Abstract

A formulation for calculating the optical second-harmonic power based on the Čerenkov-radiation-type phase matching is derived for a crystal-cored fiber. The prerequisite condition for high efficiency is expressed by a simple relation by use of the refractive indices of a core crystal, a core radius, and a fundamental wavelength. An organic crystal-cored fiber is designed and practically fabricated by the guiding principle derived here. A blue second-harmonic wave of 1.4 mW is obtained from a 1-mm-long fiber by use of a 60-mW semiconductor laser, and the second-harmonic intensity agrees well with the prediction. Degradation of the organic core crystal caused by the generated blue wave is observed, and the lifetime of the device is evaluated.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Matsumoto, Y. Morimoto, K. Kamiyama, “Blue and green solid-state lasers for high speed color photographic printers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThR2.
  2. N. Uesugi, T. Kimura, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in three-dimensional LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 572–574 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Tamada, A. Yamada, M. Saitoh, “LiNbO3 thin-film optical waveguide grown by liquid phase epitaxy and its application to second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2536–2541 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, J. D. Bierlein, “Sum-frequency generation in segmented KTP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1064–1066 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, “Second-harmonic generation of blue light in a LiTaO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732–2734 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265–1276 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Shinozaki, T. Fukunaga, K. Watanabe, T. Kamijoh, “Self-quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in the proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide with periodically domain-inverted regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 510–512 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, “Second harmonic generation by Cherenkov radiation in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WR3.
  10. S. Umegaki, Y. Takahashi, A. Manabe, S. Tanaka, “Optical second-harmonic generation in an organic crystal-core fiber,” in Proceedings of the Fall Meeting of the Materials Research Society, Extended Abstracts: Nonlinear Optical Materials, D. A. B. Miller, ed. (Materials Research Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1985) pp. 97–99.
  11. K. Chikuma, S. Okamoto, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Collimating properties of an axicon for the Čerenkov-radiation-type second-harmonic light from a crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3198–3202 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. N. A. Sanford, J. M. Connors, “Optimization of the Čerenkov sum-frequency generation in proton-exchanged Mg:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1429–1437 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  13. T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal-cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic waves,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. R. Schlossberg, R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE1148, 207–212 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, S. Umegaki, “Generation of blue coherent light from a continuous-wave semiconductor laser using an organic crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1535–1537 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Kawaharada, Y. Yamanaka, H. Endo, S. Ishikawa, S. Takano, N. Ookubo, “Efficient second-harmonic generation using highly purified 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene crystal cored fiber,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CTuP3.
  16. A. Selvarajan, K. B. Varma, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal cored fibers of organic nonlinear optical materials,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications III, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2851, 45–49 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. Chikuma, S. Umegaki, “Theory of optical second-harmonic generation in crystal-cored fibers based on phase matching of Čerenkov radiation type,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1083–1092 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  18. P. Kerkoc, Ch. Bosshard, H. Arend, P. Günter, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethyl-amino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single-crystal cored-fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 487–489 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sütter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene-single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062–2064 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Okazaki, “Optical wavelength conversion method and laser-diode-pumped solid-state laser,” U.S. Patent5,175,741 (29December1992).

1994 (1)

1992 (2)

F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, J. D. Bierlein, “Sum-frequency generation in segmented KTP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1064–1066 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. Chikuma, S. Umegaki, “Theory of optical second-harmonic generation in crystal-cored fibers based on phase matching of Čerenkov radiation type,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1083–1092 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (4)

K. Shinozaki, T. Fukunaga, K. Watanabe, T. Kamijoh, “Self-quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in the proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide with periodically domain-inverted regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 510–512 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, S. Umegaki, “Generation of blue coherent light from a continuous-wave semiconductor laser using an organic crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1535–1537 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. Tamada, A. Yamada, M. Saitoh, “LiNbO3 thin-film optical waveguide grown by liquid phase epitaxy and its application to second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2536–2541 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, “Second-harmonic generation of blue light in a LiTaO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732–2734 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265–1276 (1990).
[Crossref]

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (3)

N. A. Sanford, J. M. Connors, “Optimization of the Čerenkov sum-frequency generation in proton-exchanged Mg:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1429–1437 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. Kerkoc, Ch. Bosshard, H. Arend, P. Günter, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethyl-amino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single-crystal cored-fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 487–489 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sütter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene-single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062–2064 (1989).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

N. Uesugi, T. Kimura, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in three-dimensional LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 572–574 (1976).
[Crossref]

Arend, H.

P. Kerkoc, Ch. Bosshard, H. Arend, P. Günter, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethyl-amino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single-crystal cored-fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 487–489 (1989).
[Crossref]

Bierlein, J. D.

F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, J. D. Bierlein, “Sum-frequency generation in segmented KTP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1064–1066 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bosshard, Ch.

P. Kerkoc, Ch. Bosshard, H. Arend, P. Günter, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethyl-amino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single-crystal cored-fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 487–489 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sütter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene-single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062–2064 (1989).
[Crossref]

Brown, J. B.

F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, J. D. Bierlein, “Sum-frequency generation in segmented KTP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1064–1066 (1992).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chikuma, K.

K. Chikuma, S. Okamoto, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Collimating properties of an axicon for the Čerenkov-radiation-type second-harmonic light from a crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3198–3202 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chikuma, S. Umegaki, “Theory of optical second-harmonic generation in crystal-cored fibers based on phase matching of Čerenkov radiation type,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1083–1092 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal-cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic waves,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. R. Schlossberg, R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE1148, 207–212 (1989).
[Crossref]

Connors, J. M.

N. A. Sanford, J. M. Connors, “Optimization of the Čerenkov sum-frequency generation in proton-exchanged Mg:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1429–1437 (1989).
[Crossref]

Endo, H.

M. Kawaharada, Y. Yamanaka, H. Endo, S. Ishikawa, S. Takano, N. Ookubo, “Efficient second-harmonic generation using highly purified 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene crystal cored fiber,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CTuP3.

Fejer, M. M.

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
[Crossref]

Fukunaga, T.

K. Shinozaki, T. Fukunaga, K. Watanabe, T. Kamijoh, “Self-quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in the proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide with periodically domain-inverted regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 510–512 (1991).
[Crossref]

Günter, P.

P. Kerkoc, Ch. Bosshard, H. Arend, P. Günter, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethyl-amino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single-crystal cored-fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 487–489 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sütter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene-single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062–2064 (1989).
[Crossref]

Harada, A.

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, S. Umegaki, “Generation of blue coherent light from a continuous-wave semiconductor laser using an organic crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1535–1537 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Matsumoto, Y. Morimoto, K. Kamiyama, “Blue and green solid-state lasers for high speed color photographic printers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThR2.

Ishikawa, S.

M. Kawaharada, Y. Yamanaka, H. Endo, S. Ishikawa, S. Takano, N. Ookubo, “Efficient second-harmonic generation using highly purified 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene crystal cored fiber,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CTuP3.

Kamijoh, T.

K. Shinozaki, T. Fukunaga, K. Watanabe, T. Kamijoh, “Self-quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in the proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide with periodically domain-inverted regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 510–512 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kamiyama, K.

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, S. Umegaki, “Generation of blue coherent light from a continuous-wave semiconductor laser using an organic crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1535–1537 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Matsumoto, Y. Morimoto, K. Kamiyama, “Blue and green solid-state lasers for high speed color photographic printers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThR2.

Kawaharada, M.

M. Kawaharada, Y. Yamanaka, H. Endo, S. Ishikawa, S. Takano, N. Ookubo, “Efficient second-harmonic generation using highly purified 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene crystal cored fiber,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CTuP3.

Kerkoc, P.

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sütter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene-single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062–2064 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. Kerkoc, Ch. Bosshard, H. Arend, P. Günter, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethyl-amino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single-crystal cored-fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 487–489 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kimura, T.

N. Uesugi, T. Kimura, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in three-dimensional LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 572–574 (1976).
[Crossref]

Laurell, F.

F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, J. D. Bierlein, “Sum-frequency generation in segmented KTP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1064–1066 (1992).
[Crossref]

Magel, G. A.

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
[Crossref]

Manabe, A.

S. Umegaki, Y. Takahashi, A. Manabe, S. Tanaka, “Optical second-harmonic generation in an organic crystal-core fiber,” in Proceedings of the Fall Meeting of the Materials Research Society, Extended Abstracts: Nonlinear Optical Materials, D. A. B. Miller, ed. (Materials Research Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1985) pp. 97–99.

Matsumoto, K.

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Matsumoto, Y. Morimoto, K. Kamiyama, “Blue and green solid-state lasers for high speed color photographic printers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThR2.

Mizuuchi, K.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, “Second-harmonic generation of blue light in a LiTaO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732–2734 (1991).
[Crossref]

Morimoto, Y.

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Matsumoto, Y. Morimoto, K. Kamiyama, “Blue and green solid-state lasers for high speed color photographic printers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThR2.

Nishihara, H.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265–1276 (1990).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, S.

K. Chikuma, S. Okamoto, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Collimating properties of an axicon for the Čerenkov-radiation-type second-harmonic light from a crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3198–3202 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal-cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic waves,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. R. Schlossberg, R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE1148, 207–212 (1989).
[Crossref]

Okazaki, Y.

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, S. Umegaki, “Generation of blue coherent light from a continuous-wave semiconductor laser using an organic crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1535–1537 (1991).
[Crossref]

Y. Okazaki, “Optical wavelength conversion method and laser-diode-pumped solid-state laser,” U.S. Patent5,175,741 (29December1992).

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Matsumoto, Y. Morimoto, K. Kamiyama, “Blue and green solid-state lasers for high speed color photographic printers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThR2.

Ookubo, N.

M. Kawaharada, Y. Yamanaka, H. Endo, S. Ishikawa, S. Takano, N. Ookubo, “Efficient second-harmonic generation using highly purified 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene crystal cored fiber,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CTuP3.

Saitoh, M.

H. Tamada, A. Yamada, M. Saitoh, “LiNbO3 thin-film optical waveguide grown by liquid phase epitaxy and its application to second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2536–2541 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sanford, N. A.

N. A. Sanford, J. M. Connors, “Optimization of the Čerenkov sum-frequency generation in proton-exchanged Mg:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1429–1437 (1989).
[Crossref]

Selvarajan, A.

A. Selvarajan, K. B. Varma, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal cored fibers of organic nonlinear optical materials,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications III, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2851, 45–49 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, Y.

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal-cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic waves,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. R. Schlossberg, R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE1148, 207–212 (1989).
[Crossref]

Shinozaki, K.

K. Shinozaki, T. Fukunaga, K. Watanabe, T. Kamijoh, “Self-quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in the proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide with periodically domain-inverted regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 510–512 (1991).
[Crossref]

Suhara, T.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265–1276 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sütter, K.

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sütter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene-single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062–2064 (1989).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, Y.

S. Umegaki, Y. Takahashi, A. Manabe, S. Tanaka, “Optical second-harmonic generation in an organic crystal-core fiber,” in Proceedings of the Fall Meeting of the Materials Research Society, Extended Abstracts: Nonlinear Optical Materials, D. A. B. Miller, ed. (Materials Research Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1985) pp. 97–99.

Takano, S.

M. Kawaharada, Y. Yamanaka, H. Endo, S. Ishikawa, S. Takano, N. Ookubo, “Efficient second-harmonic generation using highly purified 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene crystal cored fiber,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CTuP3.

Tamada, H.

H. Tamada, A. Yamada, M. Saitoh, “LiNbO3 thin-film optical waveguide grown by liquid phase epitaxy and its application to second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2536–2541 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

S. Umegaki, Y. Takahashi, A. Manabe, S. Tanaka, “Optical second-harmonic generation in an organic crystal-core fiber,” in Proceedings of the Fall Meeting of the Materials Research Society, Extended Abstracts: Nonlinear Optical Materials, D. A. B. Miller, ed. (Materials Research Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1985) pp. 97–99.

Taniuchi, T.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, “Second-harmonic generation of blue light in a LiTaO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732–2734 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, “Second harmonic generation by Cherenkov radiation in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WR3.

Tohma, T.

K. Chikuma, S. Okamoto, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Collimating properties of an axicon for the Čerenkov-radiation-type second-harmonic light from a crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3198–3202 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal-cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic waves,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. R. Schlossberg, R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE1148, 207–212 (1989).
[Crossref]

Uemiya, T.

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal-cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic waves,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. R. Schlossberg, R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE1148, 207–212 (1989).
[Crossref]

Uenishi, N.

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal-cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic waves,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. R. Schlossberg, R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE1148, 207–212 (1989).
[Crossref]

Uesugi, N.

N. Uesugi, T. Kimura, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in three-dimensional LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 572–574 (1976).
[Crossref]

Umegaki, S.

K. Chikuma, S. Okamoto, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Collimating properties of an axicon for the Čerenkov-radiation-type second-harmonic light from a crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3198–3202 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chikuma, S. Umegaki, “Theory of optical second-harmonic generation in crystal-cored fibers based on phase matching of Čerenkov radiation type,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1083–1092 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, S. Umegaki, “Generation of blue coherent light from a continuous-wave semiconductor laser using an organic crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1535–1537 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal-cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic waves,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. R. Schlossberg, R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE1148, 207–212 (1989).
[Crossref]

S. Umegaki, Y. Takahashi, A. Manabe, S. Tanaka, “Optical second-harmonic generation in an organic crystal-core fiber,” in Proceedings of the Fall Meeting of the Materials Research Society, Extended Abstracts: Nonlinear Optical Materials, D. A. B. Miller, ed. (Materials Research Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1985) pp. 97–99.

Varma, K. B.

A. Selvarajan, K. B. Varma, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal cored fibers of organic nonlinear optical materials,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications III, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2851, 45–49 (1996).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

K. Shinozaki, T. Fukunaga, K. Watanabe, T. Kamijoh, “Self-quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in the proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide with periodically domain-inverted regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 510–512 (1991).
[Crossref]

Yamada, A.

H. Tamada, A. Yamada, M. Saitoh, “LiNbO3 thin-film optical waveguide grown by liquid phase epitaxy and its application to second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2536–2541 (1991).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, “Second-harmonic generation of blue light in a LiTaO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732–2734 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, “Second harmonic generation by Cherenkov radiation in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WR3.

Yamanaka, Y.

M. Kawaharada, Y. Yamanaka, H. Endo, S. Ishikawa, S. Takano, N. Ookubo, “Efficient second-harmonic generation using highly purified 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene crystal cored fiber,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CTuP3.

Zgonik, M.

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sütter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Günter, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene-single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062–2064 (1989).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Crystal-cored fiber of DMNP. The dielectric axes of DMNP and the propagation direction are denoted by X, Y, Z, and z, respectively, and the radiation angle of the second-harmonic wave is denoted by θ C .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Π (2βω) and [(n2ωG)2 - (Nωeff)2]/(λω/a)2 as a function of λω for several values of core radius a. (a) SF11-clad CCF and (b) SF15-clad CCF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Conversion efficiency P /P ω as a function of λω for several values of the core radius a.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Čerenkov radiation angle θ C as a function of λω for several values of the core radius a.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Conversion efficiency P /P ω as a function of λω.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Second-harmonic 481-nm blue-light radiated from an SF11-clad CCF of DMNP.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Change of the SH intensity of Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Lifetime of SF11-clad CCF of DMNP as a function of the initial SH intensity.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Properties of DMNP and DMCP crystals. DMCP = 3,5-dimethyle-1-(3-methyl-4-cyano)pyrazole.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Microscopic photography of a degraded thin-film crystal of DMNP after irradiation of a 488-nm Ar-laser beam.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Lifetime of DMNP crystals as a function of the irradiated-light intensity. Dependence on the wavelength of the irradiated light is clarified.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Lifetime of DMCP crystals as a function of the irradiated-light intensity in comparison to that of DMNP crystals. The lifetime of DMCP is 3 orders longer than that of DMNP.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Evaluation of Organic Nonlinear-Optical Crystals for High Conversion Efficiency

Equations (11)

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PNL=ε0dCJ0Uωr2 exp-i2βωz, Uω=ω2μ0εG-βω21/2,
C2μ0/ε01/2Wω2Pωπa2NωeffUω2+Wω2,
P2ω=4π2ω3μ0ε02d2C2LΠ2βωI2βω,
Π2βω=Re-i η2ωN0aγ2ωH11aη2ω-γ2ωN1aγ2ωH01aη2ωη2ωJ0aγ2ωH11aη2ω-γ2ωJ1aγ2ωH01aη2ω,
I2βω=0a J0γ2ωrJ0Uωr2rdr2.
n2ωG2-Nωeff2<0.093λω/a2,
n2ωG2-nωG2<0.093λω/a2.
nZ22ω=A0Z+A1Zλ/22+A2Zλ/22+A3Zλ/24+A4Zλ/26,
nY2ω=A0Y+A1Yλ2+A2Yλ2+A3Yλ4+A4Yλ6,
Π 2βω=Rei2πη2ωK0aσ2ωH11aη2ω-σ2ωK1aσ2ωH01aη2ωη2ωI0aσ2ωH11aη2ω+σ2ωI1aσ2ωH01aη2ω.
0<n2ωG2-nωG2<0.093λω/a2.

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