Abstract

An experimental method is presented for characterization of the combined intensity and frequency modulation produced when the injection current of a laser diode is modulated. The reported technique is based on the analysis of the harmonic signals produced when a modulated laser is used to probe a gas absorption line by the so-called wavelength-modulation spectroscopy method. Based on a theoretical model of this technique, we present two methods that facilitate the determination of (i) the deviation in laser frequency and (ii) the phase shift between intensity and frequency modulation. These methods are illustrated experimentally by measurement of the modulation parameters of a 2-μm distributed-feedback laser by use of a CO2 absorption line. The experimental results have been compared with those obtained with another traditional method and have shown full agreement in the frequency range (400 Hz-30 kHz) considered.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Supplee, E. A. Whittaker, W. Lenth, “Theoretical description of frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6294–6302 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. T. Cassidy, L. J. Bonnell, “Trace gas detection with short-external-cavity InGaAsP diode laser transmitter modules operating at 1.58 μm,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2688–2693 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Lucchesini, I. Longo, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, L. Moi, “Diode laser spectroscopy of methane overtone transitions,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5211–5216 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, “Modulation spectroscopy with a semiconductor diode laser by injection-current modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1945–1950 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1185–1190 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Reid, B. K. Garside, M. El-Sherbiny, E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity point monitoring of atmospheric gases employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1806–1810 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Loewenstein, “Diode laser harmonic spectroscopy applied to in situ measurements of atmospheric trace molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 249–256 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Frequency- and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 118–122 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, S. W. Sharpe, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Spectral and modulation performance of quantum cascade lasers with application to remote sensing,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 11–22 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40, 321–326 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Gabrysch, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Simultaneous detection of CO and CO2 using a semiconductor diode laser at 1.578 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 75–79 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Lucchesini, M. De Rosa, D. Pellicia, A. Ciucci, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, “Diode laser spectroscopy of overtone bands of acetylene,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 277–282 (1996).
  16. U. Gustafsson, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Svanberg, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy with blue diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3774–3780 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Jacobsen, H. Olesen, F. Birkedahl, “Current/frequency-modulation characteristics for directly optical frequency-modulated injection lasers at 830 nm and 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 18, 874–876 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, “A theoretical and experimental analysis of modulated laser fields and power spectra,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 2069–2080 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Imai, K. Kawakita, “Measurement of direct frequency modulation characteristics of laser diodes by Michelson interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 29, 348–353 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Tsuchida, T. Tako, M. Ohtsu, “A novel technique for measuring the frequency deviation of semiconductor lasers under direct modulation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L19–L21 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, “Phase delay between intensity and frequency modulation of a semiconductor laser (including a new measurement method),” in Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Optical Communication (n.p., 1982), pp. 291–295.
  22. S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6728–6738 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Schilt, “Mesure de traces de gaz à l’aide de lasers à semi-conducteur,” Ph.D. dissertation (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, 2002).
  24. P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. Lindberg, O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry—an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277–1354 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Arndt, “Analytical line shapes for Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522–2524 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. F. Wittgrefe, M. D. Hoogerland, J. P. Woerdman, “Semiconductor lasers for spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 304–311 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Saito, O. Nilsson, Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent FSK transmitter using a negative feedback stabilized semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 20, 703–704 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. Lindberg, O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry—an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277–1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40, 321–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Gabrysch, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Simultaneous detection of CO and CO2 using a semiconductor diode laser at 1.578 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 75–79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, “Modulation spectroscopy with a semiconductor diode laser by injection-current modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1945–1950 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Lucchesini, M. De Rosa, D. Pellicia, A. Ciucci, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, “Diode laser spectroscopy of overtone bands of acetylene,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 277–282 (1996).

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

A. Lucchesini, I. Longo, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, L. Moi, “Diode laser spectroscopy of methane overtone transitions,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5211–5216 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Frequency- and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 118–122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

F. Wittgrefe, M. D. Hoogerland, J. P. Woerdman, “Semiconductor lasers for spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 304–311 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (2)

M. Loewenstein, “Diode laser harmonic spectroscopy applied to in situ measurements of atmospheric trace molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 249–256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Cassidy, L. J. Bonnell, “Trace gas detection with short-external-cavity InGaAsP diode laser transmitter modules operating at 1.58 μm,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2688–2693 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

S. Saito, O. Nilsson, Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent FSK transmitter using a negative feedback stabilized semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 20, 703–704 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

H. Tsuchida, T. Tako, M. Ohtsu, “A novel technique for measuring the frequency deviation of semiconductor lasers under direct modulation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L19–L21 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

G. Jacobsen, H. Olesen, F. Birkedahl, “Current/frequency-modulation characteristics for directly optical frequency-modulated injection lasers at 830 nm and 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 18, 874–876 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, “A theoretical and experimental analysis of modulated laser fields and power spectra,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 2069–2080 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1185–1190 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1965 (1)

R. Arndt, “Analytical line shapes for Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522–2524 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Alnis, J.

Arndt, R.

R. Arndt, “Analytical line shapes for Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522–2524 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. Lindberg, O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry—an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277–1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40, 321–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, S. W. Sharpe, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Spectral and modulation performance of quantum cascade lasers with application to remote sensing,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 11–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ballik, E. A.

Birkedahl, F.

G. Jacobsen, H. Olesen, F. Birkedahl, “Current/frequency-modulation characteristics for directly optical frequency-modulated injection lasers at 830 nm and 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 18, 874–876 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bomse, D. S.

Bonnell, L. J.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cai, S.

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40, 321–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, S. W. Sharpe, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Spectral and modulation performance of quantum cascade lasers with application to remote sensing,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 11–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, D. T.

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40, 321–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, S. W. Sharpe, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Spectral and modulation performance of quantum cascade lasers with application to remote sensing,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 11–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ciucci, A.

A. Lucchesini, M. De Rosa, D. Pellicia, A. Ciucci, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, “Diode laser spectroscopy of overtone bands of acetylene,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 277–282 (1996).

Corsi, C.

M. Gabrysch, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Simultaneous detection of CO and CO2 using a semiconductor diode laser at 1.578 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 75–79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Rosa, M.

A. Lucchesini, M. De Rosa, D. Pellicia, A. Ciucci, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, “Diode laser spectroscopy of overtone bands of acetylene,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 277–282 (1996).

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

El-Sherbiny, M.

Faist, J.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flesch, G. J.

Gabbanini, C.

A. Lucchesini, M. De Rosa, D. Pellicia, A. Ciucci, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, “Diode laser spectroscopy of overtone bands of acetylene,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 277–282 (1996).

A. Lucchesini, I. Longo, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, L. Moi, “Diode laser spectroscopy of methane overtone transitions,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5211–5216 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabrysch, M.

M. Gabrysch, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Simultaneous detection of CO and CO2 using a semiconductor diode laser at 1.578 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 75–79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garside, B. K.

Gmachl, C.

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40, 321–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, S. W. Sharpe, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Spectral and modulation performance of quantum cascade lasers with application to remote sensing,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 11–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gozzini, S.

A. Lucchesini, M. De Rosa, D. Pellicia, A. Ciucci, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, “Diode laser spectroscopy of overtone bands of acetylene,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 277–282 (1996).

A. Lucchesini, I. Longo, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, L. Moi, “Diode laser spectroscopy of methane overtone transitions,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5211–5216 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafsson, J.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. Lindberg, O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry—an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277–1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, U.

Hartman, J. S.

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, S. W. Sharpe, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Spectral and modulation performance of quantum cascade lasers with application to remote sensing,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 11–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoogerland, M. D.

F. Wittgrefe, M. D. Hoogerland, J. P. Woerdman, “Semiconductor lasers for spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 304–311 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

Imai, M.

Inguscio, M.

M. Gabrysch, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Simultaneous detection of CO and CO2 using a semiconductor diode laser at 1.578 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 75–79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Frequency- and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 118–122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, G.

G. Jacobsen, H. Olesen, F. Birkedahl, “Current/frequency-modulation characteristics for directly optical frequency-modulated injection lasers at 830 nm and 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 18, 874–876 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, “A theoretical and experimental analysis of modulated laser fields and power spectra,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 2069–2080 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, “Phase delay between intensity and frequency modulation of a semiconductor laser (including a new measurement method),” in Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Optical Communication (n.p., 1982), pp. 291–295.

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawakita, K.

Kelly, J. F.

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, S. W. Sharpe, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Spectral and modulation performance of quantum cascade lasers with application to remote sensing,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 11–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kluczynski, P.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. Lindberg, O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry—an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277–1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Labrie, D.

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

Lindberg, A.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. Lindberg, O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry—an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277–1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Loewenstein, M.

M. Loewenstein, “Diode laser harmonic spectroscopy applied to in situ measurements of atmospheric trace molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 249–256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Longo, I.

Lucchesini, A.

A. Lucchesini, M. De Rosa, D. Pellicia, A. Ciucci, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, “Diode laser spectroscopy of overtone bands of acetylene,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 277–282 (1996).

A. Lucchesini, I. Longo, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, L. Moi, “Diode laser spectroscopy of methane overtone transitions,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5211–5216 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

May, R. D.

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moi, L.

Namjou, K.

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, O.

S. Saito, O. Nilsson, Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent FSK transmitter using a negative feedback stabilized semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 20, 703–704 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

H. Tsuchida, T. Tako, M. Ohtsu, “A novel technique for measuring the frequency deviation of semiconductor lasers under direct modulation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L19–L21 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Olesen, H.

H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, “A theoretical and experimental analysis of modulated laser fields and power spectra,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 2069–2080 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Jacobsen, H. Olesen, F. Birkedahl, “Current/frequency-modulation characteristics for directly optical frequency-modulated injection lasers at 830 nm and 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 18, 874–876 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, “Phase delay between intensity and frequency modulation of a semiconductor laser (including a new measurement method),” in Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Optical Communication (n.p., 1982), pp. 291–295.

Pavone, F. S.

M. Gabrysch, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Simultaneous detection of CO and CO2 using a semiconductor diode laser at 1.578 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 75–79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Frequency- and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 118–122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pellicia, D.

A. Lucchesini, M. De Rosa, D. Pellicia, A. Ciucci, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, “Diode laser spectroscopy of overtone bands of acetylene,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 277–282 (1996).

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robert, P.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

S. Saito, O. Nilsson, Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent FSK transmitter using a negative feedback stabilized semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 20, 703–704 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schilt, S.

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6728–6738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schilt, “Mesure de traces de gaz à l’aide de lasers à semi-conducteur,” Ph.D. dissertation (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, 2002).

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scott, D. C.

Sharpe, S. W.

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, S. W. Sharpe, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Spectral and modulation performance of quantum cascade lasers with application to remote sensing,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 11–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Sivco, D. L.

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40, 321–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, S. W. Sharpe, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Spectral and modulation performance of quantum cascade lasers with application to remote sensing,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 11–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Somesfalean, G.

Stanton, A. C.

Supplee, J. M.

Svanberg, S.

Swanson, J. E.

Tako, T.

H. Tsuchida, T. Tako, M. Ohtsu, “A novel technique for measuring the frequency deviation of semiconductor lasers under direct modulation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L19–L21 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

Tsuchida, H.

H. Tsuchida, T. Tako, M. Ohtsu, “A novel technique for measuring the frequency deviation of semiconductor lasers under direct modulation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L19–L21 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Webster, C. R.

Whittaker, E. A.

Williams, R. M.

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, S. W. Sharpe, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Spectral and modulation performance of quantum cascade lasers with application to remote sensing,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 11–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wittgrefe, F.

F. Wittgrefe, M. D. Hoogerland, J. P. Woerdman, “Semiconductor lasers for spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 304–311 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

F. Wittgrefe, M. D. Hoogerland, J. P. Woerdman, “Semiconductor lasers for spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 304–311 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, W. S.

Yamamoto, Y.

S. Saito, O. Nilsson, Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent FSK transmitter using a negative feedback stabilized semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 20, 703–704 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

Appl. Opt. (10)

J. M. Supplee, E. A. Whittaker, W. Lenth, “Theoretical description of frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6294–6302 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Cassidy, L. J. Bonnell, “Trace gas detection with short-external-cavity InGaAsP diode laser transmitter modules operating at 1.58 μm,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2688–2693 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lucchesini, I. Longo, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, L. Moi, “Diode laser spectroscopy of methane overtone transitions,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5211–5216 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1185–1190 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reid, B. K. Garside, M. El-Sherbiny, E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity point monitoring of atmospheric gases employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1806–1810 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40, 321–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Gustafsson, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Svanberg, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy with blue diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3774–3780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Imai, K. Kawakita, “Measurement of direct frequency modulation characteristics of laser diodes by Michelson interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 29, 348–353 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6728–6738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Gabrysch, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Simultaneous detection of CO and CO2 using a semiconductor diode laser at 1.578 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 75–79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lucchesini, M. De Rosa, D. Pellicia, A. Ciucci, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, “Diode laser spectroscopy of overtone bands of acetylene,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 277–282 (1996).

F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Frequency- and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 118–122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

G. Jacobsen, H. Olesen, F. Birkedahl, “Current/frequency-modulation characteristics for directly optical frequency-modulated injection lasers at 830 nm and 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 18, 874–876 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Saito, O. Nilsson, Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent FSK transmitter using a negative feedback stabilized semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 20, 703–704 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, “A theoretical and experimental analysis of modulated laser fields and power spectra,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 2069–2080 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Arndt, “Analytical line shapes for Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522–2524 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

M. Loewenstein, “Diode laser harmonic spectroscopy applied to in situ measurements of atmospheric trace molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 249–256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Tsuchida, T. Tako, M. Ohtsu, “A novel technique for measuring the frequency deviation of semiconductor lasers under direct modulation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L19–L21 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

F. Wittgrefe, M. D. Hoogerland, J. P. Woerdman, “Semiconductor lasers for spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 304–311 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Spectrochim. Acta B (1)

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. Lindberg, O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry—an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277–1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. Schilt, “Mesure de traces de gaz à l’aide de lasers à semi-conducteur,” Ph.D. dissertation (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, 2002).

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, S. W. Sharpe, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Spectral and modulation performance of quantum cascade lasers with application to remote sensing,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 11–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, “Phase delay between intensity and frequency modulation of a semiconductor laser (including a new measurement method),” in Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Optical Communication (n.p., 1982), pp. 291–295.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental schematic of the unbalanced interferometer used for measurement of IM-FM phase shift Ψ: M’s, mirrors; BS, beam splitter; L’s, lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output signal from the unbalanced interferometer (solid curves). The dashed curves represent the signal without the interference fringes. Phase shift Ψ is measured between the maximum of this curve and the symmetry axis of the signal. (a) Experimental signal obtained with a DFB laser emitting at λ = 2 μm, with L 2 - L 1 = 76 cm, f = 10 kHz, M = 0.128, Δν = 2.1 GHz, Ψ = -22 deg. (b) Simulated signal given by Eq. (2) for the same parameters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shape of the WMS signals obtained at (a) the first, (b) the second, and (c) the third harmonic. Maximum s n,max and amplitude s n,ampl of the signal are defined in each case.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption line R16 of CO2 measured with a DFB laser emitting at 2004 nm. The laser frequency was measured with a wavemeter with a resolution of 1 pm. Experimental points are represented by circles, and the curve results from a fit with a Lorentzian distribution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup of the WMS technique: OAPs, off-axis parabolic mirrors; BS, beam splitter; DETs, detectors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Evolution of the amplitude of the WMS signal at 2f (lighter curves and circles) and 3f (darker curves and circles) as a function of the detection phase for (a) f = 2.5 kHz and (b) f = 15.8 kHz. In both cases, m = 1. Circles represent experimental measurements, and curves are the results of our theoretical model.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

IM-FM phase shift as a function of modulation frequency: comparison of WMS and interferometric methods.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Evolution of the maximum of the 2f signal as a function of the modulation amplitude for (a) f = 1 kHz and (b) f = 11 kHz. Circles, experimental measurements; curves, results of a fit.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Parameter Δνi as a function of modulation frequency: comparison of WMS and interferometric methods.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Line Parameters of the R16 CO 2 Line Obtained Experimentally and According to the HITRAN Database

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

It=I01+M cos ωt IM,νt=ν0-Δν cosωt+Ψ FM,
Ioutt=1+M cos ωt1+R0ΔTcos ×2πΔνΔT cosωt+Ψ-2πν0ΔT,
ωΔT2  1
tk=-Ψ2f±k2f, k=0, 1, 2, 3,.
Nfringes=2ΔνΔT=2ΔνΔLc,
Δν=Nfringesc2ΔL.
gx=1πΔνline11+x2,
x=ν-νline/Δνline
Φn,max=nΨ+kπ,
Φn,min=nΨ+2k+1π/2.
Ψ=Φn,min-2k+1π/2n.
Ψ=Φn2,min-Φn21,minn2-n1.
s2,Φx=s2pxcos Φ2+s2qxsin Φ2,
s2px=IΩxcos 2Ψs2x-pωΔνlinem/2×cos Ψs1x+cos 3Ψs3x, s2qx=IΩxsin 2Ψs2x-pωΔνlinem/2×sin Ψs1x+sin 3Ψs3x.
s2,max=I0a0-4m2+2m2m2+2m2+1,
m=ΔνΔνline=KΔi.
Δν/Δi=KΔνline.

Metrics