N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).

[CrossRef]

M. Bourenanne, A. Karlsson, G. Bjork, N. Gisin, N. J. Cerf, “Quantum key distribution using multilevel encoding: security analysis,” J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 35, 10,065–10,076 (2002).

[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug play system,” New J. Phys. 4, 41.1–41.8 (2002).

[CrossRef]

A. Vakhitov, V. Makarov, D. R. Hjelme, “Large pulse attack as a method of conventional optical eavesdropping in quantum cryptography,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2023–2038 (2001).

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).

[CrossRef]

R. Hughes, G. Morgan, C. Peterson, “Practical quantum key distribution over a 48-km optical fiber network,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533–547 (2000).

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Long-distance Bell-type tests using energy-time entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4150–4163 (1999).

[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, H. Zbinden, “Automated plug play quantum key distribution,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).

[CrossRef]

H. Zbinden, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, B. Huttner, A. Muller, W. Tittel, “Interferometry with Faraday mirrors for quantum cryptography,” Electron. Lett. 33, 586–588 (1997).

[CrossRef]

P. Townsend, J. Rarity, P. Tapster, “Enhanced single photon fringe visibility in a 10 km-long prototype quantum cryptography channel,” Electron. Letters 29, 1291–1293 (1993).

[CrossRef]

M. Martinelli, “Time reversal for the polarization state in optical systems,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 451–455 (1992).

[CrossRef]

M. Martinelli, “A universal compensator for polarization changes induced by birefringence on a retracting beam,” Opt. Commun. 72, 341–344 (1989).

[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), pp. 175–179.

M. Bourenanne, A. Karlsson, G. Bjork, N. Gisin, N. J. Cerf, “Quantum key distribution using multilevel encoding: security analysis,” J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 35, 10,065–10,076 (2002).

[CrossRef]

G. Bonfrate, “Integrated optics for practical quantum cryptography systems,” presented at the Second Quantum Information Processing and Communications Workshop, Turin, Italy, 28–31 October 2001.

M. Bourenanne, A. Karlsson, G. Bjork, N. Gisin, N. J. Cerf, “Quantum key distribution using multilevel encoding: security analysis,” J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 35, 10,065–10,076 (2002).

[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), pp. 175–179.

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).

[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Long-distance Bell-type tests using energy-time entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4150–4163 (1999).

[CrossRef]

M. Bourenanne, A. Karlsson, G. Bjork, N. Gisin, N. J. Cerf, “Quantum key distribution using multilevel encoding: security analysis,” J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 35, 10,065–10,076 (2002).

[CrossRef]

H. Zbinden, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, B. Huttner, A. Muller, W. Tittel, “Interferometry with Faraday mirrors for quantum cryptography,” Electron. Lett. 33, 586–588 (1997).

[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).

[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, H. Zbinden, “Automated plug play quantum key distribution,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).

[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug play system,” New J. Phys. 4, 41.1–41.8 (2002).

[CrossRef]

M. Bourenanne, A. Karlsson, G. Bjork, N. Gisin, N. J. Cerf, “Quantum key distribution using multilevel encoding: security analysis,” J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 35, 10,065–10,076 (2002).

[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).

[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).

[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Long-distance Bell-type tests using energy-time entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4150–4163 (1999).

[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, H. Zbinden, “Automated plug play quantum key distribution,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).

[CrossRef]

H. Zbinden, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, B. Huttner, A. Muller, W. Tittel, “Interferometry with Faraday mirrors for quantum cryptography,” Electron. Lett. 33, 586–588 (1997).

[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug play system,” New J. Phys. 4, 41.1–41.8 (2002).

[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, H. Zbinden, “Automated plug play quantum key distribution,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).

[CrossRef]

A. Vakhitov, V. Makarov, D. R. Hjelme, “Large pulse attack as a method of conventional optical eavesdropping in quantum cryptography,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2023–2038 (2001).

R. Hughes, G. Morgan, C. Peterson, “Practical quantum key distribution over a 48-km optical fiber network,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533–547 (2000).

H. Zbinden, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, B. Huttner, A. Muller, W. Tittel, “Interferometry with Faraday mirrors for quantum cryptography,” Electron. Lett. 33, 586–588 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. Bourenanne, A. Karlsson, G. Bjork, N. Gisin, N. J. Cerf, “Quantum key distribution using multilevel encoding: security analysis,” J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 35, 10,065–10,076 (2002).

[CrossRef]

A. Vakhitov, V. Makarov, D. R. Hjelme, “Large pulse attack as a method of conventional optical eavesdropping in quantum cryptography,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2023–2038 (2001).

M. Martinelli, “Time reversal for the polarization state in optical systems,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 451–455 (1992).

[CrossRef]

M. Martinelli, “A universal compensator for polarization changes induced by birefringence on a retracting beam,” Opt. Commun. 72, 341–344 (1989).

[CrossRef]

R. Hughes, G. Morgan, C. Peterson, “Practical quantum key distribution over a 48-km optical fiber network,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533–547 (2000).

H. Zbinden, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, B. Huttner, A. Muller, W. Tittel, “Interferometry with Faraday mirrors for quantum cryptography,” Electron. Lett. 33, 586–588 (1997).

[CrossRef]

R. Hughes, G. Morgan, C. Peterson, “Practical quantum key distribution over a 48-km optical fiber network,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533–547 (2000).

P. Townsend, J. Rarity, P. Tapster, “Enhanced single photon fringe visibility in a 10 km-long prototype quantum cryptography channel,” Electron. Letters 29, 1291–1293 (1993).

[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).

[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug play system,” New J. Phys. 4, 41.1–41.8 (2002).

[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).

[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, H. Zbinden, “Automated plug play quantum key distribution,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).

[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug play system,” New J. Phys. 4, 41.1–41.8 (2002).

[CrossRef]

P. Townsend, J. Rarity, P. Tapster, “Enhanced single photon fringe visibility in a 10 km-long prototype quantum cryptography channel,” Electron. Letters 29, 1291–1293 (1993).

[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).

[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Long-distance Bell-type tests using energy-time entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4150–4163 (1999).

[CrossRef]

H. Zbinden, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, B. Huttner, A. Muller, W. Tittel, “Interferometry with Faraday mirrors for quantum cryptography,” Electron. Lett. 33, 586–588 (1997).

[CrossRef]

A. Vakhitov, V. Makarov, D. R. Hjelme, “Large pulse attack as a method of conventional optical eavesdropping in quantum cryptography,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2023–2038 (2001).

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug play system,” New J. Phys. 4, 41.1–41.8 (2002).

[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).

[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).

[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Long-distance Bell-type tests using energy-time entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4150–4163 (1999).

[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, H. Zbinden, “Automated plug play quantum key distribution,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).

[CrossRef]

H. Zbinden, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, B. Huttner, A. Muller, W. Tittel, “Interferometry with Faraday mirrors for quantum cryptography,” Electron. Lett. 33, 586–588 (1997).

[CrossRef]

Hugo. Zbinden, Group of Applied Physics—Optique, Université de Genève, Rue de l’École-de-Médecine 20, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland (personal communication, 2001).

H. Zbinden, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, B. Huttner, A. Muller, W. Tittel, “Interferometry with Faraday mirrors for quantum cryptography,” Electron. Lett. 33, 586–588 (1997).

[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, H. Zbinden, “Automated plug play quantum key distribution,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).

[CrossRef]

P. Townsend, J. Rarity, P. Tapster, “Enhanced single photon fringe visibility in a 10 km-long prototype quantum cryptography channel,” Electron. Letters 29, 1291–1293 (1993).

[CrossRef]

A. Vakhitov, V. Makarov, D. R. Hjelme, “Large pulse attack as a method of conventional optical eavesdropping in quantum cryptography,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2023–2038 (2001).

R. Hughes, G. Morgan, C. Peterson, “Practical quantum key distribution over a 48-km optical fiber network,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533–547 (2000).

M. Martinelli, “Time reversal for the polarization state in optical systems,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 451–455 (1992).

[CrossRef]

M. Bourenanne, A. Karlsson, G. Bjork, N. Gisin, N. J. Cerf, “Quantum key distribution using multilevel encoding: security analysis,” J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 35, 10,065–10,076 (2002).

[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug play system,” New J. Phys. 4, 41.1–41.8 (2002).

[CrossRef]

M. Martinelli, “A universal compensator for polarization changes induced by birefringence on a retracting beam,” Opt. Commun. 72, 341–344 (1989).

[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Long-distance Bell-type tests using energy-time entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4150–4163 (1999).

[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).

[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).

[CrossRef]

As of March 2004, one could place an order for a complete quantum cryptosystem with a plug and play type of optical scheme with two companies: id Quantique (Geneva, Switzerland, http://www.idquantique.com/ ) and MagiQ Technologies (Boston, Mass., http://www.magiqtech.com/ ).

The threshold value of QBER is still being discussed. Most recent strict security analyses, however, put it at 11%. For a review, see for example Refs. 3 and 4 and references therein.

Hugo. Zbinden, Group of Applied Physics—Optique, Université de Genève, Rue de l’École-de-Médecine 20, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland (personal communication, 2001).

S. Pellegrini, “EQUIS project,” http://www.phy.hw.ac.uk/resrev/EQUIS/ ; see p. WP4, “Integrated Mach-Zehnder/Michelson interferometer.”

G. Bonfrate, “Integrated optics for practical quantum cryptography systems,” presented at the Second Quantum Information Processing and Communications Workshop, Turin, Italy, 28–31 October 2001.

A. Brylevski, “Quantum key distribution: real-time compensation of interferometer phase drift,” M.S. thesis [written at the Department of Physical Electronics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and defended at the Department of Radiophysics, St. Petersburg State Technical University, St. Petersburg, Russia, 2002], http://www.vad1.com/qcr/alexey/ .

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), pp. 175–179.

K. Vylegjanine, “High-speed single photon detector for quantum cryptosystems,” M.S. thesis [written at the Department of Physical Electronics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and defended at the Department of Radiophysics, St. Petersburg State Technical University, St. Petersburg, Russia, 2000], http://www.vad1.com/qcr/kirill/ .