Abstract

We have designed and built a miniature near-IR tunable diode laser (TDL) spectrometer for measuring in situ the water vapor mixing ratio either in the Martian atmosphere or thermally evolved from Martian soil or ice samples. The laser hygrometer uses a thermoelectrically cooled single-mode distributed-feedback TDL at 1.87 μm to scan over a selected vibration-rotation line of both H2O and CO2 near 5327.3 cm-1. A working prototype that weighs only 230 g has been built and used to generate spectra whose analysis demonstrates precision sensitivities as fine as 1 part in 106 by volume in 1 s or 0.1 part in 106 in 10 s at Martian pressures and temperatures. Absolute uncertainties of ∼5% are calculated.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (4)

L. K. Tamppari, A. S. Hale, D. S. Bass, M. D. Smith, “Using MGS data to understand water cycling in Mars’ north polar region,” Lunar Planet. Sci. 34, 1650–1651 (2003).

I. G. Mitrovanov, M. T. Zuber, M. L. Litvak, W. V. Boynton, D. E. Smith, D. Drake, D. Hamara, A. S. Kozyrev, A. B. Sanin, C. Shinohara, R. S. Saunders, V. Tretyakov, “CO2 snow depth and subsurface water-ice abundance in the northern hemisphere of Mars,” Science 300, 2081–2084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Byrne, A. P. Ingersoll, “A sublimation model for Martian south polar ice features,” Science 299, 1051–1053 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. M. Sergent, A. Y. Cho, “Single mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple wavelength quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 569–581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295, 301–305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

R. D. May, S. F. Forouhar, D. Crisp, W. S. Woodward, D. A. Paige, A. Pathare, W. V. Boynton, “The MVACS tunable diode laser spectrometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17,673–17,682 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Haberle, C. P. McKay, J. Schaeffer, N. A. Cabrol, E. A. Grin, A. P. Zent, R. Quinn, “On the possibility of liquid water on present-day Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,317–23,326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40, 321–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. C. Malin, K. S. Edgett, “Evidence for recent groundwater seepage and surface runoff on Mars,” Science 288, 2330–2335 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Cappasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

C. R. Webster, “Brewster-plate spoiler: a novel method for reducing the amplitude of interference fringes that limit tunable laser absorption sensitivities,” Appl. Opt. 2, 1464–1470 (1985).

1976 (1)

C. B. Farmer, D. W. Davies, D. D. LaPorte, “Mars: northern summer ice cap-water vapor observations from Viking 2,” Science 194, 1339–1341 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

Aellen, T.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295, 301–305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. R.

R. W. Zurek, J. R. Barnes, R. M. Haberle, J. B. Pollack, J. E. Tillman, C. B. Leovy, “Dynamics of the atmosphere of Mars,” in Mars, H. H. Kieffer, B. M. Jakosky, C. W. Snyder, M. S. Matthews, eds. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz., 1992), Chap. 26.

Bass, D. S.

L. K. Tamppari, A. S. Hale, D. S. Bass, M. D. Smith, “Using MGS data to understand water cycling in Mars’ north polar region,” Lunar Planet. Sci. 34, 1650–1651 (2003).

Beck, M.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295, 301–305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, W. V.

I. G. Mitrovanov, M. T. Zuber, M. L. Litvak, W. V. Boynton, D. E. Smith, D. Drake, D. Hamara, A. S. Kozyrev, A. B. Sanin, C. Shinohara, R. S. Saunders, V. Tretyakov, “CO2 snow depth and subsurface water-ice abundance in the northern hemisphere of Mars,” Science 300, 2081–2084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. D. May, S. F. Forouhar, D. Crisp, W. S. Woodward, D. A. Paige, A. Pathare, W. V. Boynton, “The MVACS tunable diode laser spectrometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17,673–17,682 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, S.

S. Byrne, A. P. Ingersoll, “A sublimation model for Martian south polar ice features,” Science 299, 1051–1053 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrol, N. A.

R. M. Haberle, C. P. McKay, J. Schaeffer, N. A. Cabrol, E. A. Grin, A. P. Zent, R. Quinn, “On the possibility of liquid water on present-day Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,317–23,326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. M. Sergent, A. Y. Cho, “Single mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple wavelength quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 569–581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40, 321–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cappasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Cappasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. M. Sergent, A. Y. Cho, “Single mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple wavelength quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 569–581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40, 321–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Cappasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. M. Sergent, A. Y. Cho, “Single mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple wavelength quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 569–581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crisp, D.

R. D. May, S. F. Forouhar, D. Crisp, W. S. Woodward, D. A. Paige, A. Pathare, W. V. Boynton, “The MVACS tunable diode laser spectrometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17,673–17,682 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davies, D. W.

C. B. Farmer, D. W. Davies, D. D. LaPorte, “Mars: northern summer ice cap-water vapor observations from Viking 2,” Science 194, 1339–1341 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drake, D.

I. G. Mitrovanov, M. T. Zuber, M. L. Litvak, W. V. Boynton, D. E. Smith, D. Drake, D. Hamara, A. S. Kozyrev, A. B. Sanin, C. Shinohara, R. S. Saunders, V. Tretyakov, “CO2 snow depth and subsurface water-ice abundance in the northern hemisphere of Mars,” Science 300, 2081–2084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Edgett, K. S.

M. C. Malin, K. S. Edgett, “Evidence for recent groundwater seepage and surface runoff on Mars,” Science 288, 2330–2335 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295, 301–305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Cappasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farmer, C. B.

C. B. Farmer, D. W. Davies, D. D. LaPorte, “Mars: northern summer ice cap-water vapor observations from Viking 2,” Science 194, 1339–1341 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flesch, G. J.

Forouhar, S. F.

R. D. May, S. F. Forouhar, D. Crisp, W. S. Woodward, D. A. Paige, A. Pathare, W. V. Boynton, “The MVACS tunable diode laser spectrometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17,673–17,682 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tillman, J. E.

R. W. Zurek, J. R. Barnes, R. M. Haberle, J. B. Pollack, J. E. Tillman, C. B. Leovy, “Dynamics of the atmosphere of Mars,” in Mars, H. H. Kieffer, B. M. Jakosky, C. W. Snyder, M. S. Matthews, eds. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz., 1992), Chap. 26.

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tretyakov, V.

I. G. Mitrovanov, M. T. Zuber, M. L. Litvak, W. V. Boynton, D. E. Smith, D. Drake, D. Hamara, A. S. Kozyrev, A. B. Sanin, C. Shinohara, R. S. Saunders, V. Tretyakov, “CO2 snow depth and subsurface water-ice abundance in the northern hemisphere of Mars,” Science 300, 2081–2084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Webster, C. R.

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40, 321–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, “Brewster-plate spoiler: a novel method for reducing the amplitude of interference fringes that limit tunable laser absorption sensitivities,” Appl. Opt. 2, 1464–1470 (1985).

C. R. Webster, R. T. Menzies, E. D. Hinkley, “Infrared laser absorption: theory and applications,” in Laser Remote Chemical Analysis, R. M. Measures, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 3.

Woodward, W. S.

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Zent, A. P.

R. M. Haberle, C. P. McKay, J. Schaeffer, N. A. Cabrol, E. A. Grin, A. P. Zent, R. Quinn, “On the possibility of liquid water on present-day Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,317–23,326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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I. G. Mitrovanov, M. T. Zuber, M. L. Litvak, W. V. Boynton, D. E. Smith, D. Drake, D. Hamara, A. S. Kozyrev, A. B. Sanin, C. Shinohara, R. S. Saunders, V. Tretyakov, “CO2 snow depth and subsurface water-ice abundance in the northern hemisphere of Mars,” Science 300, 2081–2084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zurek, R. W.

R. A. Kahn, T. Z. Martin, R. W. Zurek, S. W. Lee, “The Martian dust cycle,” in Mars, H. H. Kieffer, B. M. Jakosky, C. W. Snyder, M. S. Matthews, eds. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz., 1992), Chap. 29.

R. W. Zurek, J. R. Barnes, R. M. Haberle, J. B. Pollack, J. E. Tillman, C. B. Leovy, “Dynamics of the atmosphere of Mars,” in Mars, H. H. Kieffer, B. M. Jakosky, C. W. Snyder, M. S. Matthews, eds. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz., 1992), Chap. 26.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. M. Sergent, A. Y. Cho, “Single mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple wavelength quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 569–581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

R. D. May, S. F. Forouhar, D. Crisp, W. S. Woodward, D. A. Paige, A. Pathare, W. V. Boynton, “The MVACS tunable diode laser spectrometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17,673–17,682 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Haberle, C. P. McKay, J. Schaeffer, N. A. Cabrol, E. A. Grin, A. P. Zent, R. Quinn, “On the possibility of liquid water on present-day Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,317–23,326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lunar Planet. Sci. (1)

L. K. Tamppari, A. S. Hale, D. S. Bass, M. D. Smith, “Using MGS data to understand water cycling in Mars’ north polar region,” Lunar Planet. Sci. 34, 1650–1651 (2003).

Science (6)

I. G. Mitrovanov, M. T. Zuber, M. L. Litvak, W. V. Boynton, D. E. Smith, D. Drake, D. Hamara, A. S. Kozyrev, A. B. Sanin, C. Shinohara, R. S. Saunders, V. Tretyakov, “CO2 snow depth and subsurface water-ice abundance in the northern hemisphere of Mars,” Science 300, 2081–2084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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M. C. Malin, K. S. Edgett, “Evidence for recent groundwater seepage and surface runoff on Mars,” Science 288, 2330–2335 (2000).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (11)

C. R. Webster, R. T. Menzies, E. D. Hinkley, “Infrared laser absorption: theory and applications,” in Laser Remote Chemical Analysis, R. M. Measures, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 3.

World Meteorological Organization, “Stratospheric processes and their role in climate (SPARC) assessment of UT/LS water vapour,” Rep. WCRP-113 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 2000).

See the JPL website, http://laserweb.jpl.nasa.gov .

G. J. Taylor, A. Morrison, D. Beaty, “Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) report: scientific goals, objectives, investigations, and priorities: 2003,” http://mepag.jpl.nasa.gov/reports .

R. M. Haberle, “The science return of a global surface network on Mars: the Pascal Mars Scout concept,” presented at the Aerospace Conference, IEEE Meeting, Big Sky, Montana, 8–15 March, 2003), bhaberle@mail.arc.nasa.gov.

R. W. Zurek, J. R. Barnes, R. M. Haberle, J. B. Pollack, J. E. Tillman, C. B. Leovy, “Dynamics of the atmosphere of Mars,” in Mars, H. H. Kieffer, B. M. Jakosky, C. W. Snyder, M. S. Matthews, eds. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz., 1992), Chap. 26.

R. A. Kahn, T. Z. Martin, R. W. Zurek, S. W. Lee, “The Martian dust cycle,” in Mars, H. H. Kieffer, B. M. Jakosky, C. W. Snyder, M. S. Matthews, eds. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz., 1992), Chap. 29.

T. Owen, “The composition and early history of the atmosphere of Mars,” in Mars, H. H. Kieffer, B. M. Jakosky, C. W. Snyder, M. S. Matthews, eds. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz., 1992), Chap. 25.

MayComm Instruments, llc; see http://www.MayComm.com .

NASA parts selection list; see http://nepp.nasa.gov .

S. W. Woodward, R. D. May, “Flash-ROM-based multichannel arbitrary-waveform generator,” Electron. Design 19 April, 86–88 (1999), http://www.elecdesign.com/Articles/ArticleID/6220/6220.html .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Vibration-rotation line positions and intensities that make up the main absorption band regions of water and its isotopologs H2 16O, HDO, H2 18O, and H2 17O. Source: HITRAN 2000-line listing.20

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Spectral simulation of the direct absorption spectrum in the region near 1.87 μm by use of the HITRAN 2000 data20 calculated for conditions appropriate for the Martian surface, namely, 7-mbar pressure, 200-K temperature, and an atmosphere of 96% CO2 and 20-ppmv water vapor. (b) Actual spectral data produced by the MLH in the same region. The spectrum results from second-harmonic detection at 15.62 kHz in 20-mbar CO2 and 50-ppmv water vapor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Complete MLH mounted in a section of the 10-cm-diameter cylindrical body of the probe.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical head of the MLH, which comprises a TE cooler mount with laser and detector and an H cell. The cylindrical geometry offers superior resistance to g loading, and the holes in the cylinder side provide both air venting and light weighting.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) JPL-developed HC12-based microcontroller board, including laser drive and signal-processing electronics. (b) X-mounting configuration for mechanical support.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sensitivity study results for the 1.37-μm water line.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Laser Hygrometer H-Cell Specifications

Tables Icon

Table 2 Data Rate Inventories for an Entire Spectral Scan and an Onboard Processed Scan

Tables Icon

Table 3 Instrument Sensitivity Results

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