Abstract

We carry out a detailed analysis of angle-sensitive devices based on the critical-angle effect. We consider their use in measuring small angular deflections of a laser beam. We establish the diffraction limit to the sensitivity for optical-angle sensors based on reflection and transmission of a laser beam. We find that this limit is identical to that of the triangulation scheme when using a position-sensitive detector or the autocollimation scheme. We analyze the main proposals to date of optical-angle sensors based on the critical-angle effect, focusing on their maximum sensitivity and their polarization dependence in practical conditions. We propose and analyze theoretically a novel and simple angle-sensitive device for sensing optical-beam deflections with very low polarization dependence and a maximum sensitivity close to the diffraction limit when used with typical laser beams. We discuss the basic principles for designing this type of device, provide numerical results, and point out a convenient fabrication procedure.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2003

A. García-Valenzuela, M. Peña-Gomar, J. Villatoro, “Sensitivity analysis of angle sensitive detectors based on a film resonator,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1084–1092 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

B. H. Kim, F. E. Prins, D. P. Kern, S. Raible, U. Weimar, “Multicomponent analysis and prediction with a cantilever array based gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 1–7 (2001).

F. M. Battiston, J.-P. Ramseyer, H. P. Lang, M. K. Baller, C. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewski, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, “A chemical sensor based on a microfabricated cantilever array with simultaneous resonance-frequency and bending readout,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 122–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Raiteri, M. Grattarola, H.-J. Butt, P. Sklàdal, “Micromechanical cantilever-based biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B 79, 115–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Zhang, P. S. Huang, “Total internal reflection for precision small-angle measurement,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1617–1622 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

1997

A. L. Glazov, K. L. Muratikov, “Measurement of thermal parameters of solids by a modified photodeflection method,” Opt. Eng. 36, 358–362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Valenzuela, R. Diaz-Uribe, “Detection limits of an internal-reflection sensor for the optical beam deflection method,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4456–4462 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

P. S. Huang, J. Ni, “Angle measurement based on the internal-reflection effect using elongated critical-angle prisms,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2239–2241 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Williams, R. J. Dewhurst, “A fiber-optic detection system for laser-ultrasound Lamb-wave examination of defects in thin materials,” Nondestr. Test. Eval. 12, 343–353 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Gao, S. Kiyono, T. Nomura, “A new multiprobe method of roundness measurements,” Precis. Eng. 19, 37–45 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Cook, M. A. Hoffbauer, J. B. Cross, “A specialized torsion balance designed to measure the absolute flux density of hyperthermal molecular beams containing reactive species,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1781–1789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Zimering, A. C. Boccara, “Compact design for real time in situ atmospheric trace gas detection based on mirage effect (photothermal deflection) spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1891–1895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. O’Shea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, C. Gerber, “A femtojoule calorimeter using michromechanical sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

P. S. Huang, S. Kiyono, O. Kamada, “Angle measurement based on the internal-reflection effect: a new method,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6047–6055 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. van de Hulst, J. Greve, “A detailed analysis of the optical beam deflection technique for use in atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 6–12 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

G. Meyer, N. M. Amer, “Simultaneous measurement of lateral and normal forces with an optical-beam-deflection atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2089–2091 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

S. Alexander, L. Hellemans, O. Marti, J. Schneir, V. Elings, P. K. Hansma, M. Longmire, J. Gurley, “An atomic-resolution atomic-force microscope implemented using an optical lever,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 164–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Salazar, A. Sánchez-Lavega, J. Fernández, “Theory of thermal diffusivity determination by the “mirage” technique in solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 4150–4156 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1983

1982

A. E. Ennos, M. S. Virdee, “High accuracy profile measurement of quasi-conical mirror surfaces by laser autocollimation,” Precis. Eng. 4, 5–8 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, J. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: detection by the “mirage effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Murphy, L. C. Aamodt, “Photothermal spectroscopy using optical beam probing: mirage effect,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4580–4588 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Aamodt, L. C.

J. C. Murphy, L. C. Aamodt, “Photothermal spectroscopy using optical beam probing: mirage effect,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4580–4588 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, S.

S. Alexander, L. Hellemans, O. Marti, J. Schneir, V. Elings, P. K. Hansma, M. Longmire, J. Gurley, “An atomic-resolution atomic-force microscope implemented using an optical lever,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 164–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Almond, D. P.

D. P. Almond, P. M. Patel, Photothermal Science and Techniques (Chapman Hall, London, 1996).

Amer, N. M.

G. Meyer, N. M. Amer, “Simultaneous measurement of lateral and normal forces with an optical-beam-deflection atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2089–2091 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Badoz, J.

A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, J. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: detection by the “mirage effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Baller, M. K.

F. M. Battiston, J.-P. Ramseyer, H. P. Lang, M. K. Baller, C. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewski, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, “A chemical sensor based on a microfabricated cantilever array with simultaneous resonance-frequency and bending readout,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 122–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. R.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. O’Shea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, C. Gerber, “A femtojoule calorimeter using michromechanical sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Battiston, F. M.

F. M. Battiston, J.-P. Ramseyer, H. P. Lang, M. K. Baller, C. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewski, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, “A chemical sensor based on a microfabricated cantilever array with simultaneous resonance-frequency and bending readout,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 122–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

B. Zimering, A. C. Boccara, “Compact design for real time in situ atmospheric trace gas detection based on mirage effect (photothermal deflection) spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1891–1895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, J. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: detection by the “mirage effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Butt, H.-J.

R. Raiteri, M. Grattarola, H.-J. Butt, P. Sklàdal, “Micromechanical cantilever-based biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B 79, 115–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Caron, J. N.

J. N. Caron, Y. Yang, J. B. Mehl, “Gas-coupled laser acoustic detection at ultrasonic and audio frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2912–2917 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cook, S. R.

S. R. Cook, M. A. Hoffbauer, J. B. Cross, “A specialized torsion balance designed to measure the absolute flux density of hyperthermal molecular beams containing reactive species,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1781–1789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cross, J. B.

S. R. Cook, M. A. Hoffbauer, J. B. Cross, “A specialized torsion balance designed to measure the absolute flux density of hyperthermal molecular beams containing reactive species,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1781–1789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De Grooth, B. G.

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. van de Hulst, J. Greve, “A detailed analysis of the optical beam deflection technique for use in atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 6–12 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dewhurst, R. J.

B. A. Williams, R. J. Dewhurst, “A fiber-optic detection system for laser-ultrasound Lamb-wave examination of defects in thin materials,” Nondestr. Test. Eval. 12, 343–353 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Uribe, R.

Díaz-Uribe, R.

Elings, V.

S. Alexander, L. Hellemans, O. Marti, J. Schneir, V. Elings, P. K. Hansma, M. Longmire, J. Gurley, “An atomic-resolution atomic-force microscope implemented using an optical lever,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 164–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ennos, A. E.

A. E. Ennos, M. S. Virdee, “High accuracy profile measurement of quasi-conical mirror surfaces by laser autocollimation,” Precis. Eng. 4, 5–8 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, J.

A. Salazar, A. Sánchez-Lavega, J. Fernández, “Theory of thermal diffusivity determination by the “mirage” technique in solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 4150–4156 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, D.

A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, J. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: detection by the “mirage effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W.

W. Gao, S. Kiyono, T. Nomura, “A new multiprobe method of roundness measurements,” Precis. Eng. 19, 37–45 (1996).
[CrossRef]

García-Valenzuela, A.

Gerber, C.

F. M. Battiston, J.-P. Ramseyer, H. P. Lang, M. K. Baller, C. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewski, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, “A chemical sensor based on a microfabricated cantilever array with simultaneous resonance-frequency and bending readout,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 122–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. O’Shea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, C. Gerber, “A femtojoule calorimeter using michromechanical sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gimzewski, J. K.

F. M. Battiston, J.-P. Ramseyer, H. P. Lang, M. K. Baller, C. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewski, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, “A chemical sensor based on a microfabricated cantilever array with simultaneous resonance-frequency and bending readout,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 122–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. O’Shea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, C. Gerber, “A femtojoule calorimeter using michromechanical sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Glazov, A. L.

A. L. Glazov, K. L. Muratikov, “Measurement of thermal parameters of solids by a modified photodeflection method,” Opt. Eng. 36, 358–362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grattarola, M.

R. Raiteri, M. Grattarola, H.-J. Butt, P. Sklàdal, “Micromechanical cantilever-based biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B 79, 115–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. van de Hulst, J. Greve, “A detailed analysis of the optical beam deflection technique for use in atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 6–12 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Güntherodt, H.-J.

F. M. Battiston, J.-P. Ramseyer, H. P. Lang, M. K. Baller, C. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewski, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, “A chemical sensor based on a microfabricated cantilever array with simultaneous resonance-frequency and bending readout,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 122–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gurley, J.

S. Alexander, L. Hellemans, O. Marti, J. Schneir, V. Elings, P. K. Hansma, M. Longmire, J. Gurley, “An atomic-resolution atomic-force microscope implemented using an optical lever,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 164–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hansma, P. K.

S. Alexander, L. Hellemans, O. Marti, J. Schneir, V. Elings, P. K. Hansma, M. Longmire, J. Gurley, “An atomic-resolution atomic-force microscope implemented using an optical lever,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 164–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hellemans, L.

S. Alexander, L. Hellemans, O. Marti, J. Schneir, V. Elings, P. K. Hansma, M. Longmire, J. Gurley, “An atomic-resolution atomic-force microscope implemented using an optical lever,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 164–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hoffbauer, M. A.

S. R. Cook, M. A. Hoffbauer, J. B. Cross, “A specialized torsion balance designed to measure the absolute flux density of hyperthermal molecular beams containing reactive species,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1781–1789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P. S.

Kamada, O.

Kern, D. P.

B. H. Kim, F. E. Prins, D. P. Kern, S. Raible, U. Weimar, “Multicomponent analysis and prediction with a cantilever array based gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 1–7 (2001).

Kim, B. H.

B. H. Kim, F. E. Prins, D. P. Kern, S. Raible, U. Weimar, “Multicomponent analysis and prediction with a cantilever array based gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 1–7 (2001).

Kiyono, S.

Kohno, T.

Lang, H. P.

F. M. Battiston, J.-P. Ramseyer, H. P. Lang, M. K. Baller, C. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewski, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, “A chemical sensor based on a microfabricated cantilever array with simultaneous resonance-frequency and bending readout,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 122–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Longmire, M.

S. Alexander, L. Hellemans, O. Marti, J. Schneir, V. Elings, P. K. Hansma, M. Longmire, J. Gurley, “An atomic-resolution atomic-force microscope implemented using an optical lever,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 164–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Marti, O.

S. Alexander, L. Hellemans, O. Marti, J. Schneir, V. Elings, P. K. Hansma, M. Longmire, J. Gurley, “An atomic-resolution atomic-force microscope implemented using an optical lever,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 164–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mehl, J. B.

J. N. Caron, Y. Yang, J. B. Mehl, “Gas-coupled laser acoustic detection at ultrasonic and audio frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2912–2917 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, E.

F. M. Battiston, J.-P. Ramseyer, H. P. Lang, M. K. Baller, C. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewski, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, “A chemical sensor based on a microfabricated cantilever array with simultaneous resonance-frequency and bending readout,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 122–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, G.

G. Meyer, N. M. Amer, “Simultaneous measurement of lateral and normal forces with an optical-beam-deflection atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2089–2091 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, K.

Muratikov, K. L.

A. L. Glazov, K. L. Muratikov, “Measurement of thermal parameters of solids by a modified photodeflection method,” Opt. Eng. 36, 358–362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, J. C.

J. C. Murphy, L. C. Aamodt, “Photothermal spectroscopy using optical beam probing: mirage effect,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4580–4588 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Musha, T.

Ni, J.

Nomura, T.

W. Gao, S. Kiyono, T. Nomura, “A new multiprobe method of roundness measurements,” Precis. Eng. 19, 37–45 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, S. J.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. O’Shea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, C. Gerber, “A femtojoule calorimeter using michromechanical sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opsal, J.

Ozawa, N.

Patel, P. M.

D. P. Almond, P. M. Patel, Photothermal Science and Techniques (Chapman Hall, London, 1996).

Peña-Gomar, M.

A. García-Valenzuela, M. Peña-Gomar, J. Villatoro, “Sensitivity analysis of angle sensitive detectors based on a film resonator,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1084–1092 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prins, F. E.

B. H. Kim, F. E. Prins, D. P. Kern, S. Raible, U. Weimar, “Multicomponent analysis and prediction with a cantilever array based gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 1–7 (2001).

Putman, C. A. J.

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. van de Hulst, J. Greve, “A detailed analysis of the optical beam deflection technique for use in atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 6–12 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Raible, S.

B. H. Kim, F. E. Prins, D. P. Kern, S. Raible, U. Weimar, “Multicomponent analysis and prediction with a cantilever array based gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 1–7 (2001).

Raiteri, R.

R. Raiteri, M. Grattarola, H.-J. Butt, P. Sklàdal, “Micromechanical cantilever-based biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B 79, 115–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ramseyer, J.-P.

F. M. Battiston, J.-P. Ramseyer, H. P. Lang, M. K. Baller, C. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewski, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, “A chemical sensor based on a microfabricated cantilever array with simultaneous resonance-frequency and bending readout,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 122–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rayment, T.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. O’Shea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, C. Gerber, “A femtojoule calorimeter using michromechanical sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rosencwaig, A.

Rosete-Aguilar, M.

Salazar, A.

A. Salazar, A. Sánchez-Lavega, J. Fernández, “Theory of thermal diffusivity determination by the “mirage” technique in solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 4150–4156 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Lavega, A.

A. Salazar, A. Sánchez-Lavega, J. Fernández, “Theory of thermal diffusivity determination by the “mirage” technique in solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 4150–4156 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schneir, J.

S. Alexander, L. Hellemans, O. Marti, J. Schneir, V. Elings, P. K. Hansma, M. Longmire, J. Gurley, “An atomic-resolution atomic-force microscope implemented using an optical lever,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 164–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sklàdal, P.

R. Raiteri, M. Grattarola, H.-J. Butt, P. Sklàdal, “Micromechanical cantilever-based biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B 79, 115–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, R. J.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. O’Shea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, C. Gerber, “A femtojoule calorimeter using michromechanical sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Uda, Y.

van de Hulst, N. F.

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. van de Hulst, J. Greve, “A detailed analysis of the optical beam deflection technique for use in atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 6–12 (1992).
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Villatoro, J.

A. García-Valenzuela, M. Peña-Gomar, J. Villatoro, “Sensitivity analysis of angle sensitive detectors based on a film resonator,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1084–1092 (2003).
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J. Villatoro, A. García-Valenzuela, “Measuring optical power transmission near the critical angle for sensing beam deflection,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6648–6653 (1998).
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A. E. Ennos, M. S. Virdee, “High accuracy profile measurement of quasi-conical mirror surfaces by laser autocollimation,” Precis. Eng. 4, 5–8 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Weimar, U.

B. H. Kim, F. E. Prins, D. P. Kern, S. Raible, U. Weimar, “Multicomponent analysis and prediction with a cantilever array based gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 1–7 (2001).

Welland, M. E.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. O’Shea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, C. Gerber, “A femtojoule calorimeter using michromechanical sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Willenborg, D. L.

Williams, B. A.

B. A. Williams, R. J. Dewhurst, “A fiber-optic detection system for laser-ultrasound Lamb-wave examination of defects in thin materials,” Nondestr. Test. Eval. 12, 343–353 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Woodburn, C. N.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. O’Shea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, C. Gerber, “A femtojoule calorimeter using michromechanical sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

J. N. Caron, Y. Yang, J. B. Mehl, “Gas-coupled laser acoustic detection at ultrasonic and audio frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2912–2917 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A.

Zhang, S.

Zimering, B.

B. Zimering, A. C. Boccara, “Compact design for real time in situ atmospheric trace gas detection based on mirage effect (photothermal deflection) spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1891–1895 (1996).
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Appl. Opt.

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M. Rosete-Aguilar, R. Díaz-Uribe, “Profile testing of spherical surfaces by laser deflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4690–4697 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Villatoro, A. García-Valenzuela, “Measuring optical power transmission near the critical angle for sensing beam deflection,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6648–6653 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Zhang, P. S. Huang, “Total internal reflection for precision small-angle measurement,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1617–1622 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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G. Meyer, N. M. Amer, “Simultaneous measurement of lateral and normal forces with an optical-beam-deflection atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2089–2091 (1990).
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J. C. Murphy, L. C. Aamodt, “Photothermal spectroscopy using optical beam probing: mirage effect,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4580–4588 (1980).
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[CrossRef]

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. van de Hulst, J. Greve, “A detailed analysis of the optical beam deflection technique for use in atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 6–12 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Salazar, A. Sánchez-Lavega, J. Fernández, “Theory of thermal diffusivity determination by the “mirage” technique in solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 4150–4156 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nondestr. Test. Eval.

B. A. Williams, R. J. Dewhurst, “A fiber-optic detection system for laser-ultrasound Lamb-wave examination of defects in thin materials,” Nondestr. Test. Eval. 12, 343–353 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

A. L. Glazov, K. L. Muratikov, “Measurement of thermal parameters of solids by a modified photodeflection method,” Opt. Eng. 36, 358–362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Valenzuela, M. Peña-Gomar, J. Villatoro, “Sensitivity analysis of angle sensitive detectors based on a film resonator,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1084–1092 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng.

W. Gao, S. Kiyono, T. Nomura, “A new multiprobe method of roundness measurements,” Precis. Eng. 19, 37–45 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Ennos, M. S. Virdee, “High accuracy profile measurement of quasi-conical mirror surfaces by laser autocollimation,” Precis. Eng. 4, 5–8 (1982).
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[CrossRef]

J. N. Caron, Y. Yang, J. B. Mehl, “Gas-coupled laser acoustic detection at ultrasonic and audio frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2912–2917 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Zimering, A. C. Boccara, “Compact design for real time in situ atmospheric trace gas detection based on mirage effect (photothermal deflection) spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1891–1895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. O’Shea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, C. Gerber, “A femtojoule calorimeter using michromechanical sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793–3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

R. Raiteri, M. Grattarola, H.-J. Butt, P. Sklàdal, “Micromechanical cantilever-based biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B 79, 115–126 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Kim, F. E. Prins, D. P. Kern, S. Raible, U. Weimar, “Multicomponent analysis and prediction with a cantilever array based gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 1–7 (2001).

F. M. Battiston, J.-P. Ramseyer, H. P. Lang, M. K. Baller, C. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewski, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, “A chemical sensor based on a microfabricated cantilever array with simultaneous resonance-frequency and bending readout,” Sens. Actuators B 77, 122–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

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