Abstract

The amplified spontaneous emission and gain characteristics of various fluorescent dyes, 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-6(2-(2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-1H,5H-benzo[ij] quinolizin-9-1)ethenyl)-4H-pyran-4-ylidene) propanedinitrile (DCJTB) and 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethyl-aminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), doped in polystyrene (PS) matrices were studied and compared. It was found that DCJTB has a larger net gain, 40.72 cm-1, a lower loss, 2.49 cm-1, and a lower threshold, 0.16 (mJ/pulse)/cm2, than DCM, which has a net gain of 11.95 cm-1, a loss of 9.25 cm-1, and a threshold of 4(mJ/pulse)/cm2. The improvement of performance in DCJTB PS films is attributed to the larger free volume of DCJTB caused by the introduction of steric spacer groups into the DCJTB molecule.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. G. Kozlo, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, R. S. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Forster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096–4108 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Yoshida, Y. Nishihara, R. Ootake, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, H. K. Kim, N. S. Baek, S. K. Choi, “Spectral narrowing of photoluminescence and improvement of electroluminescent properties in conducting polymers with Si atoms in main chains,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6061–6065 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, W. Sakai, “Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533–2535 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, S. Mashiko, “Laser emission from high-gain media of dye-doped dendrimer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 7–9 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14, 746–749 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1536–1538 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, D. W. Samuel, “Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 165107 (2003).
  9. M. D. McGehee, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655–1668 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. U. Scherf, S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, R. F. Mahrt, “Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143–154 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Kobayashi, W. J. Blau, H. Iillmann, H. H. Hörhod, “Light amplification and lasing in a stilbenoid compound-doped glass-clad polymer optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 664–672 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, “Cooperative and stimulated emission in poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) thin films and solutions,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 9141–9147 (1998).
  14. J. Feng, F. Li, W. Gao, G. Cheng, W. Xie, S. Li, “Improvement of efficiency and color purity utilizing two-step energy transfer for red organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2935–2937 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (3)

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, W. Sakai, “Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533–2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, D. W. Samuel, “Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 165107 (2003).

T. Kobayashi, W. J. Blau, H. Iillmann, H. H. Hörhod, “Light amplification and lasing in a stilbenoid compound-doped glass-clad polymer optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 664–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

J. Feng, F. Li, W. Gao, G. Cheng, W. Xie, S. Li, “Improvement of efficiency and color purity utilizing two-step energy transfer for red organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2935–2937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, S. Mashiko, “Laser emission from high-gain media of dye-doped dendrimer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 7–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14, 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Y. Yoshida, Y. Nishihara, R. Ootake, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, H. K. Kim, N. S. Baek, S. K. Choi, “Spectral narrowing of photoluminescence and improvement of electroluminescent properties in conducting polymers with Si atoms in main chains,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6061–6065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Scherf, S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, R. F. Mahrt, “Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. D. McGehee, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

H. G. Kozlo, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, R. S. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Forster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096–4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, “Cooperative and stimulated emission in poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) thin films and solutions,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 9141–9147 (1998).

1996 (1)

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andrew, P.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, D. W. Samuel, “Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 165107 (2003).

Baek, N. S.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Nishihara, R. Ootake, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, H. K. Kim, N. S. Baek, S. K. Choi, “Spectral narrowing of photoluminescence and improvement of electroluminescent properties in conducting polymers with Si atoms in main chains,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6061–6065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M.

H. G. Kozlo, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, R. S. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Forster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096–4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, D. W. Samuel, “Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 165107 (2003).

Blau, W. J.

T. Kobayashi, W. J. Blau, H. Iillmann, H. H. Hörhod, “Light amplification and lasing in a stilbenoid compound-doped glass-clad polymer optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 664–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

H. G. Kozlo, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, R. S. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Forster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096–4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

H. G. Kozlo, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, R. S. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Forster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096–4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, G.

J. Feng, F. Li, W. Gao, G. Cheng, W. Xie, S. Li, “Improvement of efficiency and color purity utilizing two-step energy transfer for red organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2935–2937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. K.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Nishihara, R. Ootake, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, H. K. Kim, N. S. Baek, S. K. Choi, “Spectral narrowing of photoluminescence and improvement of electroluminescent properties in conducting polymers with Si atoms in main chains,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6061–6065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Garcia, M. A.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

J. Feng, F. Li, W. Gao, G. Cheng, W. Xie, S. Li, “Improvement of efficiency and color purity utilizing two-step energy transfer for red organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2935–2937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Finkelmann, H.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14, 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, R. S.

H. G. Kozlo, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, R. S. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Forster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096–4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, “Cooperative and stimulated emission in poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) thin films and solutions,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 9141–9147 (1998).

Fujii, A.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Nishihara, R. Ootake, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, H. K. Kim, N. S. Baek, S. K. Choi, “Spectral narrowing of photoluminescence and improvement of electroluminescent properties in conducting polymers with Si atoms in main chains,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6061–6065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W.

J. Feng, F. Li, W. Gao, G. Cheng, W. Xie, S. Li, “Improvement of efficiency and color purity utilizing two-step energy transfer for red organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2935–2937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

M. D. McGehee, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hide, F.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hörhod, H. H.

T. Kobayashi, W. J. Blau, H. Iillmann, H. H. Hörhod, “Light amplification and lasing in a stilbenoid compound-doped glass-clad polymer optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 664–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iillmann, H.

T. Kobayashi, W. J. Blau, H. Iillmann, H. H. Hörhod, “Light amplification and lasing in a stilbenoid compound-doped glass-clad polymer optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 664–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawahira, T.

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, W. Sakai, “Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533–2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V. B.

H. G. Kozlo, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, R. S. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Forster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096–4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Nishihara, R. Ootake, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, H. K. Kim, N. S. Baek, S. K. Choi, “Spectral narrowing of photoluminescence and improvement of electroluminescent properties in conducting polymers with Si atoms in main chains,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6061–6065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14, 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi, W. J. Blau, H. Iillmann, H. H. Hörhod, “Light amplification and lasing in a stilbenoid compound-doped glass-clad polymer optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 664–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kozlo, H. G.

H. G. Kozlo, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, R. S. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Forster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096–4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

U. Scherf, S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, R. F. Mahrt, “Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

J. Feng, F. Li, W. Gao, G. Cheng, W. Xie, S. Li, “Improvement of efficiency and color purity utilizing two-step energy transfer for red organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2935–2937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

J. Feng, F. Li, W. Gao, G. Cheng, W. Xie, S. Li, “Improvement of efficiency and color purity utilizing two-step energy transfer for red organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2935–2937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mahrt, R. F.

U. Scherf, S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, R. F. Mahrt, “Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mashiko, S.

S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, S. Mashiko, “Laser emission from high-gain media of dye-doped dendrimer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 7–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

M. D. McGehee, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miller, E. K.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, Y.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Nishihara, R. Ootake, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, H. K. Kim, N. S. Baek, S. K. Choi, “Spectral narrowing of photoluminescence and improvement of electroluminescent properties in conducting polymers with Si atoms in main chains,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6061–6065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ootake, R.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Nishihara, R. Ootake, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, H. K. Kim, N. S. Baek, S. K. Choi, “Spectral narrowing of photoluminescence and improvement of electroluminescent properties in conducting polymers with Si atoms in main chains,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6061–6065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Otomo, A.

S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, S. Mashiko, “Laser emission from high-gain media of dye-doped dendrimer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 7–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Nishihara, R. Ootake, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, H. K. Kim, N. S. Baek, S. K. Choi, “Spectral narrowing of photoluminescence and improvement of electroluminescent properties in conducting polymers with Si atoms in main chains,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6061–6065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Parthasarathy, G.

H. G. Kozlo, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, R. S. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Forster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096–4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riechel, S.

U. Scherf, S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, R. F. Mahrt, “Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, W.

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, W. Sakai, “Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533–2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, D. W.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, D. W. Samuel, “Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 165107 (2003).

Scherf, U.

U. Scherf, S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, R. F. Mahrt, “Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtke, J.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14, 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B.

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stille, W.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14, 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, N.

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, W. Sakai, “Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533–2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, D. W. Samuel, “Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 165107 (2003).

Vardeny, Z. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, “Cooperative and stimulated emission in poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) thin films and solutions,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 9141–9147 (1998).

Veenstra, S.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W.

J. Feng, F. Li, W. Gao, G. Cheng, W. Xie, S. Li, “Improvement of efficiency and color purity utilizing two-step energy transfer for red organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2935–2937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, S.

S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, S. Mashiko, “Laser emission from high-gain media of dye-doped dendrimer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 7–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, Y.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Nishihara, R. Ootake, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, H. K. Kim, N. S. Baek, S. K. Choi, “Spectral narrowing of photoluminescence and improvement of electroluminescent properties in conducting polymers with Si atoms in main chains,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6061–6065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Nishihara, R. Ootake, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, H. K. Kim, N. S. Baek, S. K. Choi, “Spectral narrowing of photoluminescence and improvement of electroluminescent properties in conducting polymers with Si atoms in main chains,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6061–6065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

M. D. McGehee, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14, 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng, F. Li, W. Gao, G. Cheng, W. Xie, S. Li, “Improvement of efficiency and color purity utilizing two-step energy transfer for red organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2935–2937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, W. Sakai, “Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533–2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, S. Mashiko, “Laser emission from high-gain media of dye-doped dendrimer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 7–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 424–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1)

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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the experimental setup: SHG, second-harmonic generation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption and photoluminescence spectra of DCJTB doped in a PS film. Inset, chemical structure of DCJTB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized emission spectra collected from the edge of a 5-mm-long strip at several pump intensities. DCJTB concentration, 4%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the FWHM of the emission spectra on excitation length at several pump intensities. Dopant concentration, 4%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output emission intensity integrated over all wavelengths as a function of pump intensity (filled squares) and dependence of the FWHM on the pump intensity (open squares). DCJTB concentration, 4%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of the emission intensity at peak wavelength on the excitation length at indicated pump intensities. Dopant concentration, 4%; λpeak = 633 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity of light emitted at λ = 633 nm from the edge of a waveguide as a function of the distance between the pump stripe and the edge of the DCJTB (4%) film.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Dependence of Threshold and Gain on the Doped Concentration of Two Dye Systemsa

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