Abstract

We reported a new approach to the fabrication of three-dimensional refractive-index-modified microstructures inside transparent materials by combining two-dimensional writing by scanning the focus of the femtosecond laser pulse and by forming the long filament in the third dimension. In this way, embedded diffractive beam shapers of grid, square, and ring gratings were obtained in the bulk of fused silica by use of a femtosecond laser with a wavelength of 810 nm and a repetition rate of 1 KHz. These structures and their refractive efficiencies were optimized by selection of the appropriate fabrication parameters, including the pulse energy, grating period, scanning speed, and scanning repetition. The good performance of these devices indicates that, owing to its simple and flexible method for fabricating complex phase elements inside transparent materials, this technique has potential applications to integrated optics.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. N. Glezer, E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882–884 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Watanabe, D. Kuroda, K. Itoh, J. Nishii, “Fabrication of Fresnel zone plate embedded in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 10, 978–983 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2200–2202 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196–198 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Guo, H. Jiang, X. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Fabrication of grating structures by femtosecond laser in block silica glasses.”
  12. G. T. Borek, D. R. Brown, “High performance diffractive optics for beam shaping,” in Diffractive and Holographic Technologies, Systems and Spatial Light Modulators VI, S. Jose, ed., Proc. SPIE3633, 51–60 (1999).
  13. M. R. Gomez-Colin, A. Olivares-Perez, B. Pinto-Iguanero, M. Ortiz-Gutierrez, M. Perez-Cortez, J. L. Juarez-Perez, “Conical beams made with radial amplitude computer holograms,” in Practical Holography XVI and Holographic Materials VIII, S. A. Benton, S. H. Stevenson, T. J. Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE4659, 148–155 (2002).
  14. Y. Ogura, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, Y. Mokuno, K. Matsuoka, “Diffractive phase element for reducing a diameter of main-lobe of a focal spot,” in Optical Storage and Optical Information Processing, H.-P. D. Shieh, T. D. Milster, eds., Proc. SPIE4081, 226–235 (2000).
  15. H. G. Chatellus, E. Freysz, “Characterization and dynamics of gratings induced in glasses by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1165–1167 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2003

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

1999

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

E. N. Glezer, E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

Baumberg, J. J.

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2200–2202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berge, L.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, L. Berge, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2139021–2139024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Borek, G. T.

G. T. Borek, D. R. Brown, “High performance diffractive optics for beam shaping,” in Diffractive and Holographic Technologies, Systems and Spatial Light Modulators VI, S. Jose, ed., Proc. SPIE3633, 51–60 (1999).

Borrelli, N. F.

Bricchi, E.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2200–2202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. R.

G. T. Borek, D. R. Brown, “High performance diffractive optics for beam shaping,” in Diffractive and Holographic Technologies, Systems and Spatial Light Modulators VI, S. Jose, ed., Proc. SPIE3633, 51–60 (1999).

Chatellus, H. G.

Chin, S. L.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, L. Berge, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2139021–2139024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Franco, M.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, L. Berge, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2139021–2139024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Freysz, E.

Glezer, E. N.

E. N. Glezer, E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gomez-Colin, M. R.

M. R. Gomez-Colin, A. Olivares-Perez, B. Pinto-Iguanero, M. Ortiz-Gutierrez, M. Perez-Cortez, J. L. Juarez-Perez, “Conical beams made with radial amplitude computer holograms,” in Practical Holography XVI and Holographic Materials VIII, S. A. Benton, S. H. Stevenson, T. J. Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE4659, 148–155 (2002).

Gong, Q.

H. Guo, H. Jiang, X. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Fabrication of grating structures by femtosecond laser in block silica glasses.”

Guo, H.

H. Guo, H. Jiang, X. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Fabrication of grating structures by femtosecond laser in block silica glasses.”

Hirao, K.

Ichioka, Y.

Y. Ogura, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, Y. Mokuno, K. Matsuoka, “Diffractive phase element for reducing a diameter of main-lobe of a focal spot,” in Optical Storage and Optical Information Processing, H.-P. D. Shieh, T. D. Milster, eds., Proc. SPIE4081, 226–235 (2000).

Itoh, K.

Jiang, H.

H. Guo, H. Jiang, X. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Fabrication of grating structures by femtosecond laser in block silica glasses.”

Juarez-Perez, J. L.

M. R. Gomez-Colin, A. Olivares-Perez, B. Pinto-Iguanero, M. Ortiz-Gutierrez, M. Perez-Cortez, J. L. Juarez-Perez, “Conical beams made with radial amplitude computer holograms,” in Practical Holography XVI and Holographic Materials VIII, S. A. Benton, S. H. Stevenson, T. J. Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE4659, 148–155 (2002).

Kazansky, P. G.

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2200–2202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klappauf, B. G.

Kuroda, D.

Matsuoka, K.

Y. Ogura, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, Y. Mokuno, K. Matsuoka, “Diffractive phase element for reducing a diameter of main-lobe of a focal spot,” in Optical Storage and Optical Information Processing, H.-P. D. Shieh, T. D. Milster, eds., Proc. SPIE4081, 226–235 (2000).

Mazur, E.

E. N. Glezer, E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mills, J. D.

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2200–2202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Mokuno, Y.

Y. Ogura, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, Y. Mokuno, K. Matsuoka, “Diffractive phase element for reducing a diameter of main-lobe of a focal spot,” in Optical Storage and Optical Information Processing, H.-P. D. Shieh, T. D. Milster, eds., Proc. SPIE4081, 226–235 (2000).

Mysyrowicz, A.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, L. Berge, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2139021–2139024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, M.-C.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. T.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Ogura, Y.

Y. Ogura, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, Y. Mokuno, K. Matsuoka, “Diffractive phase element for reducing a diameter of main-lobe of a focal spot,” in Optical Storage and Optical Information Processing, H.-P. D. Shieh, T. D. Milster, eds., Proc. SPIE4081, 226–235 (2000).

Olivares-Perez, A.

M. R. Gomez-Colin, A. Olivares-Perez, B. Pinto-Iguanero, M. Ortiz-Gutierrez, M. Perez-Cortez, J. L. Juarez-Perez, “Conical beams made with radial amplitude computer holograms,” in Practical Holography XVI and Holographic Materials VIII, S. A. Benton, S. H. Stevenson, T. J. Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE4659, 148–155 (2002).

Ortiz-Gutierrez, M.

M. R. Gomez-Colin, A. Olivares-Perez, B. Pinto-Iguanero, M. Ortiz-Gutierrez, M. Perez-Cortez, J. L. Juarez-Perez, “Conical beams made with radial amplitude computer holograms,” in Practical Holography XVI and Holographic Materials VIII, S. A. Benton, S. H. Stevenson, T. J. Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE4659, 148–155 (2002).

Perez-Cortez, M.

M. R. Gomez-Colin, A. Olivares-Perez, B. Pinto-Iguanero, M. Ortiz-Gutierrez, M. Perez-Cortez, J. L. Juarez-Perez, “Conical beams made with radial amplitude computer holograms,” in Practical Holography XVI and Holographic Materials VIII, S. A. Benton, S. H. Stevenson, T. J. Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE4659, 148–155 (2002).

Petit, S.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pinto-Iguanero, B.

M. R. Gomez-Colin, A. Olivares-Perez, B. Pinto-Iguanero, M. Ortiz-Gutierrez, M. Perez-Cortez, J. L. Juarez-Perez, “Conical beams made with radial amplitude computer holograms,” in Practical Holography XVI and Holographic Materials VIII, S. A. Benton, S. H. Stevenson, T. J. Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE4659, 148–155 (2002).

Prade, B.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, L. Berge, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2139021–2139024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saliminia, A.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Streltsov, A. M.

Sudrie, L.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, L. Berge, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2139021–2139024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Tanida, J.

Y. Ogura, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, Y. Mokuno, K. Matsuoka, “Diffractive phase element for reducing a diameter of main-lobe of a focal spot,” in Optical Storage and Optical Information Processing, H.-P. D. Shieh, T. D. Milster, eds., Proc. SPIE4081, 226–235 (2000).

Toma, T.

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, L. Berge, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2139021–2139024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, R.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

H. Guo, H. Jiang, X. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Fabrication of grating structures by femtosecond laser in block silica glasses.”

Watanabe, W.

Yamada, K.

Yang, H.

H. Guo, H. Jiang, X. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Fabrication of grating structures by femtosecond laser in block silica glasses.”

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. N. Glezer, E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, L. Berge, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2139021–2139024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Guo, H. Jiang, X. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Fabrication of grating structures by femtosecond laser in block silica glasses.”

G. T. Borek, D. R. Brown, “High performance diffractive optics for beam shaping,” in Diffractive and Holographic Technologies, Systems and Spatial Light Modulators VI, S. Jose, ed., Proc. SPIE3633, 51–60 (1999).

M. R. Gomez-Colin, A. Olivares-Perez, B. Pinto-Iguanero, M. Ortiz-Gutierrez, M. Perez-Cortez, J. L. Juarez-Perez, “Conical beams made with radial amplitude computer holograms,” in Practical Holography XVI and Holographic Materials VIII, S. A. Benton, S. H. Stevenson, T. J. Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE4659, 148–155 (2002).

Y. Ogura, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, Y. Mokuno, K. Matsuoka, “Diffractive phase element for reducing a diameter of main-lobe of a focal spot,” in Optical Storage and Optical Information Processing, H.-P. D. Shieh, T. D. Milster, eds., Proc. SPIE4081, 226–235 (2000).

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