Abstract

Above- and in-water radiometric data were collected from two coastal platforms: a small boat and an oceanographic tower. The above-water data were processed with and without a correction for bidirectional effects (Q02 and S95, respectively). An intercomparison of water-leaving radiances over a wide range of environmental conditions showed (a) total uncertainties across the blue-green domain were to within 4%, (b) a convergence of the Q02 method with the in-water method (average Q02 intercomparisons were to within 4%), and (c) chlorophyll a concentrations derived from Q02 reflectances and the OC4V4 (Ocean Color 4 Version 4) algorithm agreed with independent high-performance liquid-chromatography determinations to within approximately 32%.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2004 (1)

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. B. Hooker, A. Morel, “Platform and environmental effects on above- and in-water determination of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Doyle, G. Zibordi, “Optical propagation within a three-dimensional shadowed atmosphere-ocean field: application to large deployment structures,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4283–4306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, “Marine optical measurements of a ‘mucilage’ event in the northern Adriatic Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 322–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, D. W. Menzies, M. J. Neumann, R. C. Smith, “Remote sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment—impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability,” Appl. Opt. 39, 456–469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, S. Maritorena, “An evaluation of oceanographic radiometers and deployment methodologies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 811–830 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, “The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45, 427–465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (2)

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in Case 1 waters: a re-examination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. J. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “A comparison of the SeaWiFS chlorophyll and CZCS pigment algorithms using optical data from the 1992 JGOFS Equatorial Pacific Time Series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 44, 1907–1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 74, 241–246 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. R. Gordon, K. Ding, “Self shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Alberotanza, L.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 1: A Tower-Based Long-Term Measurement Program, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Antoine, D.

Austin, R. W.

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, Rev. 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 25, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

R. W. Austin, “The remote sensing of spectral radiance from below the ocean surface,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 317–344.

Bailey, S. W.

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, S. W. Bailey, C. M. Pietras, The SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurement (SeaPRISM) Field Commissioning, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 13, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Baker, K. S.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “The analysis of ocean optical data,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE478, 119–126 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Berthon, J.-F.

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, “Marine optical measurements of a ‘mucilage’ event in the northern Adriatic Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 322–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, S. W. Bailey, C. M. Pietras, The SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurement (SeaPRISM) Field Commissioning, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 13, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, D. Van der Linde, J. W. Brown, Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water Radiometry, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 1: A Tower-Based Long-Term Measurement Program, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. Van der Linde, C. Targa, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 2: Data Analysis, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 20, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Brown, J. W.

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, D. Van der Linde, J. W. Brown, Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water Radiometry, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. W. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D’Alimonte, D.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, D. Van der Linde, J. W. Brown, Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water Radiometry, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

Davis, C. O.

W. J. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “A comparison of the SeaWiFS chlorophyll and CZCS pigment algorithms using optical data from the 1992 JGOFS Equatorial Pacific Time Series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 44, 1907–1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deschamp, P. Y.

Ding, K.

H. R. Gordon, K. Ding, “Self shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J. P.

J. P. Doyle, G. Zibordi, “Optical propagation within a three-dimensional shadowed atmosphere-ocean field: application to large deployment structures,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4283–4306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. B. Hooker, “Offshore tower shading effects on in-water optical measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1767–1779 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 1: A Tower-Based Long-Term Measurement Program, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. Van der Linde, C. Targa, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 2: Data Analysis, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 20, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Esaias, W. E.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 74, 241–246 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

Fougnie, B.

Frouin, R.

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

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G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 1: A Tower-Based Long-Term Measurement Program, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. Van der Linde, C. Targa, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 2: Data Analysis, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 20, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Holben, B.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
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Hooker, S. B.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
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S. B. Hooker, A. Morel, “Platform and environmental effects on above- and in-water determination of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
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S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
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G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
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S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, “The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45, 427–465 (2000).
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S. B. Hooker, S. Maritorena, “An evaluation of oceanographic radiometers and deployment methodologies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 811–830 (2000).
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J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, “Marine optical measurements of a ‘mucilage’ event in the northern Adriatic Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 322–327 (2000).
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G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. B. Hooker, “Offshore tower shading effects on in-water optical measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1767–1779 (1999).
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S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, D. Van der Linde, J. W. Brown, Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water Radiometry, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, G. Lazin, S. McLean, The SeaBOARR-98 Field Campaign, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, The SeaBOARR-99 Field CampaignNASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 8, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. W. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, S. W. Bailey, C. M. Pietras, The SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurement (SeaPRISM) Field Commissioning, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 13, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
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Lazin, G.

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. W. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, The SeaBOARR-99 Field CampaignNASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 8, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, G. Lazin, S. McLean, The SeaBOARR-98 Field Campaign, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Lecomte, P.

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in Case 1 waters: a re-examination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
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Maritorena, S.

S. B. Hooker, S. Maritorena, “An evaluation of oceanographic radiometers and deployment methodologies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 811–830 (2000).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
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D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
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McClain, C. R.

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, “The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45, 427–465 (2000).
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McLean, S.

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
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D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, G. Lazin, S. McLean, The SeaBOARR-98 Field Campaign, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. W. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Mélin, F.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
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Menzies, D. W.

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
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Mobley, C. D.

Morel, A.

S. B. Hooker, A. Morel, “Platform and environmental effects on above- and in-water determination of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
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A. Morel, D. Antoine, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306 (2002).
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H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in Case 1 waters: a re-examination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
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A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
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A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
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A. Morel, J. L. Mueller, “Normalized water-leaving radiance and remote sensing reflectance: bidirectional reflectance and other factors,” in J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 3, Vol. 2. NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-210004 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 183–210.

Mueller, J. L.

A. Morel, J. L. Mueller, “Normalized water-leaving radiance and remote sensing reflectance: bidirectional reflectance and other factors,” in J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 3, Vol. 2. NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-210004 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 183–210.

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

J. L. Mueller, “Overview of measurement and data analysis protocols,” in G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 87–97.

J. L. Mueller, “Overview of measurement and data analysis protocols,” in J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 3, Vol. 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-210004 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 123–137.

J. L. Mueller, “Overview of measurement and data analysis methods,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation: Radiometric Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols, Rev. 4, Vol. 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-211621 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003), pp. 1–20.

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, Rev. 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 25, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Neumann, M. J.

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
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J. E. O’Reilly, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Pietras, C. M.

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, S. W. Bailey, C. M. Pietras, The SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurement (SeaPRISM) Field Commissioning, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 13, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Prieur, L.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
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W. J. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “A comparison of the SeaWiFS chlorophyll and CZCS pigment algorithms using optical data from the 1992 JGOFS Equatorial Pacific Time Series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 44, 1907–1925 (1997).
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Sherman, J.

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. W. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, D. W. Menzies, M. J. Neumann, R. C. Smith, “Remote sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment—impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability,” Appl. Opt. 39, 456–469 (2000).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sildam, J.

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

Small, M.

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. W. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Smith, R. C.

Targa, C.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 1: A Tower-Based Long-Term Measurement Program, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. Van der Linde, C. Targa, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 2: Data Analysis, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 20, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Toole, D. A.

Van der Linde, D.

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. Van der Linde, C. Targa, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 2: Data Analysis, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 20, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, D. Van der Linde, J. W. Brown, Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water Radiometry, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 1: A Tower-Based Long-Term Measurement Program, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

Zibordi, G.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
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J. P. Doyle, G. Zibordi, “Optical propagation within a three-dimensional shadowed atmosphere-ocean field: application to large deployment structures,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4283–4306 (2002).
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G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, “Marine optical measurements of a ‘mucilage’ event in the northern Adriatic Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 322–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. B. Hooker, “Offshore tower shading effects on in-water optical measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1767–1779 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, M. Ferrari, “Instrument self-shading in underwater optical measurements: experimental data,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2750–2754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 1: A Tower-Based Long-Term Measurement Program, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. Van der Linde, C. Targa, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 2: Data Analysis, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 20, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, D. Van der Linde, J. W. Brown, Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water Radiometry, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, G. Lazin, S. McLean, The SeaBOARR-98 Field Campaign, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. W. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, S. W. Bailey, C. M. Pietras, The SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurement (SeaPRISM) Field Commissioning, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 13, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Appl. Opt. (7)

Deep-Sea Res. II (1)

W. J. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “A comparison of the SeaWiFS chlorophyll and CZCS pigment algorithms using optical data from the 1992 JGOFS Equatorial Pacific Time Series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 44, 1907–1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 74, 241–246 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (5)

S. B. Hooker, S. Maritorena, “An evaluation of oceanographic radiometers and deployment methodologies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 811–830 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. B. Hooker, “Offshore tower shading effects on in-water optical measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1767–1779 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, A. Morel, “Platform and environmental effects on above- and in-water determination of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (4)

H. R. Gordon, K. Ding, “Self shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in Case 1 waters: a re-examination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, “Marine optical measurements of a ‘mucilage’ event in the northern Adriatic Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 322–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr. (1)

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, “The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45, 427–465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (20)

Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, “JGOFS core measurements protocols,” JGOFS Rep. No. 6 (Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research, Baltimore, Md., 1991).

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, Rev. 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 25, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

J. L. Mueller, “Overview of measurement and data analysis protocols,” in G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 87–97.

J. L. Mueller, “Overview of measurement and data analysis protocols,” in J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 3, Vol. 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-210004 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 123–137.

J. L. Mueller, “Overview of measurement and data analysis methods,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation: Radiometric Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols, Rev. 4, Vol. 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-211621 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003), pp. 1–20.

J. E. O’Reilly, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, D. Van der Linde, J. W. Brown, Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water Radiometry, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “The analysis of ocean optical data,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE478, 119–126 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Austin, “The remote sensing of spectral radiance from below the ocean surface,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 317–344.

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, G. Lazin, S. McLean, The SeaBOARR-98 Field Campaign, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, The SeaBOARR-99 Field CampaignNASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 8, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

S. B. Hooker, S. McLean, J. Sherman, M. Small, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, J. W. Brown, The Seventh SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-7), March 1999, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 17, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 1: A Tower-Based Long-Term Measurement Program, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 19, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

J.-F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. Van der Linde, C. Targa, Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 2: Data Analysis, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892, Vol. 20, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002).

A. Morel, J. L. Mueller, “Normalized water-leaving radiance and remote sensing reflectance: bidirectional reflectance and other factors,” in J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 3, Vol. 2. NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-210004 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 183–210.

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, “The JRC data processing system,” in S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, S. Maritorena, S. McLean, J. Sildam, Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March2000 (DARR-00), NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-206892, Vol. 15, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 52–56.

World Meteorological Organization. Guide to the Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation, WMO-N.8 (Geneva, Switzerland, 1983).

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, S. W. Bailey, C. M. Pietras, The SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurement (SeaPRISM) Field Commissioning, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 13, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geolocations of the sites sampled during the ADRIA-2000 and CoASTS (AAOT) campaigns. Whether the station was case 1 or case 2 is indicated by the solid circles and open squares, respectively. The separate analysis used to determine the water type for the ADRIA-2000 data ultimately used in this study is shown in the inset panel. The central, diagonal dashed line in the inset gives the Loisel and Morel26 boundary between case 1 and case 2 conditions, based on the beam attenuation coefficient at 660 nm, c(660), and the chlorophyll a concentration C a determined by high-performance liquid-chromatography analysis. The bordering dotted lines establish a generalized threshold region with respect to the boundary. For stations within the threshold regime, small observational uncertainties can frequently result in a station being reclassified from one water type to the other.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Environmental conditions during the ADRIA-2000 and CoASTS (AAOT) campaigns: (a) the water depth (the ADRIA-2000 data are labeled, and the three CoASTS campaigns are individually noted by the arrows), with the symbols encoded to show the water type; (b) the wind speed (open circles) and wave height (curves), with the latter on a 0–1-m scale; (c) the chlorophyll a concentration (solid squares); (d) the cloud cover (open diamonds) in tenths (the dashed line separates predominately clear skies from mostly cloudy conditions). The data are organized by an arbitrary, but temporally sequential, sample number.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of an in-water profile of spectral absorption a(λ), plus L u (λ) and E d (λ), wherein the vertical complexity is comprised of multiple optical layers (indicated along the rightmost edge): (a) a near-surface layer (incompletely resolved), (b) a secondary surface layer, (c) a tertiary surface layer, (d) the primary water column layer, (e) the bottom layer. Note that the E d (λ) values are scaled by 103, so they can be presented with the L u (λ) data on the same (top) axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intercomparison of (Q-corrected) above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances LˆWQ02(λ) with simultaneous miniNESS in-water determinations LˆWMN(λ) for case 1 conditions during the ADRIA-2000 campaign. The inset panel shows the case 2 intercomparisons (note the change in scales).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the above- and in-water data set shown in Fig. 4, except the former are not Q-corrected (i.e., the S95 method is used). The topmost inset panel shows the difference between the RPD histograms for the Q02 and S95 methods (light bars and dark bars, respectively) and includes all the case 1 and case 2 data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of Q-corrected above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances LˆWQ02(λ) with simultaneous WiSPER in-water determinations LˆWWP(λ) for case 1 stations during the CoASTS (AAOT) campaigns. The bottommost inset panel shows the case 2 stations. Note the change in scales with respect to Figs. 4 and 5. Ave., average.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Partitioning of the above- and in-water CoASTS (AAOT) intercomparisons of water-leaving radiances (Fig. 6) based on the FAFOV of the above-water sensors and with an L T , L i ordering: (a) 1.5°, 1.5°; (b) 3°, 3°; (c) 6°, 6°; (d) 6°, 26°. The symbols follow the wavelength convention established with Fig. 4, and the solid symbols in (a) denote slightly higher radiances than normal.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Intercomparison of the above- and in-water determinations of the chlorophyll a concentration Ĉ a and a , respectively, with the OC4V4 algorithm applied to radiometric data processed with the Q02 above-water method and the traditional in-water method. The results are separated according to the ADRIA-2000 campaign (open circles) and the CoASTS (AAOT) campaigns (solid circles). The inset panels present the individual above- (top) and in-water (bottom) comparisons of the optically derived chlorophylla concentration (with the OC4V4 algorithm) versus an independent HPLC assessment, C a . A typical evolution over one station, which was executed as quickly as possible, is delimited by the dashed circle. Ave., average.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Summary of the Major Quantities Defining the Environmental Conditions for the ADRIA-2000 and CoASTS Stations Providing Simultaneous Above- and In-Water Match-Ups (43 for ADRIA-2000 and 27 for CoASTS)a

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Table 2 Summary of the Major Sources of Uncertainties in the Computation of Water-Leaving Radiances for Representative Blue (443-nm), Green (555-nm), and Red (665-nm) Wavelengthsa

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Table 3 Summary of the Above- and In-Water Intercomparisons for the ADRIA-2000 Data Based on the Average RPD Values for the Individual Wavelengths, Spectral Averages, and Band Ratiosa

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Table 4 Summary of the CoASTS (AAOT) Statistical Intercomparisons Based on the Average RPD Values and the Partitioning Established with Table 3

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LˆWS95λ=LTλ-ρLiλ,
L˜Wλ=0.54Lu0-, λ,
Pz, λ, t0=Pz, λ, tEd0+, λ, t0Ed0+, λ, t,
LˆWQ02λ=0θ, WQλ, θ, ϕ, θ, CaQnλ, θ, Ca×LTλ, ϑ, ϕ-ρϑ, ϕ, WLiλ, ϑ, ϕ,
ψλ=100 LˆWλ-L˜WλL˜Wλ,
ψλ=100 LˆWλiLˆWλj-L˜WλiL˜WλjL˜WλiL˜Wλj,

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