Abstract

Fluctuations in beam quality (M 2) have been observed on a pulse-to-pulse basis from an industrial Nd:YAG laser. This was achieved with a compact multiplane imaging method incorporating quadratically distorted diffraction gratings, which enabled simultaneous imaging of nine planes on a single CCD array. With this system, we measured across a range of beam qualities with an associated error (in M 2 variation) of the order of 0.7%. Application of the system to fiber-optic beam delivery and laser drilling is demonstrated.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. S. Kudesia, W. S. O. Rodden, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Effect of beam quality on single pulse laser drilling,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, X. Chen, ed. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2001), pp. 1439–1448.
  2. W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Correlations between hole properties and pulse parameters in single pulse Nd:YAG laser drilling of titanium,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, X. Chen, ed. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2001), pp. 286–295.
  3. G. K. L. Ng, L. Li, “Repeatability characteristics of laser percussion drilling of stainless steel sheets,” Opt. Laser Eng. 39, 25–33 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard EN ISO 11146:2000 (and EN ISO 11146:1999), “Laser and laser-related equipment. Test methods for laser beam parameters. Beam width, divergence angle and beam propagation factor,” (ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2000).
  5. S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, B. H. Lee, “Enhanced three-dimensional imaging by use of double display devices,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4186–4195 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X. Lu, Y. Wang, M. Wu, G. Jin, “Fabrication of a 25 × 25 multiple beam splitter,” Opt. Commun. 72, 157–162 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. M. Scott, S. C. Woods, P. Harrison, “Single-shot laser beam profiling using multilevel imaging,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE4932, 599 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. M. Blanchard, A. H. Greenaway, “Simultaneous multiplane imaging with a distorted diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6692–6699 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. M. Blanchard, D. J. Fisher, S. C. Woods, A. H. Greenaway, “Phase-diversity wave-front sensing with a distorted diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6649–6655 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. M. Blanchard, A. H. Greenaway, “Broadband simultaneous multiplane imaging,” Opt. Commun. 183, 29–36 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. W. Goodman, An Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), Chap. 7, Sec. 7.3.1.
  12. See, for example, C. Paré, P.-A. Bélanger, “Propagation law and quasi-invariance properties of the truncated second-order moment of a diffracted laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 123, 679–693 (1996).
  13. C. Gao, H. Weber, “The problems with M2,” Opt. Laser Technol. 32, 221–224 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Khun, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Beam quality after propagation of Nd:YAG laser light through large-core optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6754–6760 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Welch, P. Doel, A. H. Greenaway, G. Love, “Smart optics in astronomy and space,” Astron. Geophys. 44, 1.26–1.29 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (3)

G. K. L. Ng, L. Li, “Repeatability characteristics of laser percussion drilling of stainless steel sheets,” Opt. Laser Eng. 39, 25–33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, B. H. Lee, “Enhanced three-dimensional imaging by use of double display devices,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4186–4195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Welch, P. Doel, A. H. Greenaway, G. Love, “Smart optics in astronomy and space,” Astron. Geophys. 44, 1.26–1.29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

See, for example, C. Paré, P.-A. Bélanger, “Propagation law and quasi-invariance properties of the truncated second-order moment of a diffracted laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 123, 679–693 (1996).

1989 (1)

X. Lu, Y. Wang, M. Wu, G. Jin, “Fabrication of a 25 × 25 multiple beam splitter,” Opt. Commun. 72, 157–162 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bélanger, P.-A.

See, for example, C. Paré, P.-A. Bélanger, “Propagation law and quasi-invariance properties of the truncated second-order moment of a diffracted laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 123, 679–693 (1996).

Blanchard, P. M.

Blewett, I. J.

Doel, P.

S. Welch, P. Doel, A. H. Greenaway, G. Love, “Smart optics in astronomy and space,” Astron. Geophys. 44, 1.26–1.29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, D. J.

Gao, C.

C. Gao, H. Weber, “The problems with M2,” Opt. Laser Technol. 32, 221–224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, An Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), Chap. 7, Sec. 7.3.1.

Greenaway, A. H.

S. Welch, P. Doel, A. H. Greenaway, G. Love, “Smart optics in astronomy and space,” Astron. Geophys. 44, 1.26–1.29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Blanchard, A. H. Greenaway, “Broadband simultaneous multiplane imaging,” Opt. Commun. 183, 29–36 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Blanchard, D. J. Fisher, S. C. Woods, A. H. Greenaway, “Phase-diversity wave-front sensing with a distorted diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6649–6655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Blanchard, A. H. Greenaway, “Simultaneous multiplane imaging with a distorted diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6692–6699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

A. Khun, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Beam quality after propagation of Nd:YAG laser light through large-core optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6754–6760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kudesia, W. S. O. Rodden, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Effect of beam quality on single pulse laser drilling,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, X. Chen, ed. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2001), pp. 1439–1448.

W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Correlations between hole properties and pulse parameters in single pulse Nd:YAG laser drilling of titanium,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, X. Chen, ed. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2001), pp. 286–295.

Harrison, P.

A. M. Scott, S. C. Woods, P. Harrison, “Single-shot laser beam profiling using multilevel imaging,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE4932, 599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Jin, G.

X. Lu, Y. Wang, M. Wu, G. Jin, “Fabrication of a 25 × 25 multiple beam splitter,” Opt. Commun. 72, 157–162 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

A. Khun, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Beam quality after propagation of Nd:YAG laser light through large-core optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6754–6760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Correlations between hole properties and pulse parameters in single pulse Nd:YAG laser drilling of titanium,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, X. Chen, ed. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2001), pp. 286–295.

S. S. Kudesia, W. S. O. Rodden, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Effect of beam quality on single pulse laser drilling,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, X. Chen, ed. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2001), pp. 1439–1448.

Khun, A.

Kudesia, S. S.

S. S. Kudesia, W. S. O. Rodden, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Effect of beam quality on single pulse laser drilling,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, X. Chen, ed. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2001), pp. 1439–1448.

W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Correlations between hole properties and pulse parameters in single pulse Nd:YAG laser drilling of titanium,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, X. Chen, ed. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2001), pp. 286–295.

Lee, B. H.

Li, L.

G. K. L. Ng, L. Li, “Repeatability characteristics of laser percussion drilling of stainless steel sheets,” Opt. Laser Eng. 39, 25–33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Love, G.

S. Welch, P. Doel, A. H. Greenaway, G. Love, “Smart optics in astronomy and space,” Astron. Geophys. 44, 1.26–1.29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

X. Lu, Y. Wang, M. Wu, G. Jin, “Fabrication of a 25 × 25 multiple beam splitter,” Opt. Commun. 72, 157–162 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Min, S.-W.

Ng, G. K. L.

G. K. L. Ng, L. Li, “Repeatability characteristics of laser percussion drilling of stainless steel sheets,” Opt. Laser Eng. 39, 25–33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paré, C.

See, for example, C. Paré, P.-A. Bélanger, “Propagation law and quasi-invariance properties of the truncated second-order moment of a diffracted laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 123, 679–693 (1996).

Rodden, W. S. O.

S. S. Kudesia, W. S. O. Rodden, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Effect of beam quality on single pulse laser drilling,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, X. Chen, ed. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2001), pp. 1439–1448.

W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Correlations between hole properties and pulse parameters in single pulse Nd:YAG laser drilling of titanium,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, X. Chen, ed. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2001), pp. 286–295.

Scott, A. M.

A. M. Scott, S. C. Woods, P. Harrison, “Single-shot laser beam profiling using multilevel imaging,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE4932, 599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

X. Lu, Y. Wang, M. Wu, G. Jin, “Fabrication of a 25 × 25 multiple beam splitter,” Opt. Commun. 72, 157–162 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H.

C. Gao, H. Weber, “The problems with M2,” Opt. Laser Technol. 32, 221–224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Welch, S.

S. Welch, P. Doel, A. H. Greenaway, G. Love, “Smart optics in astronomy and space,” Astron. Geophys. 44, 1.26–1.29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woods, S. C.

P. M. Blanchard, D. J. Fisher, S. C. Woods, A. H. Greenaway, “Phase-diversity wave-front sensing with a distorted diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6649–6655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Scott, S. C. Woods, P. Harrison, “Single-shot laser beam profiling using multilevel imaging,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE4932, 599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

X. Lu, Y. Wang, M. Wu, G. Jin, “Fabrication of a 25 × 25 multiple beam splitter,” Opt. Commun. 72, 157–162 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astron. Geophys. (1)

S. Welch, P. Doel, A. H. Greenaway, G. Love, “Smart optics in astronomy and space,” Astron. Geophys. 44, 1.26–1.29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

X. Lu, Y. Wang, M. Wu, G. Jin, “Fabrication of a 25 × 25 multiple beam splitter,” Opt. Commun. 72, 157–162 (1989).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, C. Paré, P.-A. Bélanger, “Propagation law and quasi-invariance properties of the truncated second-order moment of a diffracted laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 123, 679–693 (1996).

P. M. Blanchard, A. H. Greenaway, “Broadband simultaneous multiplane imaging,” Opt. Commun. 183, 29–36 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

G. K. L. Ng, L. Li, “Repeatability characteristics of laser percussion drilling of stainless steel sheets,” Opt. Laser Eng. 39, 25–33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

C. Gao, H. Weber, “The problems with M2,” Opt. Laser Technol. 32, 221–224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

A. M. Scott, S. C. Woods, P. Harrison, “Single-shot laser beam profiling using multilevel imaging,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE4932, 599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard EN ISO 11146:2000 (and EN ISO 11146:1999), “Laser and laser-related equipment. Test methods for laser beam parameters. Beam width, divergence angle and beam propagation factor,” (ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2000).

S. S. Kudesia, W. S. O. Rodden, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Effect of beam quality on single pulse laser drilling,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, X. Chen, ed. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2001), pp. 1439–1448.

W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Correlations between hole properties and pulse parameters in single pulse Nd:YAG laser drilling of titanium,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, X. Chen, ed. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2001), pp. 286–295.

J. W. Goodman, An Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), Chap. 7, Sec. 7.3.1.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of a QD grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multiple perturbed images from a QD grating in conjunction with a lens, detailing the deviation angle θ m and interplanar spacing δz m .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam radius plotted as a function of position for a JK702 Nd:YAG laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

M 2 measurement system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example image from the M 2 measurement system with two orthogonal QD gratings.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Beam propagation data obtained from a JK702 laser with two orthogonal gratings prior to calibration.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Beam propagation data presented in Fig. 6 after we applied the calibration factors.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measurement of M 2 for laser light transmitted through a 200-μm fiber. BET, beam expansion telescope; NA, numerical aperture.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Beam propagation (M 2) curve as scanned from the output of a 200-μm fiber.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Images taken from a 200-μm fiber with a well-collimated beam away from the beam waist. (a) Initial image taken; diameter (1.616 ± 0.001) mm. (b) Image taken after 30 min; diameter (1.618 ± 0.001) mm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Histogram of M 2 values taken from the JK702 laser.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Average M 2 from the JK702 laser as a function of time after initialization.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Normalized M 2 variation over the warmup of the JK702 laser.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

M 2 as a function of delivery fiber radius.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

M 2 variation as a function of applied stress.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Experimental arrangement for single-pulse drilling. HR, high reflectivity.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Size of drilled holes as a function of M 2.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Versus Theoretical Parameters for Dual QD Gratings as Used in Figs. 6 and 7

Tables Icon

Table 2 Nominal Laser Parameters for the JK702 Laser

Tables Icon

Table 3 Single-Shot Drilling Parameters with the JK702 Laser

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

fg=R22mW20,
fm=fLR2R2+2fLmW20.
sin θm=mλd0,
Mm=M0+2mνW20R2,
δzm=-2mz2W20R2+2mzW20,

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