Abstract

A second-generation pulse-burst laser system for high-speed flow diagnostics is described in detail. The laser can produce a burst of high-energy pulses (of the order of hundreds of millijoules per pulse) with individual pulse durations of less than 10 ns and pulse separations as short as 1 μs. A key improvement is the addition of a phase-conjugate mirror, which effectively isolates the high-intensity, short-duration pulses from the low-intensity, long-duration background illumination. It allows for more-efficient amplification and harmonic generation, with efficiencies exceeding 50% for second-harmonic and 40% for third-harmonic generation. Characteristics of the laser system, including gain narrowing, pulse-burst energy distribution, pulse narrowing, and overall pulse-burst energy, are described. In addition, the applicability of the laser for spectroscopic-based flow diagnostics is demonstrated through the presentation of megahertz-rate planar Doppler velocimetry results.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Huntley, “High-speed laser speckle photography. 1. Repetitively Q-switched ruby laser light source,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1692–1699 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, J.-M. Heritier, “Repetitively pulsed ruby lasers as light sources for high-speed photography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2205–2212 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Alden, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 757–760 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Hult, G. Josefsson, M. Alden, C. F. Kaminski, “Flame front tracking and simultaneous flow field visualization in turbulent combustion,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.
  5. M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavendar, C. H. Buckberry, “A technique for routine, cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and visualization within SI engine cylinders in an engine development environment,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.
  6. P. Wu, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “MHz pulse-burst laser system and visualization of shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 38, 672–679 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. R. Lempert, P. Wu, B. Zhang, R. B. Miles, J. L. Lowrance, V. Mastracola, W. F. Kosonocky, “Pulse-burst laser system for high speed flow diagnostics,” paper AIAA 96-0179, presented at the 34th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 15–18 January 1996 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1996).
  8. B. Thurow, J. Hileman, W. Lempert, M. Samimy, “A technique for real-time visualization of flow structure in high-speed flows,” Phys. Fluids 14, 3449–3452 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Kmetik, H. Fiedorowicz, A. A. Andreev, K. J. Witte, H. Daido, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, T. Yamanaka, “Reliable stimulated Brillouin scattering compression of Nd:YAG laser pulses with liquid fluorocarbon for long-time operation at 10 Hz,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7085–7090 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, N. F. Andreev, “Nd:YAG laser with a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror and variable pulse duration,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1536–1542 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. K. Ni, A. H. Kung, “Effective suppression of amplified spontaneous emission by stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1673–1675 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Y. Dergachev, B. Pati, P. F. Moulton, “Efficient third-harmonic generation with a Ti:sapphire laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 96–100.
  13. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. N. Forkey, “Development and demonstration of filtered Rayleigh scattering—a laser based flow diagnostic for planar measurement of velocity, temperature, and pressure,” Ph.D. dissertation (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., 1996).
  15. D. Neshev, I. Velchev, W. A. Majewski, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, “SBS pulse compression to 200 ps in a compact single-cell setup,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 671–675 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. S. Elliott, T. J. Beutner, “Molecular filter based planar Doppler velocimetry,” Prog. Aerosp. Sciences 35, 799–845 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Samimy, M. P. Wernet, “Review of planar multiple-component velocimetry in high-speed flows,” AIAA J. 38, 553–574 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Thurow, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, M. Samimy, “Development of MHz rate planar Doppler velocimetry for high speed flows,” AIAA J. (to be published).
  19. B. Thurow, M. Samimy, W. R. Lempert, “Compressibility effects on turbulence structures of axisymmetric mixing layers,” Phys. Fluids 15, 1755–1765 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. Thurow, M. Samimy, W. R. Lempert, “Compressibility effects on turbulence structures of axisymmetric mixing layers,” Phys. Fluids 15, 1755–1765 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. Thurow, J. Hileman, W. Lempert, M. Samimy, “A technique for real-time visualization of flow structure in high-speed flows,” Phys. Fluids 14, 3449–3452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, N. F. Andreev, “Nd:YAG laser with a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror and variable pulse duration,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1536–1542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Wu, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “MHz pulse-burst laser system and visualization of shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 38, 672–679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Samimy, M. P. Wernet, “Review of planar multiple-component velocimetry in high-speed flows,” AIAA J. 38, 553–574 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Alden, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Neshev, I. Velchev, W. A. Majewski, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, “SBS pulse compression to 200 ps in a compact single-cell setup,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 671–675 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Elliott, T. J. Beutner, “Molecular filter based planar Doppler velocimetry,” Prog. Aerosp. Sciences 35, 799–845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, J.-M. Heritier, “Repetitively pulsed ruby lasers as light sources for high-speed photography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2205–2212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Kmetik, H. Fiedorowicz, A. A. Andreev, K. J. Witte, H. Daido, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, T. Yamanaka, “Reliable stimulated Brillouin scattering compression of Nd:YAG laser pulses with liquid fluorocarbon for long-time operation at 10 Hz,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7085–7090 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

J. M. Huntley, “High-speed laser speckle photography. 1. Repetitively Q-switched ruby laser light source,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1692–1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alden, M.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Alden, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, G. Josefsson, M. Alden, C. F. Kaminski, “Flame front tracking and simultaneous flow field visualization in turbulent combustion,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Andreev, A. A.

Andreev, N. F.

O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, N. F. Andreev, “Nd:YAG laser with a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror and variable pulse duration,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1536–1542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beutner, T. J.

G. S. Elliott, T. J. Beutner, “Molecular filter based planar Doppler velocimetry,” Prog. Aerosp. Sciences 35, 799–845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buckberry, C. H.

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavendar, C. H. Buckberry, “A technique for routine, cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and visualization within SI engine cylinders in an engine development environment,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Chahal, G.

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, J.-M. Heritier, “Repetitively pulsed ruby lasers as light sources for high-speed photography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2205–2212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Daido, H.

Dergachev, A. Y.

A. Y. Dergachev, B. Pati, P. F. Moulton, “Efficient third-harmonic generation with a Ti:sapphire laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 96–100.

Elliott, G. S.

G. S. Elliott, T. J. Beutner, “Molecular filter based planar Doppler velocimetry,” Prog. Aerosp. Sciences 35, 799–845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fiedorowicz, H.

Forkey, J. N.

J. N. Forkey, “Development and demonstration of filtered Rayleigh scattering—a laser based flow diagnostic for planar measurement of velocity, temperature, and pressure,” Ph.D. dissertation (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., 1996).

Fujita, H.

Goldey, C. L.

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, J.-M. Heritier, “Repetitively pulsed ruby lasers as light sources for high-speed photography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2205–2212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grace, J. M.

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, J.-M. Heritier, “Repetitively pulsed ruby lasers as light sources for high-speed photography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2205–2212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heritier, J.-M.

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, J.-M. Heritier, “Repetitively pulsed ruby lasers as light sources for high-speed photography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2205–2212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hileman, J.

B. Thurow, J. Hileman, W. Lempert, M. Samimy, “A technique for real-time visualization of flow structure in high-speed flows,” Phys. Fluids 14, 3449–3452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

D. Neshev, I. Velchev, W. A. Majewski, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, “SBS pulse compression to 200 ps in a compact single-cell setup,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 671–675 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hult, J.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Alden, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, G. Josefsson, M. Alden, C. F. Kaminski, “Flame front tracking and simultaneous flow field visualization in turbulent combustion,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Huntley, J. M.

J. M. Huntley, “High-speed laser speckle photography. 1. Repetitively Q-switched ruby laser light source,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1692–1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, N.

B. Thurow, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, M. Samimy, “Development of MHz rate planar Doppler velocimetry for high speed flows,” AIAA J. (to be published).

Josefsson, G.

J. Hult, G. Josefsson, M. Alden, C. F. Kaminski, “Flame front tracking and simultaneous flow field visualization in turbulent combustion,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Kaminski, C. F.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Alden, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, G. Josefsson, M. Alden, C. F. Kaminski, “Flame front tracking and simultaneous flow field visualization in turbulent combustion,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Khazanov, E. A.

O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, N. F. Andreev, “Nd:YAG laser with a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror and variable pulse duration,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1536–1542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kmetik, V.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Kosonocky, W. F.

W. R. Lempert, P. Wu, B. Zhang, R. B. Miles, J. L. Lowrance, V. Mastracola, W. F. Kosonocky, “Pulse-burst laser system for high speed flow diagnostics,” paper AIAA 96-0179, presented at the 34th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 15–18 January 1996 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1996).

Kung, A. H.

Lempert, W.

B. Thurow, J. Hileman, W. Lempert, M. Samimy, “A technique for real-time visualization of flow structure in high-speed flows,” Phys. Fluids 14, 3449–3452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lempert, W. R.

B. Thurow, M. Samimy, W. R. Lempert, “Compressibility effects on turbulence structures of axisymmetric mixing layers,” Phys. Fluids 15, 1755–1765 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Wu, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “MHz pulse-burst laser system and visualization of shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 38, 672–679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Thurow, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, M. Samimy, “Development of MHz rate planar Doppler velocimetry for high speed flows,” AIAA J. (to be published).

W. R. Lempert, P. Wu, B. Zhang, R. B. Miles, J. L. Lowrance, V. Mastracola, W. F. Kosonocky, “Pulse-burst laser system for high speed flow diagnostics,” paper AIAA 96-0179, presented at the 34th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 15–18 January 1996 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1996).

Lowrance, J. L.

W. R. Lempert, P. Wu, B. Zhang, R. B. Miles, J. L. Lowrance, V. Mastracola, W. F. Kosonocky, “Pulse-burst laser system for high speed flow diagnostics,” paper AIAA 96-0179, presented at the 34th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 15–18 January 1996 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1996).

Majewski, W. A.

D. Neshev, I. Velchev, W. A. Majewski, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, “SBS pulse compression to 200 ps in a compact single-cell setup,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 671–675 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mastracola, V.

W. R. Lempert, P. Wu, B. Zhang, R. B. Miles, J. L. Lowrance, V. Mastracola, W. F. Kosonocky, “Pulse-burst laser system for high speed flow diagnostics,” paper AIAA 96-0179, presented at the 34th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 15–18 January 1996 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1996).

Miles, R. B.

P. Wu, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “MHz pulse-burst laser system and visualization of shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 38, 672–679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Lempert, P. Wu, B. Zhang, R. B. Miles, J. L. Lowrance, V. Mastracola, W. F. Kosonocky, “Pulse-burst laser system for high speed flow diagnostics,” paper AIAA 96-0179, presented at the 34th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 15–18 January 1996 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1996).

Moulton, P. F.

A. Y. Dergachev, B. Pati, P. F. Moulton, “Efficient third-harmonic generation with a Ti:sapphire laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 96–100.

Nakatsuka, M.

Nebolsine, P. E.

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, J.-M. Heritier, “Repetitively pulsed ruby lasers as light sources for high-speed photography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2205–2212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neshev, D.

D. Neshev, I. Velchev, W. A. Majewski, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, “SBS pulse compression to 200 ps in a compact single-cell setup,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 671–675 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ni, C. K.

Norby, J.

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, J.-M. Heritier, “Repetitively pulsed ruby lasers as light sources for high-speed photography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2205–2212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Palashov, O. V.

O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, N. F. Andreev, “Nd:YAG laser with a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror and variable pulse duration,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1536–1542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pati, B.

A. Y. Dergachev, B. Pati, P. F. Moulton, “Efficient third-harmonic generation with a Ti:sapphire laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 96–100.

Reeves, M.

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavendar, C. H. Buckberry, “A technique for routine, cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and visualization within SI engine cylinders in an engine development environment,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Samimy, M.

B. Thurow, M. Samimy, W. R. Lempert, “Compressibility effects on turbulence structures of axisymmetric mixing layers,” Phys. Fluids 15, 1755–1765 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Thurow, J. Hileman, W. Lempert, M. Samimy, “A technique for real-time visualization of flow structure in high-speed flows,” Phys. Fluids 14, 3449–3452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Samimy, M. P. Wernet, “Review of planar multiple-component velocimetry in high-speed flows,” AIAA J. 38, 553–574 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Thurow, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, M. Samimy, “Development of MHz rate planar Doppler velocimetry for high speed flows,” AIAA J. (to be published).

Tavendar, B.

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavendar, C. H. Buckberry, “A technique for routine, cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and visualization within SI engine cylinders in an engine development environment,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Thurow, B.

B. Thurow, M. Samimy, W. R. Lempert, “Compressibility effects on turbulence structures of axisymmetric mixing layers,” Phys. Fluids 15, 1755–1765 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Thurow, J. Hileman, W. Lempert, M. Samimy, “A technique for real-time visualization of flow structure in high-speed flows,” Phys. Fluids 14, 3449–3452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Thurow, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, M. Samimy, “Development of MHz rate planar Doppler velocimetry for high speed flows,” AIAA J. (to be published).

Towers, D. P.

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavendar, C. H. Buckberry, “A technique for routine, cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and visualization within SI engine cylinders in an engine development environment,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Ubachs, W.

D. Neshev, I. Velchev, W. A. Majewski, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, “SBS pulse compression to 200 ps in a compact single-cell setup,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 671–675 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Velchev, I.

D. Neshev, I. Velchev, W. A. Majewski, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, “SBS pulse compression to 200 ps in a compact single-cell setup,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 671–675 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wernet, M. P.

M. Samimy, M. P. Wernet, “Review of planar multiple-component velocimetry in high-speed flows,” AIAA J. 38, 553–574 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Witte, K. J.

Wu, P.

P. Wu, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “MHz pulse-burst laser system and visualization of shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 38, 672–679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Lempert, P. Wu, B. Zhang, R. B. Miles, J. L. Lowrance, V. Mastracola, W. F. Kosonocky, “Pulse-burst laser system for high speed flow diagnostics,” paper AIAA 96-0179, presented at the 34th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 15–18 January 1996 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1996).

Yamanaka, T.

Zhang, B.

W. R. Lempert, P. Wu, B. Zhang, R. B. Miles, J. L. Lowrance, V. Mastracola, W. F. Kosonocky, “Pulse-burst laser system for high speed flow diagnostics,” paper AIAA 96-0179, presented at the 34th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 15–18 January 1996 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1996).

AIAA J. (2)

P. Wu, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “MHz pulse-burst laser system and visualization of shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 38, 672–679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Samimy, M. P. Wernet, “Review of planar multiple-component velocimetry in high-speed flows,” AIAA J. 38, 553–574 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. Neshev, I. Velchev, W. A. Majewski, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, “SBS pulse compression to 200 ps in a compact single-cell setup,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 671–675 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Alden, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

J. M. Huntley, “High-speed laser speckle photography. 1. Repetitively Q-switched ruby laser light source,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1692–1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Grace, P. E. Nebolsine, C. L. Goldey, G. Chahal, J. Norby, J.-M. Heritier, “Repetitively pulsed ruby lasers as light sources for high-speed photography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2205–2212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, N. F. Andreev, “Nd:YAG laser with a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror and variable pulse duration,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1536–1542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Fluids (2)

B. Thurow, J. Hileman, W. Lempert, M. Samimy, “A technique for real-time visualization of flow structure in high-speed flows,” Phys. Fluids 14, 3449–3452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Thurow, M. Samimy, W. R. Lempert, “Compressibility effects on turbulence structures of axisymmetric mixing layers,” Phys. Fluids 15, 1755–1765 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Aerosp. Sciences (1)

G. S. Elliott, T. J. Beutner, “Molecular filter based planar Doppler velocimetry,” Prog. Aerosp. Sciences 35, 799–845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

W. R. Lempert, P. Wu, B. Zhang, R. B. Miles, J. L. Lowrance, V. Mastracola, W. F. Kosonocky, “Pulse-burst laser system for high speed flow diagnostics,” paper AIAA 96-0179, presented at the 34th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 15–18 January 1996 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1996).

B. Thurow, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, M. Samimy, “Development of MHz rate planar Doppler velocimetry for high speed flows,” AIAA J. (to be published).

A. Y. Dergachev, B. Pati, P. F. Moulton, “Efficient third-harmonic generation with a Ti:sapphire laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 96–100.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Forkey, “Development and demonstration of filtered Rayleigh scattering—a laser based flow diagnostic for planar measurement of velocity, temperature, and pressure,” Ph.D. dissertation (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., 1996).

J. Hult, G. Josefsson, M. Alden, C. F. Kaminski, “Flame front tracking and simultaneous flow field visualization in turbulent combustion,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavendar, C. H. Buckberry, “A technique for routine, cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and visualization within SI engine cylinders in an engine development environment,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the pulse-burst laser system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured average powers at 1.064 and 0.532 μm for an eight-pulse burst at a 100 kHz repetition rate with and without incorporation of a PCM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Second- (triangles) and third- (squares) harmonic conversion efficiencies for a burst-mode Nd:YAG laser (with a PCM) as a function of average fundamental pulse energy.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Oscilloscope trace of an eight-pulse, 10-μs separation (100-kHz) burst at (a) 1.064 and (b) 0.532 μm; here and below, a.u. means arbitrary units.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Oscilloscope trace of a cw laser following amplification through the first three stages.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Uniform distribution of pulse energy over a 20-pulse, 4-μs separation (250-kHz) burst at 0.532 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of a frequency measurement system using a molecular iodine filter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Pulse shape with and without a PCM.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of the experimental setup for a megahertz-rate PDV system; ND, neutral density.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Sequence of four flow visualization images of a Mach 1.3 rectangular jet. Only the mixing layer is being illustrated.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Four velocity images that correspond to the flow visualization images of Fig. 9.

Equations (1)

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Δfd=s-oλ ·V,

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