Abstract

The Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) Airborne Test Radiometer (MATR) uses gas correlation filter radiometry from high-altitude aircraft to measure tropospheric carbon monoxide. This radiometer is used in support of the ongoing validation campaign for the MOPITT instrument aboard the Earth Observation System Terra satellite. A recent study of MATR CO retrievals that used data from the autumn of 2001 in the western United States is presented. Retrievals of the CO total column were performed and compared to in situ sampling with less than 10% retrieval error. Effects that influence retrieval, such as instrument sensitivity, retrieval sensitivity, and the bias between observations and the radiative transfer model, are discussed. Comparisons of MATR and MOPITT retrievals show promising consistency. A preliminary interpretation of MATR results is also presented.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. M. Thompson, “The oxidizing capacity of the Earth’s atmosphere: probable past and future changes,” Science 256, 1157–1164 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Settle, J. V. Taranik, “Use of the Space Shuttle for remote sensing research: recent results and future prospects,” Science 218, 993–995 (1982).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2003 (3)

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masrie, P. M. Lang, B. D. Hall, R. C. Myers, J. W. Elkins, “Reanalysis of tropospheric CO trends: effects of the 1997–1998 wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003031 (2003).

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

D. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, G. Zibordi, J. D. Chern, J. Mao, C. Li, B. N. Holben, “Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003179 (2003).

1999 (1)

D. P. Edwards, C. M. Halvorson, J. C. Gille, “Radiative transfer modeling for the EOS Terra satellite measurement of pollution in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16755–16775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, “Distributions and recent changes in carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19015–19033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

B. T. Tolton, J. R. Drummond, “Characterization of the length-modulated radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5409–5420 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Snyder, Z. Wan, Y. Zhang, Y.-Z. Feng, “Thermal infrared (3–14 μm) bidirectional reflectance measurements of sands and soils,” Remote Sens. Environ. 60, 101–109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wan, Z.-L. Li, “A physics-based algorithm for retrieving land-surface emissivity and temperature from EOS/MODIS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 980–996 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Atria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 3–5 μm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 345–361 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. M. Thompson, “The oxidizing capacity of the Earth’s atmosphere: probable past and future changes,” Science 256, 1157–1164 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

M. Settle, J. V. Taranik, “Use of the Space Shuttle for remote sensing research: recent results and future prospects,” Science 218, 993–995 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Reichle, S. M. Beck, R. E. Haynes, W. D. Hesketh, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. D. Orr, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, “Carbon monoxide measurements in the troposphere,” Science 218, 1024–1026 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Attie, J.-L.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

Beck, S. M.

H. G. Reichle, S. M. Beck, R. E. Haynes, W. D. Hesketh, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. D. Orr, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, “Carbon monoxide measurements in the troposphere,” Science 218, 1024–1026 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casas, J. C.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

Chern, J. D.

D. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, G. Zibordi, J. D. Chern, J. Mao, C. Li, B. N. Holben, “Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003179 (2003).

Chu, D. A.

D. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, G. Zibordi, J. D. Chern, J. Mao, C. Li, B. N. Holben, “Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003179 (2003).

Condon, E. P.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Connors, V. S.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Crutzen, P. J.

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D’Atria, D. M.

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Atria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 3–5 μm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 345–361 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deeter, M. N.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

Drummond, J. R.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

B. T. Tolton, J. R. Drummond, “Characterization of the length-modulated radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5409–5420 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Drummond, “Measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT),” in The Use of EOS for Studies of Atmospheric Physics, J. C. Gille, G. Visconti, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1992), pp. 77–101.

Edwards, D. P.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

D. P. Edwards, C. M. Halvorson, J. C. Gille, “Radiative transfer modeling for the EOS Terra satellite measurement of pollution in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16755–16775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elkins, J. W.

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masrie, P. M. Lang, B. D. Hall, R. C. Myers, J. W. Elkins, “Reanalysis of tropospheric CO trends: effects of the 1997–1998 wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003031 (2003).

Emmons, L. K.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

Feng, Y.-Z.

W. C. Snyder, Z. Wan, Y. Zhang, Y.-Z. Feng, “Thermal infrared (3–14 μm) bidirectional reflectance measurements of sands and soils,” Remote Sens. Environ. 60, 101–109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Francis, G. L.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

Gille, J. C.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

D. P. Edwards, C. M. Halvorson, J. C. Gille, “Radiative transfer modeling for the EOS Terra satellite measurement of pollution in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16755–16775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gormsen, B. B.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hall, B. D.

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masrie, P. M. Lang, B. D. Hall, R. C. Myers, J. W. Elkins, “Reanalysis of tropospheric CO trends: effects of the 1997–1998 wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003031 (2003).

Halvorson, C. M.

D. P. Edwards, C. M. Halvorson, J. C. Gille, “Radiative transfer modeling for the EOS Terra satellite measurement of pollution in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16755–16775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, R. E.

H. G. Reichle, S. M. Beck, R. E. Haynes, W. D. Hesketh, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. D. Orr, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, “Carbon monoxide measurements in the troposphere,” Science 218, 1024–1026 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidt, L. E.

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hesketh, W. D.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, S. M. Beck, R. E. Haynes, W. D. Hesketh, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. D. Orr, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, “Carbon monoxide measurements in the troposphere,” Science 218, 1024–1026 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S.-P.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

Holben, B. N.

D. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, G. Zibordi, J. D. Chern, J. Mao, C. Li, B. N. Holben, “Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003179 (2003).

Holland, J. A.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, S. M. Beck, R. E. Haynes, W. D. Hesketh, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. D. Orr, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, “Carbon monoxide measurements in the troposphere,” Science 218, 1024–1026 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houghton, J. T.

J. T. Houghton, F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, Remote Sounding of Atmospheres (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1997), pp. 93–107.

Hypes, W. D.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, S. M. Beck, R. E. Haynes, W. D. Hesketh, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. D. Orr, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, “Carbon monoxide measurements in the troposphere,” Science 218, 1024–1026 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufman, Y. J.

D. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, G. Zibordi, J. D. Chern, J. Mao, C. Li, B. N. Holben, “Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003179 (2003).

Khattatov, B.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

Krasnec, J. P.

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lamarque, J.-F.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

Lang, P. M.

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masrie, P. M. Lang, B. D. Hall, R. C. Myers, J. W. Elkins, “Reanalysis of tropospheric CO trends: effects of the 1997–1998 wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003031 (2003).

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, “Distributions and recent changes in carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19015–19033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

D. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, G. Zibordi, J. D. Chern, J. Mao, C. Li, B. N. Holben, “Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003179 (2003).

Li, Z.-L.

Z. Wan, Z.-L. Li, “A physics-based algorithm for retrieving land-surface emissivity and temperature from EOS/MODIS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 980–996 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Logan, J. A.

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mao, D.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

Mao, J.

D. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, G. Zibordi, J. D. Chern, J. Mao, C. Li, B. N. Holben, “Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003179 (2003).

Masarie, K. A.

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, “Distributions and recent changes in carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19015–19033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Masrie, K. A.

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masrie, P. M. Lang, B. D. Hall, R. C. Myers, J. W. Elkins, “Reanalysis of tropospheric CO trends: effects of the 1997–1998 wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003031 (2003).

McElroy, M. B.

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Myers, R. C.

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masrie, P. M. Lang, B. D. Hall, R. C. Myers, J. W. Elkins, “Reanalysis of tropospheric CO trends: effects of the 1997–1998 wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003031 (2003).

Novelli, P. C.

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masrie, P. M. Lang, B. D. Hall, R. C. Myers, J. W. Elkins, “Reanalysis of tropospheric CO trends: effects of the 1997–1998 wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003031 (2003).

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, “Distributions and recent changes in carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19015–19033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Orr, H. D.

H. G. Reichle, S. M. Beck, R. E. Haynes, W. D. Hesketh, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. D. Orr, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, “Carbon monoxide measurements in the troposphere,” Science 218, 1024–1026 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Packman, D.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

Pollock, W. H.

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Prather, M. J.

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Reichle, H. G.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, S. M. Beck, R. E. Haynes, W. D. Hesketh, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. D. Orr, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, “Carbon monoxide measurements in the troposphere,” Science 218, 1024–1026 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodgers, C. D.

J. T. Houghton, F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, Remote Sounding of Atmospheres (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1997), pp. 93–107.

Salisbury, J. W.

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Atria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 3–5 μm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 345–361 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saylor, M. S.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Seiler, W.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Settle, M.

M. Settle, J. V. Taranik, “Use of the Space Shuttle for remote sensing research: recent results and future prospects,” Science 218, 993–995 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherrill, R. T.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, S. M. Beck, R. E. Haynes, W. D. Hesketh, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. D. Orr, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, “Carbon monoxide measurements in the troposphere,” Science 218, 1024–1026 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, W. C.

W. C. Snyder, Z. Wan, Y. Zhang, Y.-Z. Feng, “Thermal infrared (3–14 μm) bidirectional reflectance measurements of sands and soils,” Remote Sens. Environ. 60, 101–109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taranik, J. V.

M. Settle, J. V. Taranik, “Use of the Space Shuttle for remote sensing research: recent results and future prospects,” Science 218, 993–995 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, F. W.

F. W. Taylor, “Pressure modulator radiometry,” in Spectrometric Technique, G. A. Vanasse, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Vol. III, pp. 137–196.

J. T. Houghton, F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, Remote Sounding of Atmospheres (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1997), pp. 93–107.

Thompson, A. M.

A. M. Thompson, “The oxidizing capacity of the Earth’s atmosphere: probable past and future changes,” Science 256, 1157–1164 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolton, B. T.

Wallio, H. A.

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, S. M. Beck, R. E. Haynes, W. D. Hesketh, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. D. Orr, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, “Carbon monoxide measurements in the troposphere,” Science 218, 1024–1026 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, Z.

Z. Wan, Z.-L. Li, “A physics-based algorithm for retrieving land-surface emissivity and temperature from EOS/MODIS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 980–996 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Snyder, Z. Wan, Y. Zhang, Y.-Z. Feng, “Thermal infrared (3–14 μm) bidirectional reflectance measurements of sands and soils,” Remote Sens. Environ. 60, 101–109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wanner, J. X.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

Wofsy, S. C.

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, V.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

Zhang, Y.

W. C. Snyder, Z. Wan, Y. Zhang, Y.-Z. Feng, “Thermal infrared (3–14 μm) bidirectional reflectance measurements of sands and soils,” Remote Sens. Environ. 60, 101–109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zibordi, G.

D. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, G. Zibordi, J. D. Chern, J. Mao, C. Li, B. N. Holben, “Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003179 (2003).

Ziskin, D.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

Z. Wan, Z.-L. Li, “A physics-based algorithm for retrieving land-surface emissivity and temperature from EOS/MODIS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 980–996 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (8)

D. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, G. Zibordi, J. D. Chern, J. Mao, C. Li, B. N. Holben, “Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003179 (2003).

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, “Distributions and recent changes in carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19015–19033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masrie, P. M. Lang, B. D. Hall, R. C. Myers, J. W. Elkins, “Reanalysis of tropospheric CO trends: effects of the 1997–1998 wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003031 (2003).

D. P. Edwards, C. M. Halvorson, J. C. Gille, “Radiative transfer modeling for the EOS Terra satellite measurement of pollution in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16755–16775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Wanner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attie, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4399, doi:10.1029/2002JD003196 (2003).

J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7210–7254 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (2)

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Atria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 3–5 μm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 345–361 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Snyder, Z. Wan, Y. Zhang, Y.-Z. Feng, “Thermal infrared (3–14 μm) bidirectional reflectance measurements of sands and soils,” Remote Sens. Environ. 60, 101–109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

A. M. Thompson, “The oxidizing capacity of the Earth’s atmosphere: probable past and future changes,” Science 256, 1157–1164 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Settle, J. V. Taranik, “Use of the Space Shuttle for remote sensing research: recent results and future prospects,” Science 218, 993–995 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Reichle, S. M. Beck, R. E. Haynes, W. D. Hesketh, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. D. Orr, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, “Carbon monoxide measurements in the troposphere,” Science 218, 1024–1026 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. R. Drummond, “Measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT),” in The Use of EOS for Studies of Atmospheric Physics, J. C. Gille, G. Visconti, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1992), pp. 77–101.

J. T. Houghton, F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, Remote Sounding of Atmospheres (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1997), pp. 93–107.

F. W. Taylor, “Pressure modulator radiometry,” in Spectrometric Technique, G. A. Vanasse, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Vol. III, pp. 137–196.

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Figures (23)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Gas correlation cell response for a single line. Solid curve, average response F A ; dashed curve, difference response F D .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MATR optical layout. The scanning mirror rotates to view the cold blackbody, the hot blackbody, the tungsten lamp, and Earth-view radiation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MATR optical assemblies. These assemblies are enclosed in a foam-insulated box with convective and conductive heating systems to keep the interior temperature stabilized at 32.0 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MATR and MOPITT weighting functions for 14 November 2001 simulated by use of the same input parameters as for the MATR observations, except that a surface pressure of 1000 hPa is specified as the lowest level of each weighting function profile. Calculations for the MOPITT channel weighting functions are shown for an instrument at the TOA and also at the MATR cruising altitude of 200 hPa. Here and in figures below, pressure is given in millibars (mb). 1 mbar = 100 kPa.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Averaging (ave) kernels for 14 November 2001 from two MATR CO estimation approaches for the MOPITT global average CO profile. The approaches were simulated by use of NCEP data at the MATR observation location for this day.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MATR retrieval sensitivity to changing signal for the weighted perturbed approach for measurements at the 200-hPa level on 14 November 2001. The MOPITT CO global average a priori profile was used.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

MATR retrieval sensitivity to changing signal for the uniform perturbed approach for measurements at the 200-hPa level on 14 November 2001. The MOPITT CO global average a priori profile was used.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

MATR LMC radiance bias at several levels.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

With the in situ CMDL-based IGP, the average CO retrieval value on 19 November 2001 for the uniform perturbation approach was 2.13 × 1018 molecules/cm2; for the weighted perturbation approach it was 2.08 × 1018 molecules/cm2. The difference is less than 2.4%.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Histograms of the retrieval results for 19 November 2001. Dashed line, retrieval results for the weighted perturbation approach; solid line, retrieval results for the uniform perturbation approach.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Simultaneous MATR and MOPITT measurements over San Diego on 19 November 2001. The MATR results were obtained by the uniform perturbation approach based on the CMDL IGP. The MOPITT results come from the level-2 version-3 data set.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

MATR measurements over Los Angeles on 16 November 2001. These measurements were retrieved by the uniform perturbation approach. High CO values were found over the city, with lower values over ocean and mountain regions.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Los Angeles surface temperature retrieved by the MATR on 16 November 2001. An apparent temperature decrease can be seen when the last southeast-to-northwest leg crosses the first three legs.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

MOPITT CO total column monthly 0.25-deg average, based on the level-2 version-3 data set over Los Angeles in November 2001. MOPITT data exhibit high CO concentrations, in approximate agreement with the region of high CO observed by the MATR shown in Fig. 12.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

MATR retrievals for 16 November 2001 over Los Angeles (uniform perturbation approach) together with all Los Angeles daytime MOPITT data for November. Most of the MATR observations fall into the MOPITT-retrieval range.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

MATR CO total column over Las Vegas (uniform perturbation approach) on 14 November 2001. Large CO values over elevated terrain can be clearly seen.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Same as Fig. 16, but here a topographic correction has been applied to the CO retrievals.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

All available daytime MOPITT data for November 2001 over the area from 35.6 °N to 36.4 °N latitude and -116.0° to -114.2° longitude, together with MATR results from 14 November (uniform perturbation approach). The MATR retrievals are the result of using an average MOPITT retrieved profile over the MATR observation site as the IGP. MATR retrievals over mountain areas are excluded, as there are large retrieval errors in this region.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

MATR observations over Denver on 20 November 2001 (uniform perturbation approach). Over the eastern part of the city, concentrations are somewhat higher than over the western part.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Monthly average surface wind field over Denver at 14:00 hours in November 2001.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

MOPITT CO total column monthly 0.25-deg average, based on the level-2 version-3 data set over Denver in November 2001. MOPITT data exhibit higher CO concentrations in the east than in the west, in approximate agreement with MATR observations.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

All available MOPITT data for November 2001 in the area from 39.2 °N to 40.4 °N latitude and -105.6° to -104.2° longitude, along with MATR results (uniform perturbation approach) on 20 November 2001.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Correlations at corresponding locations between MATR measurements and the MOPITT monthly average on 0.2° resolution grid maps over Denver, Las Vegas, San Diego, and Los Angeles. The calculated correlation coefficient is ∼0.74.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 MATR Channel Characteristics and the Corresponding MOPITT Channelsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Available Multilevel Flight Dataa,b

Tables Icon

Table 3 20-kPa LMC 4.6-μm Band Properties for the Uniform and Weighted Perturbation Approaches

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

FA=τs1+τs22,
FD=τs1-τs2,
Iνh=Iνzsτν, zs+zsh Bν, Tzdτν, zdzdz,
IiA,D=Δν IνhFiA,Dνdν,
AKi=dQrtridQperti,
relative bias=Dmodel-D¯obsD¯obs,
RS=ΔD/A/D/AΔCO/CO.
NEΔq=1RS×SNR,

Metrics