Abstract

We present an imaging spectrometer developed for narrowband imaging at 1035 Å with high (∼1-arc sec) spatial resolution over a modest field of view (∼5 arc min). The instrument is based on a conventional Gregorian telescope with aberration-corrected holographic rulings on the secondary optic. These aberration-correcting rulings enable stigmatic imaging in diffracted light with a minimum number of optical elements, thereby maintaining a high system efficiency. The capabilities of this instrument allow us to map the distribution of UV-emitting material in the hot (∼300,000 K) plasma from shocks in supernova remnants. Although this design is optimized for imaging near 1035 Å, the basic concept can be applied to provide narrowband imaging or long-slit imaging spectroscopy at any wavelength. In addition, a larger field of view is possible with a corresponding loss in spatial resolution.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2003

A. Heger, C. Fryer, S. Woosley, N. Langer, D. Hartman, “How massive single stars end their life,” Astrophys. J. 591, 288–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Cook, V. Gsell, J. Golub, S. Chakrabarti, “SPINR: a wide-field ultraviolet spectral imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 585, 1177–1190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

C. Danforth, R. Cornett, N. Levenson, W. Blair, T. Stecher, “A comparison of ultraviolet, optical, and x-ray imagery of selected fields in the Cygnus Loop,” Astron. J. 119, 2319–2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Raymond, J. Hester, S. Curiel, “[Ne v] imaging of the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 529, 279–292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Sankrit, W. Blair, J. Raymond, K. Long, “Hubble space telescope STIS observations of the Cygnus Loop: spatial structure of a non-radiative shock,” Astron. J. 120, 1925–1932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

W. Blair, R. Sankrit, J. Raymond, K. Long, “Distance to the Cygnus Loop from Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the primary shock front,” Astron. J. 118, 942–947 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Bally, R. Sutherland, D. Devine, D. Johnstone, “Externally illuminated young stellar environments in the Orion Nebula: Hubble Space Telescope planetary camera and ultraviolet observations,” Astrophys. J. 116, 293–321 (1998).

1994

C. Palmer, W. McKinney, “Imaging theory of plane-symmetric varied line-space grating systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 820–829 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Rasmussen, C. Martin, “Global O VI emission from the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant and direct kinematic measurement of the associated shock,” Astrophys. J. 369, 103–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Long, W. Blair, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, J. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. Raymond, “Supernova-remnant shock waves close up,” Publ. Astron. Soc Pac. 103, 781–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Meier, “Ultraviolet spectroscopy and remote sensing of the upper atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 58, 1–185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, J. Holberg, “Far-ultraviolet mapping of the Cygnus Loop with Voyager 2 ultraviolet spectrometer,” Astrophys. J. 373, 202–211 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1987

A. C. Raga, M. Mateo, “Narrowband imaging of the Herbig-Haro object hh 46/47,” Astron. J. 94, 684–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

S. Chakrabarti, R. Kimble, S. Bowyer, “Spectroscopy of the EUV (350–1400 Å) nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5660–5664 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Raymond, “Observations of supernova remnants,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 22, 75–95 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. Raymond, W. Blair, R. Fesen, T. Gull, “The structure and emission spectrum of a non-radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 275, 636–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

R. Fesen, W. Blair, R. Kirshner, “Spectrophotometry of the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 262, 171–188 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. Raymond, L. Hartman, J. Black, A. Dupree, R. Wolff, “Ultraviolet observations of the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 238, 881–885 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. Raymond, “Shock waves in the interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 39, 1–27 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974

1971

Andrews, J.

J. Morse, J. Green, D. Ebbets, J. Andrews, S. Heap, C. Leitherer, B. Savage, J. Shull, T. Snow, A. Stern, O. Siegmund, J. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, A. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bally, J.

J. Bally, R. Sutherland, D. Devine, D. Johnstone, “Externally illuminated young stellar environments in the Orion Nebula: Hubble Space Telescope planetary camera and ultraviolet observations,” Astrophys. J. 116, 293–321 (1998).

Bautz, M.

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beasley, M.

E. Wilkinson, R. Indebtouw, M. Beasley, “Novel technique for narrow-band imaging in the far ultraviolet based on aberration-corrected holographic gratings,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3244–3255 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Wilkinson, N. Schneider, S. Steg, J. Westfall, B. Lamprecht, J. A. O. Siegmund, M. Beasley, “A compact high-throughput imaging EUV/FUV spectrometer,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 479–487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Black, J.

J. Raymond, L. Hartman, J. Black, A. Dupree, R. Wolff, “Ultraviolet observations of the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 238, 881–885 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Blair, W.

C. Danforth, R. Cornett, N. Levenson, W. Blair, T. Stecher, “A comparison of ultraviolet, optical, and x-ray imagery of selected fields in the Cygnus Loop,” Astron. J. 119, 2319–2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Sankrit, W. Blair, J. Raymond, K. Long, “Hubble space telescope STIS observations of the Cygnus Loop: spatial structure of a non-radiative shock,” Astron. J. 120, 1925–1932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Blair, R. Sankrit, J. Raymond, K. Long, “Distance to the Cygnus Loop from Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the primary shock front,” Astron. J. 118, 942–947 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Long, W. Blair, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, J. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, J. Holberg, “Far-ultraviolet mapping of the Cygnus Loop with Voyager 2 ultraviolet spectrometer,” Astrophys. J. 373, 202–211 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Raymond, W. Blair, R. Fesen, T. Gull, “The structure and emission spectrum of a non-radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 275, 636–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Fesen, W. Blair, R. Kirshner, “Spectrophotometry of the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 262, 171–188 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, C.

K. Long, W. Blair, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, J. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, S.

S. Chakrabarti, R. Kimble, S. Bowyer, “Spectroscopy of the EUV (350–1400 Å) nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5660–5664 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brownsberger, K.

J. Morse, J. Green, D. Ebbets, J. Andrews, S. Heap, C. Leitherer, B. Savage, J. Shull, T. Snow, A. Stern, O. Siegmund, J. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, A. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Canizares, C.

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cen, R.

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, S.

T. Cook, V. Gsell, J. Golub, S. Chakrabarti, “SPINR: a wide-field ultraviolet spectral imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 585, 1177–1190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, R. Kimble, S. Bowyer, “Spectroscopy of the EUV (350–1400 Å) nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5660–5664 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cook, T.

T. Cook, V. Gsell, J. Golub, S. Chakrabarti, “SPINR: a wide-field ultraviolet spectral imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 585, 1177–1190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cornett, R.

C. Danforth, R. Cornett, N. Levenson, W. Blair, T. Stecher, “A comparison of ultraviolet, optical, and x-ray imagery of selected fields in the Cygnus Loop,” Astron. J. 119, 2319–2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Craig, N.

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Curiel, S.

A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Raymond, J. Hester, S. Curiel, “[Ne v] imaging of the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 529, 279–292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dalarno, A.

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Danforth, C.

C. Danforth, R. Cornett, N. Levenson, W. Blair, T. Stecher, “A comparison of ultraviolet, optical, and x-ray imagery of selected fields in the Cygnus Loop,” Astron. J. 119, 2319–2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davidsen, A.

K. Long, W. Blair, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, J. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Devine, D.

J. Bally, R. Sutherland, D. Devine, D. Johnstone, “Externally illuminated young stellar environments in the Orion Nebula: Hubble Space Telescope planetary camera and ultraviolet observations,” Astrophys. J. 116, 293–321 (1998).

Dixon, W. V. D.

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dupree, A.

J. Raymond, L. Hartman, J. Black, A. Dupree, R. Wolff, “Ultraviolet observations of the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 238, 881–885 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Durrance, S.

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ebbets, D.

J. Morse, J. Green, D. Ebbets, J. Andrews, S. Heap, C. Leitherer, B. Savage, J. Shull, T. Snow, A. Stern, O. Siegmund, J. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, A. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edelstein, J.

J. Edelstein, “Reflection/suppression coatings for 900–1200 Å radiation,” in X-Ray/Euv Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1160, 19–25 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, P.

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, H.

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fesen, R.

J. Raymond, W. Blair, R. Fesen, T. Gull, “The structure and emission spectrum of a non-radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 275, 636–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Fesen, W. Blair, R. Kirshner, “Spectrophotometry of the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 262, 171–188 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in fortran: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).

Friedman, S.

J. Green, E. Wilkinson, S. Friedman, “Design of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectrograph,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2283, 12–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fryer, C.

A. Heger, C. Fryer, S. Woosley, N. Langer, D. Hartman, “How massive single stars end their life,” Astrophys. J. 591, 288–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Golub, J.

T. Cook, V. Gsell, J. Golub, S. Chakrabarti, “SPINR: a wide-field ultraviolet spectral imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 585, 1177–1190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Green, J.

J. Morse, J. Green, D. Ebbets, J. Andrews, S. Heap, C. Leitherer, B. Savage, J. Shull, T. Snow, A. Stern, O. Siegmund, J. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, A. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Green, E. Wilkinson, S. Friedman, “Design of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectrograph,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2283, 12–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gsell, V.

T. Cook, V. Gsell, J. Golub, S. Chakrabarti, “SPINR: a wide-field ultraviolet spectral imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 585, 1177–1190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gull, T.

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Raymond, W. Blair, R. Fesen, T. Gull, “The structure and emission spectrum of a non-radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 275, 636–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gummin, M.

O. Siegmund, M. Gummin, “Cross-strip anodes for microchannel plate imaging detectors,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gammin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 397–406 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, D.

A. Heger, C. Fryer, S. Woosley, N. Langer, D. Hartman, “How massive single stars end their life,” Astrophys. J. 591, 288–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, L.

J. Raymond, L. Hartman, J. Black, A. Dupree, R. Wolff, “Ultraviolet observations of the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 238, 881–885 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hass, G.

Heap, S.

J. Morse, J. Green, D. Ebbets, J. Andrews, S. Heap, C. Leitherer, B. Savage, J. Shull, T. Snow, A. Stern, O. Siegmund, J. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, A. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heger, A.

A. Heger, C. Fryer, S. Woosley, N. Langer, D. Hartman, “How massive single stars end their life,” Astrophys. J. 591, 288–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heiles, C.

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Henry, R.

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hester, J.

A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Raymond, J. Hester, S. Curiel, “[Ne v] imaging of the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 529, 279–292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holberg, J.

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, J. Holberg, “Far-ultraviolet mapping of the Cygnus Loop with Voyager 2 ultraviolet spectrometer,” Astrophys. J. 373, 202–211 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

Indebtouw, R.

E. Wilkinson, R. Indebtouw, M. Beasley, “Novel technique for narrow-band imaging in the far ultraviolet based on aberration-corrected holographic gratings,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3244–3255 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Wilkinson, R. Indebtouw, “Holographic telescope design for narrowband imaging in the far ultraviolet,” in Projection Displays III, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3013, 426–432 (2000).

Jenkins, E.

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnstone, D.

J. Bally, R. Sutherland, D. Devine, D. Johnstone, “Externally illuminated young stellar environments in the Orion Nebula: Hubble Space Telescope planetary camera and ultraviolet observations,” Astrophys. J. 116, 293–321 (1998).

Kimble, R.

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, R. Kimble, S. Bowyer, “Spectroscopy of the EUV (350–1400 Å) nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5660–5664 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kirshner, R.

R. Fesen, W. Blair, R. Kirshner, “Spectrophotometry of the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 262, 171–188 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kriss, G.

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kruk, J.

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

E. Wilkinson, N. Schneider, S. Steg, J. Westfall, B. Lamprecht, J. A. O. Siegmund, M. Beasley, “A compact high-throughput imaging EUV/FUV spectrometer,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 479–487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Langer, N.

A. Heger, C. Fryer, S. Woosley, N. Langer, D. Hartman, “How massive single stars end their life,” Astrophys. J. 591, 288–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lapington, J.

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitherer, C.

J. Morse, J. Green, D. Ebbets, J. Andrews, S. Heap, C. Leitherer, B. Savage, J. Shull, T. Snow, A. Stern, O. Siegmund, J. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, A. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, N.

C. Danforth, R. Cornett, N. Levenson, W. Blair, T. Stecher, “A comparison of ultraviolet, optical, and x-ray imagery of selected fields in the Cygnus Loop,” Astron. J. 119, 2319–2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Long, K.

R. Sankrit, W. Blair, J. Raymond, K. Long, “Hubble space telescope STIS observations of the Cygnus Loop: spatial structure of a non-radiative shock,” Astron. J. 120, 1925–1932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Blair, R. Sankrit, J. Raymond, K. Long, “Distance to the Cygnus Loop from Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the primary shock front,” Astron. J. 118, 942–947 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Long, W. Blair, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, J. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, J. Holberg, “Far-ultraviolet mapping of the Cygnus Loop with Voyager 2 ultraviolet spectrometer,” Astrophys. J. 373, 202–211 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Malacara, D.

Martin, C.

A. Rasmussen, C. Martin, “Global O VI emission from the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant and direct kinematic measurement of the associated shock,” Astrophys. J. 369, 103–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mateo, M.

A. C. Raga, M. Mateo, “Narrowband imaging of the Herbig-Haro object hh 46/47,” Astron. J. 94, 684–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McKinney, W.

C. Palmer, W. McKinney, “Imaging theory of plane-symmetric varied line-space grating systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 820–829 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meier, R. R.

R. R. Meier, “Ultraviolet spectroscopy and remote sensing of the upper atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 58, 1–185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miller, H. R.

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moos, W.

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Morse, J.

J. Morse, J. Green, D. Ebbets, J. Andrews, S. Heap, C. Leitherer, B. Savage, J. Shull, T. Snow, A. Stern, O. Siegmund, J. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, A. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Namioka, T.

Noda, H.

Osantowski, J. F.

Ostriker, J.

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, C.

C. Palmer, W. McKinney, “Imaging theory of plane-symmetric varied line-space grating systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 820–829 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in fortran: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).

Raga, A. C.

A. C. Raga, M. Mateo, “Narrowband imaging of the Herbig-Haro object hh 46/47,” Astron. J. 94, 684–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, A.

A. Rasmussen, C. Martin, “Global O VI emission from the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant and direct kinematic measurement of the associated shock,” Astrophys. J. 369, 103–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, J.

A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Raymond, J. Hester, S. Curiel, “[Ne v] imaging of the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 529, 279–292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Sankrit, W. Blair, J. Raymond, K. Long, “Hubble space telescope STIS observations of the Cygnus Loop: spatial structure of a non-radiative shock,” Astron. J. 120, 1925–1932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Blair, R. Sankrit, J. Raymond, K. Long, “Distance to the Cygnus Loop from Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the primary shock front,” Astron. J. 118, 942–947 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Long, W. Blair, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, J. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Raymond, “Supernova-remnant shock waves close up,” Publ. Astron. Soc Pac. 103, 781–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Raymond, “Observations of supernova remnants,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 22, 75–95 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Raymond, W. Blair, R. Fesen, T. Gull, “The structure and emission spectrum of a non-radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 275, 636–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Raymond, L. Hartman, J. Black, A. Dupree, R. Wolff, “Ultraviolet observations of the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 238, 881–885 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Raymond, “Shock waves in the interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 39, 1–27 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sankrit, R.

R. Sankrit, W. Blair, J. Raymond, K. Long, “Hubble space telescope STIS observations of the Cygnus Loop: spatial structure of a non-radiative shock,” Astron. J. 120, 1925–1932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Blair, R. Sankrit, J. Raymond, K. Long, “Distance to the Cygnus Loop from Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the primary shock front,” Astron. J. 118, 942–947 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Savage, B.

J. Morse, J. Green, D. Ebbets, J. Andrews, S. Heap, C. Leitherer, B. Savage, J. Shull, T. Snow, A. Stern, O. Siegmund, J. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, A. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, N.

E. Wilkinson, N. Schneider, S. Steg, J. Westfall, B. Lamprecht, J. A. O. Siegmund, M. Beasley, “A compact high-throughput imaging EUV/FUV spectrometer,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 479–487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sembach, K.

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seya, M.

Shull, J.

J. Morse, J. Green, D. Ebbets, J. Andrews, S. Heap, C. Leitherer, B. Savage, J. Shull, T. Snow, A. Stern, O. Siegmund, J. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, A. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shull, J. M.

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siegmund, J. A. O.

E. Wilkinson, N. Schneider, S. Steg, J. Westfall, B. Lamprecht, J. A. O. Siegmund, M. Beasley, “A compact high-throughput imaging EUV/FUV spectrometer,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 479–487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siegmund, O.

O. Siegmund, “Photocathode quantum efficiency,” University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (personal communication, 2001).

O. Siegmund, M. Gummin, “Cross-strip anodes for microchannel plate imaging detectors,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gammin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 397–406 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Morse, J. Green, D. Ebbets, J. Andrews, S. Heap, C. Leitherer, B. Savage, J. Shull, T. Snow, A. Stern, O. Siegmund, J. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, A. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Snow, T.

J. Morse, J. Green, D. Ebbets, J. Andrews, S. Heap, C. Leitherer, B. Savage, J. Shull, T. Snow, A. Stern, O. Siegmund, J. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, A. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spitzer, L.

L. Spitzer, Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium (Wiley, New York, 1978).

Stecher, T.

C. Danforth, R. Cornett, N. Levenson, W. Blair, T. Stecher, “A comparison of ultraviolet, optical, and x-ray imagery of selected fields in the Cygnus Loop,” Astron. J. 119, 2319–2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steg, S.

E. Wilkinson, N. Schneider, S. Steg, J. Westfall, B. Lamprecht, J. A. O. Siegmund, M. Beasley, “A compact high-throughput imaging EUV/FUV spectrometer,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 479–487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stern, A.

J. Morse, J. Green, D. Ebbets, J. Andrews, S. Heap, C. Leitherer, B. Savage, J. Shull, T. Snow, A. Stern, O. Siegmund, J. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, A. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stocke, J.

J. Morse, J. Green, D. Ebbets, J. Andrews, S. Heap, C. Leitherer, B. Savage, J. Shull, T. Snow, A. Stern, O. Siegmund, J. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, A. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R.

J. Bally, R. Sutherland, D. Devine, D. Johnstone, “Externally illuminated young stellar environments in the Orion Nebula: Hubble Space Telescope planetary camera and ultraviolet observations,” Astrophys. J. 116, 293–321 (1998).

Szentgyorgyi, A.

A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Raymond, J. Hester, S. Curiel, “[Ne v] imaging of the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 529, 279–292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in fortran: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).

Vancura, O.

K. Long, W. Blair, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, J. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, C. Bowers, A. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. Durrance, P. Feldman, H. Ferguson, R. Henry, R. Kimble, G. Kriss, J. Kruk, W. Moos, T. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins ultraviolet telescope,” Astrophys. J. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Blair, K. Long, O. Vancura, J. Holberg, “Far-ultraviolet mapping of the Cygnus Loop with Voyager 2 ultraviolet spectrometer,” Astrophys. J. 373, 202–211 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in fortran: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).

Westfall, J.

E. Wilkinson, N. Schneider, S. Steg, J. Westfall, B. Lamprecht, J. A. O. Siegmund, M. Beasley, “A compact high-throughput imaging EUV/FUV spectrometer,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 479–487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, E.

E. Wilkinson, R. Indebtouw, M. Beasley, “Novel technique for narrow-band imaging in the far ultraviolet based on aberration-corrected holographic gratings,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3244–3255 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Morse, J. Green, D. Ebbets, J. Andrews, S. Heap, C. Leitherer, B. Savage, J. Shull, T. Snow, A. Stern, O. Siegmund, J. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, A. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Wilkinson, N. Schneider, S. Steg, J. Westfall, B. Lamprecht, J. A. O. Siegmund, M. Beasley, “A compact high-throughput imaging EUV/FUV spectrometer,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 479–487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Green, E. Wilkinson, S. Friedman, “Design of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectrograph,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2283, 12–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Wilkinson, R. Indebtouw, “Holographic telescope design for narrowband imaging in the far ultraviolet,” in Projection Displays III, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3013, 426–432 (2000).

Witt, A.

S. Chakrabarti, M. Bautz, C. Canizares, R. Cen, T. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalarno, C. Heiles, E. Jenkins, J. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. Ostriker, K. Sembach, J. M. Shull, A. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible space Astrophysics Mission and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades, O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4854, 356–363 (2003).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Target shock of the ISIS payload. This is a nonradiative shock at the northeast Cygnus Loop. Image courtesy of Digital Sky Survey.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

General layout of our imaging spectrograph design. Our design is based on an off-axis Gregorian telescope with aberration-corrected rulings on the secondary optic. Note that the images form in undiffracted light (center) and in an overlapagram (right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectroscopic and recording geometry.26 The object or source is represented by point A and the corresponding diffracted image by point B. The stigmatic recording sources are shown as points C and D. Point O is the coordinate system origin and point P is an arbitrary point on the grating surface from which the light is diffracted.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ray trace of spots for various off-axis angles at 1035 Å. These spots demonstrate that the imaging performance of ISIS is maintained across the field of view of interest. Here 1 arc sec corresponds to 31.5 μm, the size of the circle in the lower left-hand plot. (0′ × 3′), for example, is a point source of 0 arc min by 3 arc min.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ray trace of 1-arc sec rings at 1032 and 1038 Å from the ISIS instrument to demonstrate quality of imaging without detector effects included. This image is of a bulls-eye pattern at infinite distance with 1-arc-sec-thick rings separated by 1 arc sec.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical zero-order versus first-order focus demonstrating the dependence on piston of the secondary optic for zero order (solid line) and first order (dashed curve). Except for the best focus, where the first-order focus is never quite as good as the theoretical focus for the telescope in zero order, they match each other, allowing the telescope focus to be used to focus the first-order light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured UV focus curve showing the ultimate performance of ISIS convolved with the aberrations present in the vacuum collimator. The reference wavelength is 1025-Å Lyman β. The final resolution was limited by the performance of the collimator to 2.5 arc sec FWHM.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Deep image of hydrogen-argon emission spectrum. There is an efficiency drop-off at ∼1000 Å at 17 mm that is a result of the shortwave cutoff of the lithium fluoride coating. It can be easily seen that Lyman β is at 1025 Å (21 mm), ArI is at 1048 Å (24.5 mm), and ArI is at 1066 Å (27.3 mm); the small feature at 12 mm is due to Lyman γ at 972 Å.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plot showing the linearity between the zero-order detector and the first-order detector. The crosses are the data points and the line shows the linear fit. The deviation from perfect is 1.16 arc sec across the entire field; this is roughly what we would expect from the variable beam from our UV collimator.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Flight data. This image comprises 20 s of flight data from 18 November 2002. Note that the Lyman β 1025-Å image is round (from 20 to 30 mm in x and 15 to 25 mm in y, as is the edge of the NI 911-Å airglow. Lyman α airglow is well controlled, with scattered light being much fainter than the Lyman β that is directly imaged on the detector.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Holographic Recording Geometry

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Table 2 Definition of Aberration Coefficientsa

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Table 3 Telescope Parameters

Equations (10)

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F=AP+BP+mλλ0CP-DP-CO-DO.
Fijk=Mijk+mλλ0 Hijk,
x=i=0j=0 aijyizj.
rc=11rd+X4+λ0λX3-1r-1r,
rd=cos2 γ-cos2 δX2-λ0λcos2 αr+cos2 βr-X1+cos2 γX4-λ0λ1r+1r-X3,
X1=2a20cosα+ cosβ,
X2=2a20cosγ- cosδ,
X3=2a02cosα+ cosβ,
X4=2a02cosγ- cosδ.
δ=sin-1λ0σ+sinγ.

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