Abstract

We describe a compact remote-sensing instrument that permits spatially resolved mapping of atmospheric trace gases by passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and present our first applications of imaging of the nitrogen dioxide contents of the exhaust plumes of two industrial emitters. DOAS permits the identification and quantification of various gases, e.g., NO2, SO2, and CH2O, from their specific narrowband (differential) absorption structures with high selectivity and sensitivity. With scattered sunlight as the light source, DOAS is used with an imaging spectrometer that is simultaneously acquiring spectral information on the incident light in one spatial dimension (column). The second spatial dimension is scanned by a moving mirror.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. Pitts, Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere: Theory, Experiments and Applications (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000).
  2. S. Svanberg, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, 2nd ed., Vol. 6 of Springer Series on Atoms and Plasmas (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atm. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY—mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Laan, J. de Vries, B. Kruizinga, H. Visser, P. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, A. Maelkki, G. Leppelmeier, E. Hilsenrath, “Ozone monitoring with the OMI instrument,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 334–343 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Sandsten, P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Real-time gas-correlation imaging employing thermal background radiation,” Opt. Express 6, 92–103 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Harig, G. Matz, P. Rusch, “Scanning infrared remote sensing system for identification, visualization, and quantification of airborne pollutants,” in Instrumentation for Air Pollution and Global Atmospheric Monitoring, J. O. Jensen, R. L. Spellicy, eds., Proc. SPIE4574, 83–94 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. U. Platt, “Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS),” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. Sigrist, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 27–83.
  9. J. Nieke, H. Schwarzer, A. Neumann, G. Zimmermann, “Imaging spaceborne and airborne sensor systems in the beginning of the next century,” in Sensors, Systems and Next Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3221, 581–592 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. 84D, 6329–6335 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Stutz, U. Platt, “Numerical analysis and error estimation of differential optical absorption spectroscopy measurements with least-squares methods,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6041–6053 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. F. Grainger, J. Ring, “Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles,” Nature 193, 762 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Fish, R. Jones, “Rotational Raman scattering and the Ring effect in zenith-sky spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 811–814 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Voigt, J. Orphal, J. Burrows, “UV-visible absorption cross-sections of NO2 and O3 at atmospheric temperatures and pressures by FTS,” in Proceedings of the 1st European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (ESAMS-99), document ESA WPP-161 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 443–465; http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de/gruppen/molspec/index.html .
  16. C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, M. F. Mérienne, “Absorption cross-sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Fayt, M. van Roozendael, WinDOAS 2.1—Software User Manual (Belgisch Instituut voor Ruimte-Aëronomie/Institut d’Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium, 2001).
  18. A. C. Vandaele, T. C. Simon, J. M. Goilmont, C. M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25,599–25,605 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Gomer, T. Brauers, F. Heintz, J. Stutz, U. Platt, “MFC 1.98m User Manual” (Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 1996).
  20. Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, “Technische Anleitung zur Reinhaltung der Luft,” German governmental administrative instructions (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin, Germany, 2002).

2000

1999

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atm. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY—mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, M. F. Mérienne, “Absorption cross-sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

D. Fish, R. Jones, “Rotational Raman scattering and the Ring effect in zenith-sky spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 811–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. C. Vandaele, T. C. Simon, J. M. Goilmont, C. M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25,599–25,605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. 84D, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1962

J. F. Grainger, J. Ring, “Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles,” Nature 193, 762 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bovensmann, H.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY—mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brauers, T.

T. Gomer, T. Brauers, F. Heintz, J. Stutz, U. Platt, “MFC 1.98m User Manual” (Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 1996).

Buchwitz, M.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY—mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atm. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J. P.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atm. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY—mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, C. M.

A. C. Vandaele, T. C. Simon, J. M. Goilmont, C. M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25,599–25,605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, M. F. Mérienne, “Absorption cross-sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY—mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Colin, R.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, M. F. Mérienne, “Absorption cross-sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, T. C. Simon, J. M. Goilmont, C. M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25,599–25,605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coquart, B.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, M. F. Mérienne, “Absorption cross-sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, J.

E. Laan, J. de Vries, B. Kruizinga, H. Visser, P. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, A. Maelkki, G. Leppelmeier, E. Hilsenrath, “Ozone monitoring with the OMI instrument,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 334–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Edner, H.

Eisinger, M.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atm. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fally, S.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, M. F. Mérienne, “Absorption cross-sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, C.

C. Fayt, M. van Roozendael, WinDOAS 2.1—Software User Manual (Belgisch Instituut voor Ruimte-Aëronomie/Institut d’Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium, 2001).

Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. Pitts, Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere: Theory, Experiments and Applications (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000).

Fish, D.

D. Fish, R. Jones, “Rotational Raman scattering and the Ring effect in zenith-sky spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 811–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frerick, J.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY—mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goede, A. H. P.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY—mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goilmont, J. M.

A. C. Vandaele, T. C. Simon, J. M. Goilmont, C. M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25,599–25,605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gomer, T.

T. Gomer, T. Brauers, F. Heintz, J. Stutz, U. Platt, “MFC 1.98m User Manual” (Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 1996).

Grainger, J. F.

J. F. Grainger, J. Ring, “Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles,” Nature 193, 762 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Harig, R.

R. Harig, G. Matz, P. Rusch, “Scanning infrared remote sensing system for identification, visualization, and quantification of airborne pollutants,” in Instrumentation for Air Pollution and Global Atmospheric Monitoring, J. O. Jensen, R. L. Spellicy, eds., Proc. SPIE4574, 83–94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heintz, F.

T. Gomer, T. Brauers, F. Heintz, J. Stutz, U. Platt, “MFC 1.98m User Manual” (Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 1996).

Hermans, C.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, M. F. Mérienne, “Absorption cross-sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hilsenrath, E.

E. Laan, J. de Vries, B. Kruizinga, H. Visser, P. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, A. Maelkki, G. Leppelmeier, E. Hilsenrath, “Ozone monitoring with the OMI instrument,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 334–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jenouvrier, A.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, M. F. Mérienne, “Absorption cross-sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

D. Fish, R. Jones, “Rotational Raman scattering and the Ring effect in zenith-sky spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 811–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kruizinga, B.

E. Laan, J. de Vries, B. Kruizinga, H. Visser, P. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, A. Maelkki, G. Leppelmeier, E. Hilsenrath, “Ozone monitoring with the OMI instrument,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 334–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laan, E.

E. Laan, J. de Vries, B. Kruizinga, H. Visser, P. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, A. Maelkki, G. Leppelmeier, E. Hilsenrath, “Ozone monitoring with the OMI instrument,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 334–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atm. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leppelmeier, G.

E. Laan, J. de Vries, B. Kruizinga, H. Visser, P. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, A. Maelkki, G. Leppelmeier, E. Hilsenrath, “Ozone monitoring with the OMI instrument,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 334–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Levelt, P.

E. Laan, J. de Vries, B. Kruizinga, H. Visser, P. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, A. Maelkki, G. Leppelmeier, E. Hilsenrath, “Ozone monitoring with the OMI instrument,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 334–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maelkki, A.

E. Laan, J. de Vries, B. Kruizinga, H. Visser, P. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, A. Maelkki, G. Leppelmeier, E. Hilsenrath, “Ozone monitoring with the OMI instrument,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 334–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matz, G.

R. Harig, G. Matz, P. Rusch, “Scanning infrared remote sensing system for identification, visualization, and quantification of airborne pollutants,” in Instrumentation for Air Pollution and Global Atmospheric Monitoring, J. O. Jensen, R. L. Spellicy, eds., Proc. SPIE4574, 83–94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mérienne, M. F.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, M. F. Mérienne, “Absorption cross-sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, A.

J. Nieke, H. Schwarzer, A. Neumann, G. Zimmermann, “Imaging spaceborne and airborne sensor systems in the beginning of the next century,” in Sensors, Systems and Next Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3221, 581–592 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nieke, J.

J. Nieke, H. Schwarzer, A. Neumann, G. Zimmermann, “Imaging spaceborne and airborne sensor systems in the beginning of the next century,” in Sensors, Systems and Next Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3221, 581–592 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noël, S.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY—mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pätz, H.

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. 84D, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Perner, D.

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. 84D, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, J. N.

B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. Pitts, Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere: Theory, Experiments and Applications (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000).

Platt, U.

J. Stutz, U. Platt, “Numerical analysis and error estimation of differential optical absorption spectroscopy measurements with least-squares methods,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6041–6053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. 84D, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. Gomer, T. Brauers, F. Heintz, J. Stutz, U. Platt, “MFC 1.98m User Manual” (Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 1996).

U. Platt, “Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS),” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. Sigrist, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 27–83.

Richter, A.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atm. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ring, J.

J. F. Grainger, J. Ring, “Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles,” Nature 193, 762 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Rozanov, V.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atm. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY—mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rusch, P.

R. Harig, G. Matz, P. Rusch, “Scanning infrared remote sensing system for identification, visualization, and quantification of airborne pollutants,” in Instrumentation for Air Pollution and Global Atmospheric Monitoring, J. O. Jensen, R. L. Spellicy, eds., Proc. SPIE4574, 83–94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, R. W.

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sandsten, J.

Schmeltekopf, A. L.

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzer, H.

J. Nieke, H. Schwarzer, A. Neumann, G. Zimmermann, “Imaging spaceborne and airborne sensor systems in the beginning of the next century,” in Sensors, Systems and Next Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3221, 581–592 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simon, T. C.

A. C. Vandaele, T. C. Simon, J. M. Goilmont, C. M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25,599–25,605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stutz, J.

J. Stutz, U. Platt, “Numerical analysis and error estimation of differential optical absorption spectroscopy measurements with least-squares methods,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6041–6053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Gomer, T. Brauers, F. Heintz, J. Stutz, U. Platt, “MFC 1.98m User Manual” (Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 1996).

Svanberg, S.

van den Oord, G. H. J.

E. Laan, J. de Vries, B. Kruizinga, H. Visser, P. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, A. Maelkki, G. Leppelmeier, E. Hilsenrath, “Ozone monitoring with the OMI instrument,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 334–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Roozendael, M.

C. Fayt, M. van Roozendael, WinDOAS 2.1—Software User Manual (Belgisch Instituut voor Ruimte-Aëronomie/Institut d’Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium, 2001).

Vandaele, A. C.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, M. F. Mérienne, “Absorption cross-sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, T. C. Simon, J. M. Goilmont, C. M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25,599–25,605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Visser, H.

E. Laan, J. de Vries, B. Kruizinga, H. Visser, P. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, A. Maelkki, G. Leppelmeier, E. Hilsenrath, “Ozone monitoring with the OMI instrument,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 334–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atm. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weibring, P.

Zimmermann, G.

J. Nieke, H. Schwarzer, A. Neumann, G. Zimmermann, “Imaging spaceborne and airborne sensor systems in the beginning of the next century,” in Sensors, Systems and Next Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3221, 581–592 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, M. F. Mérienne, “Absorption cross-sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res.

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. 84D, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

D. Fish, R. Jones, “Rotational Raman scattering and the Ring effect in zenith-sky spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 811–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Atm. Sci.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atm. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. H. P. Goede, “SCIAMACHY—mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

A. C. Vandaele, T. C. Simon, J. M. Goilmont, C. M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25,599–25,605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. F. Grainger, J. Ring, “Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles,” Nature 193, 762 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

T. Gomer, T. Brauers, F. Heintz, J. Stutz, U. Platt, “MFC 1.98m User Manual” (Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 1996).

Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, “Technische Anleitung zur Reinhaltung der Luft,” German governmental administrative instructions (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin, Germany, 2002).

S. Voigt, J. Orphal, J. Burrows, “UV-visible absorption cross-sections of NO2 and O3 at atmospheric temperatures and pressures by FTS,” in Proceedings of the 1st European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (ESAMS-99), document ESA WPP-161 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 443–465; http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de/gruppen/molspec/index.html .

C. Fayt, M. van Roozendael, WinDOAS 2.1—Software User Manual (Belgisch Instituut voor Ruimte-Aëronomie/Institut d’Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium, 2001).

B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. Pitts, Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere: Theory, Experiments and Applications (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000).

S. Svanberg, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, 2nd ed., Vol. 6 of Springer Series on Atoms and Plasmas (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Laan, J. de Vries, B. Kruizinga, H. Visser, P. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, A. Maelkki, G. Leppelmeier, E. Hilsenrath, “Ozone monitoring with the OMI instrument,” in Imaging Spectrometry VI, M. R. Descour, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE4132, 334–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Harig, G. Matz, P. Rusch, “Scanning infrared remote sensing system for identification, visualization, and quantification of airborne pollutants,” in Instrumentation for Air Pollution and Global Atmospheric Monitoring, J. O. Jensen, R. L. Spellicy, eds., Proc. SPIE4574, 83–94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, “Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS),” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. Sigrist, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 27–83.

J. Nieke, H. Schwarzer, A. Neumann, G. Zimmermann, “Imaging spaceborne and airborne sensor systems in the beginning of the next century,” in Sensors, Systems and Next Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3221, 581–592 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement method. The instrument utilizes pushbroom imaging to acquire spectra of one spatial direction simultaneously. Spectral information along the second spatial dimension is obtained by scanning the scene with a scanning mirror. The spectra are evaluated by the DOAS technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Observation geometry. Sunlight is being scattered in the atmosphere before it passes through the absorbent object of investigation, e.g., a gas cloud.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Instrument setup. The main components are a scanning mirror, an imaging lens, and an imaging spectrograph with a two-dimensional CCD detector facilitating pushbroom imaging spectroscopy.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Visualization of the NO2 plume of a power station’s exhaust fume stack (a) under calm-wind conditions on 10 December 2002. (b), (c) show the NO2 plume with (b) a FRS taken from the left side and (c) a FRS from zenith sky. (d) The column density error of the DOAS evaluation is 5–15%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Visualization of the NO2 plume (center) above the stack of a cement factory near Heidelberg, Germany on 18 July 2003. Wind conditions were nearly calm. There is no emission visible in the photograph (top) that was taken simultaneously with the measurement. Absolute fit errors are shown in the bottom image. The higher errors along the edges of the stack are due to the lower intensity of the radiation scattered off the walls of the stack.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

DOAS image of sulfur dioxide in a cylindrical gas cell (left). The scale is 0–5 × 1017 cm-2; the scale of the absolute fit error (right) is 0–5 × 1016 cm-2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measurement Parameters

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I1λ=I0λexp-σλS1,
S=0L cldl=c¯L,
S=1σλlnI0λIλ=Dλσλ,
σiλ=σi0λ+σiλ,
Iλ= I0λexp-L iσiλciI0λ×exp-Liσi0λci+Rλ+MλAλ.
Dλ=lnI0λIλ=L i σiλci.
IFRSλ=I0λexp-σλSFRS.
S=S1-SFRS=1σλlnIFRSλI1λ.

Metrics