Abstract

A compact stacking architecture for high-power diode-laser arrays is proposed and compared with traditional stacks. The objective of compact stacking is to achieve high brightness values without the use of microlenses. The calculated brightness for a compact stack is over 300 W mm-2 sr-1, which is approximately 40 times higher than that of a traditional stack made of similar laser emitters. Even higher brightness values of over 600 W mm-2 sr-1 were reached in practice. A laser head was manufactured in which the light from several compact laser stacks could be fiber coupled or the light could be transformed to a highly uniform beam.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. E. Edgerton, Electronic Flash, Strobe (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1992).
  2. C. E. Miller, “Using stroboscopy for stop-action study of high-speed events,” Mach. Des. 42, 220–228 (1970).
  3. S. Miyashiro, A. Mohammadi, K. Miwa, H. Groenig, “Optical measurement of liquid sprays with new nanosecond spark light source,” in Proceedings of 8th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, G. M. Carlomagno, I. Grant, eds. (G. M Carlomagno and I. Grant, Edinburg, Scotland, 1998), pp. 98.1–98.6.
  4. A. Whybrew, M. Reeves, R. L. Slagle, J. J. Boaler, A. K. Baugham, T. R. Nicholls, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “Two techniques for all-digital time-resolved PIV,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Workshop on PIV, R. Adrian, Y. Hassan, C. Meinhart, eds. (University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999), pp. 403–408.
  5. W. T. Silfvast, Laser Fundamentals (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1996).
  6. J. W. Dally, R. S. Sanford, “Multiple ruby laser system for high speed photography,” Opt. Eng. 21, 704–708 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. S. Settles, Schlieren and Shadowgraph Techniques (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Fu, Y. Wu, “Detection of velocity distribution of a flow field using sequences of Schlieren images,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1661–1666 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Hiller, H.-M. Lent, G. E. A. Meier, B. Staciski, “A pulsed light generator for high speed photography,” Exp. Fluids 5, 141–144 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Staciski, W. J. Hiller, G. E. A. Meier, “Light pulse generator for high speed photography using semiconductor devices as a light source,” Opt. Eng. 29, 821–826 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Matthes, “ICNIRP statement on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes: implications for hazard assessment,” Health Phys. 78, 744–752 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Alahautala, R. Hernberg, “Generation of uniform light by use of diode lasers and a truncated paraboloid with a Lambertian scatterer,” Appl. Opt. 43, 949–954 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Mäenpää, T. Alahautala, E. Lassila, P. H. Andersson, R. Hernberg, “Experimental set-up for study of chip formation in turning,” presented at the XVII IMEKO World Congress, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 22–27 June 2003.

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

S. Fu, Y. Wu, “Detection of velocity distribution of a flow field using sequences of Schlieren images,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1661–1666 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Matthes, “ICNIRP statement on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes: implications for hazard assessment,” Health Phys. 78, 744–752 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

B. Staciski, W. J. Hiller, G. E. A. Meier, “Light pulse generator for high speed photography using semiconductor devices as a light source,” Opt. Eng. 29, 821–826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

W. Hiller, H.-M. Lent, G. E. A. Meier, B. Staciski, “A pulsed light generator for high speed photography,” Exp. Fluids 5, 141–144 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. W. Dally, R. S. Sanford, “Multiple ruby laser system for high speed photography,” Opt. Eng. 21, 704–708 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

C. E. Miller, “Using stroboscopy for stop-action study of high-speed events,” Mach. Des. 42, 220–228 (1970).

Alahautala, T.

T. Alahautala, R. Hernberg, “Generation of uniform light by use of diode lasers and a truncated paraboloid with a Lambertian scatterer,” Appl. Opt. 43, 949–954 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mäenpää, T. Alahautala, E. Lassila, P. H. Andersson, R. Hernberg, “Experimental set-up for study of chip formation in turning,” presented at the XVII IMEKO World Congress, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 22–27 June 2003.

Andersson, P. H.

M. Mäenpää, T. Alahautala, E. Lassila, P. H. Andersson, R. Hernberg, “Experimental set-up for study of chip formation in turning,” presented at the XVII IMEKO World Congress, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 22–27 June 2003.

Baugham, A. K.

A. Whybrew, M. Reeves, R. L. Slagle, J. J. Boaler, A. K. Baugham, T. R. Nicholls, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “Two techniques for all-digital time-resolved PIV,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Workshop on PIV, R. Adrian, Y. Hassan, C. Meinhart, eds. (University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999), pp. 403–408.

Boaler, J. J.

A. Whybrew, M. Reeves, R. L. Slagle, J. J. Boaler, A. K. Baugham, T. R. Nicholls, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “Two techniques for all-digital time-resolved PIV,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Workshop on PIV, R. Adrian, Y. Hassan, C. Meinhart, eds. (University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999), pp. 403–408.

Buckberry, C. H.

A. Whybrew, M. Reeves, R. L. Slagle, J. J. Boaler, A. K. Baugham, T. R. Nicholls, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “Two techniques for all-digital time-resolved PIV,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Workshop on PIV, R. Adrian, Y. Hassan, C. Meinhart, eds. (University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999), pp. 403–408.

Dally, J. W.

J. W. Dally, R. S. Sanford, “Multiple ruby laser system for high speed photography,” Opt. Eng. 21, 704–708 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Edgerton, H. E.

H. E. Edgerton, Electronic Flash, Strobe (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1992).

Fu, S.

S. Fu, Y. Wu, “Detection of velocity distribution of a flow field using sequences of Schlieren images,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1661–1666 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Groenig, H.

S. Miyashiro, A. Mohammadi, K. Miwa, H. Groenig, “Optical measurement of liquid sprays with new nanosecond spark light source,” in Proceedings of 8th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, G. M. Carlomagno, I. Grant, eds. (G. M Carlomagno and I. Grant, Edinburg, Scotland, 1998), pp. 98.1–98.6.

Hernberg, R.

T. Alahautala, R. Hernberg, “Generation of uniform light by use of diode lasers and a truncated paraboloid with a Lambertian scatterer,” Appl. Opt. 43, 949–954 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mäenpää, T. Alahautala, E. Lassila, P. H. Andersson, R. Hernberg, “Experimental set-up for study of chip formation in turning,” presented at the XVII IMEKO World Congress, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 22–27 June 2003.

Hiller, W.

W. Hiller, H.-M. Lent, G. E. A. Meier, B. Staciski, “A pulsed light generator for high speed photography,” Exp. Fluids 5, 141–144 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hiller, W. J.

B. Staciski, W. J. Hiller, G. E. A. Meier, “Light pulse generator for high speed photography using semiconductor devices as a light source,” Opt. Eng. 29, 821–826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lassila, E.

M. Mäenpää, T. Alahautala, E. Lassila, P. H. Andersson, R. Hernberg, “Experimental set-up for study of chip formation in turning,” presented at the XVII IMEKO World Congress, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 22–27 June 2003.

Lent, H.-M.

W. Hiller, H.-M. Lent, G. E. A. Meier, B. Staciski, “A pulsed light generator for high speed photography,” Exp. Fluids 5, 141–144 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mäenpää, M.

M. Mäenpää, T. Alahautala, E. Lassila, P. H. Andersson, R. Hernberg, “Experimental set-up for study of chip formation in turning,” presented at the XVII IMEKO World Congress, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 22–27 June 2003.

Matthes, R.

R. Matthes, “ICNIRP statement on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes: implications for hazard assessment,” Health Phys. 78, 744–752 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meier, G. E. A.

B. Staciski, W. J. Hiller, G. E. A. Meier, “Light pulse generator for high speed photography using semiconductor devices as a light source,” Opt. Eng. 29, 821–826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Hiller, H.-M. Lent, G. E. A. Meier, B. Staciski, “A pulsed light generator for high speed photography,” Exp. Fluids 5, 141–144 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

C. E. Miller, “Using stroboscopy for stop-action study of high-speed events,” Mach. Des. 42, 220–228 (1970).

Miwa, K.

S. Miyashiro, A. Mohammadi, K. Miwa, H. Groenig, “Optical measurement of liquid sprays with new nanosecond spark light source,” in Proceedings of 8th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, G. M. Carlomagno, I. Grant, eds. (G. M Carlomagno and I. Grant, Edinburg, Scotland, 1998), pp. 98.1–98.6.

Miyashiro, S.

S. Miyashiro, A. Mohammadi, K. Miwa, H. Groenig, “Optical measurement of liquid sprays with new nanosecond spark light source,” in Proceedings of 8th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, G. M. Carlomagno, I. Grant, eds. (G. M Carlomagno and I. Grant, Edinburg, Scotland, 1998), pp. 98.1–98.6.

Mohammadi, A.

S. Miyashiro, A. Mohammadi, K. Miwa, H. Groenig, “Optical measurement of liquid sprays with new nanosecond spark light source,” in Proceedings of 8th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, G. M. Carlomagno, I. Grant, eds. (G. M Carlomagno and I. Grant, Edinburg, Scotland, 1998), pp. 98.1–98.6.

Nicholls, T. R.

A. Whybrew, M. Reeves, R. L. Slagle, J. J. Boaler, A. K. Baugham, T. R. Nicholls, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “Two techniques for all-digital time-resolved PIV,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Workshop on PIV, R. Adrian, Y. Hassan, C. Meinhart, eds. (University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999), pp. 403–408.

Reeves, M.

A. Whybrew, M. Reeves, R. L. Slagle, J. J. Boaler, A. K. Baugham, T. R. Nicholls, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “Two techniques for all-digital time-resolved PIV,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Workshop on PIV, R. Adrian, Y. Hassan, C. Meinhart, eds. (University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999), pp. 403–408.

Sanford, R. S.

J. W. Dally, R. S. Sanford, “Multiple ruby laser system for high speed photography,” Opt. Eng. 21, 704–708 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Settles, G. S.

G. S. Settles, Schlieren and Shadowgraph Techniques (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Silfvast, W. T.

W. T. Silfvast, Laser Fundamentals (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1996).

Slagle, R. L.

A. Whybrew, M. Reeves, R. L. Slagle, J. J. Boaler, A. K. Baugham, T. R. Nicholls, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “Two techniques for all-digital time-resolved PIV,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Workshop on PIV, R. Adrian, Y. Hassan, C. Meinhart, eds. (University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999), pp. 403–408.

Staciski, B.

B. Staciski, W. J. Hiller, G. E. A. Meier, “Light pulse generator for high speed photography using semiconductor devices as a light source,” Opt. Eng. 29, 821–826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Hiller, H.-M. Lent, G. E. A. Meier, B. Staciski, “A pulsed light generator for high speed photography,” Exp. Fluids 5, 141–144 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tavender, B.

A. Whybrew, M. Reeves, R. L. Slagle, J. J. Boaler, A. K. Baugham, T. R. Nicholls, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “Two techniques for all-digital time-resolved PIV,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Workshop on PIV, R. Adrian, Y. Hassan, C. Meinhart, eds. (University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999), pp. 403–408.

Towers, D. P.

A. Whybrew, M. Reeves, R. L. Slagle, J. J. Boaler, A. K. Baugham, T. R. Nicholls, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “Two techniques for all-digital time-resolved PIV,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Workshop on PIV, R. Adrian, Y. Hassan, C. Meinhart, eds. (University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999), pp. 403–408.

Whybrew, A.

A. Whybrew, M. Reeves, R. L. Slagle, J. J. Boaler, A. K. Baugham, T. R. Nicholls, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “Two techniques for all-digital time-resolved PIV,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Workshop on PIV, R. Adrian, Y. Hassan, C. Meinhart, eds. (University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999), pp. 403–408.

Wu, Y.

S. Fu, Y. Wu, “Detection of velocity distribution of a flow field using sequences of Schlieren images,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1661–1666 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Exp. Fluids (1)

W. Hiller, H.-M. Lent, G. E. A. Meier, B. Staciski, “A pulsed light generator for high speed photography,” Exp. Fluids 5, 141–144 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Health Phys. (1)

R. Matthes, “ICNIRP statement on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes: implications for hazard assessment,” Health Phys. 78, 744–752 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mach. Des. (1)

C. E. Miller, “Using stroboscopy for stop-action study of high-speed events,” Mach. Des. 42, 220–228 (1970).

Opt. Eng. (3)

J. W. Dally, R. S. Sanford, “Multiple ruby laser system for high speed photography,” Opt. Eng. 21, 704–708 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Fu, Y. Wu, “Detection of velocity distribution of a flow field using sequences of Schlieren images,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1661–1666 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Staciski, W. J. Hiller, G. E. A. Meier, “Light pulse generator for high speed photography using semiconductor devices as a light source,” Opt. Eng. 29, 821–826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. Mäenpää, T. Alahautala, E. Lassila, P. H. Andersson, R. Hernberg, “Experimental set-up for study of chip formation in turning,” presented at the XVII IMEKO World Congress, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 22–27 June 2003.

H. E. Edgerton, Electronic Flash, Strobe (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1992).

G. S. Settles, Schlieren and Shadowgraph Techniques (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Miyashiro, A. Mohammadi, K. Miwa, H. Groenig, “Optical measurement of liquid sprays with new nanosecond spark light source,” in Proceedings of 8th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, G. M. Carlomagno, I. Grant, eds. (G. M Carlomagno and I. Grant, Edinburg, Scotland, 1998), pp. 98.1–98.6.

A. Whybrew, M. Reeves, R. L. Slagle, J. J. Boaler, A. K. Baugham, T. R. Nicholls, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “Two techniques for all-digital time-resolved PIV,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Workshop on PIV, R. Adrian, Y. Hassan, C. Meinhart, eds. (University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999), pp. 403–408.

W. T. Silfvast, Laser Fundamentals (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Stacking of surface-emitting LEDs with integrated lens, (b) noncompact stacking of low-fill-factor DLAs, and (c) compact stacking of high-fill-factor DLAs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Fiber coupling of LEDs with integrated lens removed, (b) fiber coupling of a low-fill-factor DLA, and (c) fiber coupling of a compact stack.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Compact stack made by placing fifteen high-fill-factor-ratio DLAs on top of each other. An inverted image of the stack with dimensions in millimeters is shown on the right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Laser head open with six 670-nm compact stacks installed on it. The laser head can accommodate altogether 576 laser emitters. The diameter of the head is 50 mm, and the length is 165 mm. (b) Uniform output beam with a diameter of 14 mm. The optical components used for generation of uniform light are drawn into the figure. The dimensions are in millimeters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured radial intensities at three distances z, in millimeters, from the laser head.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Brightness of Semiconductor Light Sources

Tables Icon

Table 2 Properties of Narrow Compact Stacks

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Be=ΦeAeΩe,
Bs=NΦeAsΩs,
BsBe=NAeAs.

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