. Conradi, “Hybrid modulator structures for subcarrier and harmonic subcarrier optical single sideband,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 600–602 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. See, for example, JDS Uniphase, www.jdsu.com .
  3. G. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber-radio systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 74–75 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. G. Stokes, Mathematical and Physical Papers, 5 vols. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1880–1985).
  5. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Schnupp, conference presentation at the European Collaboration Meeting on Interferometric Detection of Gravitational Waves, Sorrento, Italy, 1988.
  7. LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Advanced LIGO systems design,” LIGO Tech. Note T010075, P. Fritschel, ed. (LIGO Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 2001), http://antares.ligo.caltech.edu/dcc/default.htf .
  8. J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. A. Strain, J. Hough, “Experimental demonstration of the use of a Fabry-Perot cavity as a mirror of variable reflectivity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 799–802 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. de Vine, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, “Experimental demonstration of variable reflectivity signal recycling for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1507–1509 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Benito, “Simple optical single-sideband modulator for fibre-radio applications,” Electron. Lett. 39, 97–99 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Yonenaga, N. Takachio, “A fiber chromatic dispersion compensation technique with an optical SSB transmission in optical homodyne detection systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 949–951 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Loayssa, D. Benito, M. J. Garde, “Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 869–971 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Single sideband modulation performance of a LiNbO3 integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364–366 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, Ph. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature (London) 421, 238–241 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, B. C. Buchler, R. Schnabel, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor, T. Symul, P. K. Lam, “Experimental investigation of continuous-variable quantum teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 32302-1-4 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik, “Unconditional quantum teleportation,” Science 282, 706–709 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Benito, “Simple optical single-sideband modulator for fibre-radio applications,” Electron. Lett. 39, 97–99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, Ph. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature (London) 421, 238–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, B. C. Buchler, R. Schnabel, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor, T. Symul, P. K. Lam, “Experimental investigation of continuous-variable quantum teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 32302-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, M. J. Garde, “Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 869–971 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Single sideband modulation performance of a LiNbO3 integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364–366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. Davies, J. Conradi, “Hybrid modulator structures for subcarrier and harmonic subcarrier optical single sideband,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 600–602 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik, “Unconditional quantum teleportation,” Science 282, 706–709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

G. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber-radio systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 74–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

K. A. Strain, J. Hough, “Experimental demonstration of the use of a Fabry-Perot cavity as a mirror of variable reflectivity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 799–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Yonenaga, N. Takachio, “A fiber chromatic dispersion compensation technique with an optical SSB transmission in optical homodyne detection systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 949–951 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, Z.

G. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber-radio systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 74–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Assche, G. V.

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, Ph. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature (London) 421, 238–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, H.-A.

W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, B. C. Buchler, R. Schnabel, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor, T. Symul, P. K. Lam, “Experimental investigation of continuous-variable quantum teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 32302-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benito, D.

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Benito, “Simple optical single-sideband modulator for fibre-radio applications,” Electron. Lett. 39, 97–99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, M. J. Garde, “Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 869–971 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, W. P.

W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, B. C. Buchler, R. Schnabel, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor, T. Symul, P. K. Lam, “Experimental investigation of continuous-variable quantum teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 32302-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Braunstein, S. L.

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik, “Unconditional quantum teleportation,” Science 282, 706–709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brouri, R.

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, Ph. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature (London) 421, 238–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buchler, B. C.

W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, B. C. Buchler, R. Schnabel, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor, T. Symul, P. K. Lam, “Experimental investigation of continuous-variable quantum teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 32302-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cerf, N. J.

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, Ph. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature (London) 421, 238–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. M.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Conradi, J.

B. Davies, J. Conradi, “Hybrid modulator structures for subcarrier and harmonic subcarrier optical single sideband,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 600–602 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davies, B.

B. Davies, J. Conradi, “Hybrid modulator structures for subcarrier and harmonic subcarrier optical single sideband,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 600–602 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Vine, G.

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, C. A.

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik, “Unconditional quantum teleportation,” Science 282, 706–709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furusawa, A.

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik, “Unconditional quantum teleportation,” Science 282, 706–709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garde, M. J.

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, M. J. Garde, “Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 869–971 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grangier, Ph.

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, Ph. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature (London) 421, 238–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grosshans, F.

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, Ph. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature (London) 421, 238–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

K. A. Strain, J. Hough, “Experimental demonstration of the use of a Fabry-Perot cavity as a mirror of variable reflectivity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 799–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Izutsu, M.

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Single sideband modulation performance of a LiNbO3 integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364–366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Single sideband modulation performance of a LiNbO3 integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364–366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik, “Unconditional quantum teleportation,” Science 282, 706–709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kubodera, K.

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Single sideband modulation performance of a LiNbO3 integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364–366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P. K.

W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, B. C. Buchler, R. Schnabel, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor, T. Symul, P. K. Lam, “Experimental investigation of continuous-variable quantum teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 32302-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C.

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Benito, “Simple optical single-sideband modulator for fibre-radio applications,” Electron. Lett. 39, 97–99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loayssa, A.

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Benito, “Simple optical single-sideband modulator for fibre-radio applications,” Electron. Lett. 39, 97–99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, M. J. Garde, “Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 869–971 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. E.

Mitsugi, N.

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Single sideband modulation performance of a LiNbO3 integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364–366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, J.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, P. G.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nirmalathas, A.

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Benito, “Simple optical single-sideband modulator for fibre-radio applications,” Electron. Lett. 39, 97–99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

G. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber-radio systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 74–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, S.

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Single sideband modulation performance of a LiNbO3 integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364–366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Polzik, E. S.

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik, “Unconditional quantum teleportation,” Science 282, 706–709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralph, T. C.

W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, B. C. Buchler, R. Schnabel, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor, T. Symul, P. K. Lam, “Experimental investigation of continuous-variable quantum teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 32302-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rudiger, A.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Saitou, T.

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Single sideband modulation performance of a LiNbO3 integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364–366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, R.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, R.

W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, B. C. Buchler, R. Schnabel, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor, T. Symul, P. K. Lam, “Experimental investigation of continuous-variable quantum teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 32302-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schnupp, L.

L. Schnupp, conference presentation at the European Collaboration Meeting on Interferometric Detection of Gravitational Waves, Sorrento, Italy, 1988.

Shaddock, D. A.

Shimotsu, S.

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Single sideband modulation performance of a LiNbO3 integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364–366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

G. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber-radio systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 74–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, J. L.

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik, “Unconditional quantum teleportation,” Science 282, 706–709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stokes, G. G.

G. G. Stokes, Mathematical and Physical Papers, 5 vols. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1880–1985).

Strain, K. A.

K. A. Strain, J. Hough, “Experimental demonstration of the use of a Fabry-Perot cavity as a mirror of variable reflectivity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 799–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Symul, T.

W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, B. C. Buchler, R. Schnabel, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor, T. Symul, P. K. Lam, “Experimental investigation of continuous-variable quantum teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 32302-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takachio, N.

K. Yonenaga, N. Takachio, “A fiber chromatic dispersion compensation technique with an optical SSB transmission in optical homodyne detection systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 949–951 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Treps, N.

W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, B. C. Buchler, R. Schnabel, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor, T. Symul, P. K. Lam, “Experimental investigation of continuous-variable quantum teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 32302-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, J.

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, Ph. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature (London) 421, 238–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, W.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yonenaga, K.

K. Yonenaga, N. Takachio, “A fiber chromatic dispersion compensation technique with an optical SSB transmission in optical homodyne detection systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 949–951 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

G. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber-radio systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 74–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Benito, “Simple optical single-sideband modulator for fibre-radio applications,” Electron. Lett. 39, 97–99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

K. Yonenaga, N. Takachio, “A fiber chromatic dispersion compensation technique with an optical SSB transmission in optical homodyne detection systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 949–951 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, M. J. Garde, “Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 869–971 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Single sideband modulation performance of a LiNbO3 integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364–366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Davies, J. Conradi, “Hybrid modulator structures for subcarrier and harmonic subcarrier optical single sideband,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 600–602 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, Ph. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature (London) 421, 238–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, B. C. Buchler, R. Schnabel, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor, T. Symul, P. K. Lam, “Experimental investigation of continuous-variable quantum teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 32302-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. A. Strain, J. Hough, “Experimental demonstration of the use of a Fabry-Perot cavity as a mirror of variable reflectivity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 799–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik, “Unconditional quantum teleportation,” Science 282, 706–709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

L. Schnupp, conference presentation at the European Collaboration Meeting on Interferometric Detection of Gravitational Waves, Sorrento, Italy, 1988.

LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Advanced LIGO systems design,” LIGO Tech. Note T010075, P. Fritschel, ed. (LIGO Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 2001), http://antares.ligo.caltech.edu/dcc/default.htf .

See, for example, JDS Uniphase, www.jdsu.com .

G. G. Stokes, Mathematical and Physical Papers, 5 vols. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1880–1985).

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