Abstract

Near-infrared scanning holography with a Fresnel zone plate (FZP) coded aperture has potential applications in imaging through turbid media. However, the nonnegative intensity-distribution function of the FZP coded aperture introduces the background artifacts into the reconstructed images, reducing the contrast and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the images. A novel method termed as the composite hologram is proposed to reduce the artifacts. The computer simulations showed that the contrast and the SNR of the reconstructed images had improvements of at least 50.2% and 5.58-dB, respectively, compared with the conventional method. The composite hologram of a metal ring with a 6.0-mm diameter made by a wire with a 0.4-mm diameter immersing in 1% intralipid solution was recorded, and the reconstruction was performed numerically. The experimental results demonstrated that the contrast and the SNR of the reconstructed image had improvements of at least 32.3% and 2.51-dB, respectively.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Yodh, B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48, 34–40 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. T. C. Poon, “Scanning holography and two-dimensional image processing by acousto-optic two-pupil synthesis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 521–527 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. H. Barret, F. A. Horrigan, “Fresnel zone plate imaging of gamma rays: theory,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2686–2702 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Doh, T. C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–140 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Sun, J.-H. Xie, Y.-R. Jiang, “Relationship between the fringe number of the scanning beam and the twin-image noise,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 735–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

K. Doh, T. C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

T. C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Yodh, B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48, 34–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Papaioannou, G. W. Gooft, J. J. M. Baselmans, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Image quality in time-resolved transillumination of highly scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6144–6157 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. R. Alfano, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, “Time-resolved imaging of translucent droplets in highly scattering turbid media,” Science 264, 1913–1915 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1991 (2)

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, K. S. Wong, “Time-resolved imaging through a turbid medium,” Appl. Opt. 30, 788–794 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

B. C. Wilson, S. L. Jacques, “Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2186–2199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1985 (1)

1978 (1)

1973 (1)

1969 (1)

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, “Time-resolved imaging of translucent droplets in highly scattering turbid media,” Science 264, 1913–1915 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved Fourier spectrum and imaging in highly scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5043–5048 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barret, H. H.

Baselmans, J. J. M.

Cannon, T. M.

Chance, B.

A. Yodh, B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48, 34–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chaney, R. C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. S.

Doh, K.

K. Doh, T. C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Doh, K. B.

T. C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fenimore, E. E.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gooft, G. W.

Grannell, S. M.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P. P.

R. R. Alfano, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, “Time-resolved imaging of translucent droplets in highly scattering turbid media,” Science 264, 1913–1915 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved Fourier spectrum and imaging in highly scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5043–5048 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoover, B. G.

Horrigan, F. A.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Indebetouw, G.

Jacques, S. L.

B. C. Wilson, S. L. Jacques, “Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2186–2199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

Jiang, Y.-R.

P. Sun, J.-H. Xie, Y.-R. Jiang, “Relationship between the fringe number of the scanning beam and the twin-image noise,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 735–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.

Klysubun, P.

Knutson, J. R.

Knüttel, A.

Kozma, A.

Kruger, R. A.

Leith, E. N.

Liang, X.

R. R. Alfano, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, “Time-resolved imaging of translucent droplets in highly scattering turbid media,” Science 264, 1913–1915 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massey, N.

McBride, T. O.

Mills, K.

Mills, K. D.

Österberg, U.

Papaioannou, D. G.

Paulsen, K. D.

Pogue, B. W.

Poon, T. C.

G. Indebetouw, T. Kim, T. C. Poon, B. W. Schilling, “Three-dimensional location of fluorescent in homogeneities in turbid media by scanning heterodyne holography,” Opt. Lett. 23, 135–137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Doh, T. C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Poon, “Scanning holography and two-dimensional image processing by acousto-optic two-pupil synthesis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 521–527 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Profio, A. E.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

Schilling, B. W.

G. Indebetouw, T. Kim, T. C. Poon, B. W. Schilling, “Three-dimensional location of fluorescent in homogeneities in turbid media by scanning heterodyne holography,” Opt. Lett. 23, 135–137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinoda, K.

K. Doh, T. C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, P.

P. Sun, J.-H. Xie, Y.-R. Jiang, “Relationship between the fringe number of the scanning beam and the twin-image noise,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 735–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

K. Doh, T. C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Vassilieva, O. L.

Wabnitz, H.

Wang, L.

R. R. Alfano, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, “Time-resolved imaging of translucent droplets in highly scattering turbid media,” Science 264, 1913–1915 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved Fourier spectrum and imaging in highly scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5043–5048 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

B. C. Wilson, S. L. Jacques, “Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2186–2199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. S.

Wu, M. H.

K. Doh, T. C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.-H.

P. Sun, J.-H. Xie, Y.-R. Jiang, “Relationship between the fringe number of the scanning beam and the twin-image noise,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 735–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A.

A. Yodh, B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48, 34–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zalevsky, Z.

Appl. Opt. (12)

A. Kozma, N. Massey, “Bias level reduction of incoherent holography,” Appl. Opt. 8, 393–397 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Barret, F. A. Horrigan, “Fresnel zone plate imaging of gamma rays: theory,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2686–2702 (1973).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Fenimore, T. M. Cannon, “Coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays,” Appl. Opt. 17, 337–347 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Profio, “Light transport in tissue,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2216–2222 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, K. S. Wong, “Time-resolved imaging through a turbid medium,” Appl. Opt. 30, 788–794 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved Fourier spectrum and imaging in highly scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5043–5048 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Knüttel, J. M. Schmitt, J. R. Knutson, “Spatial localization of absorbing bodies by interfering diffusive photon-density waves,” Appl. Opt. 32, 381–389 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, “Imaging in turbid media by photon density waves: spatial resolution and scaling relations,” Appl. Opt. 36, 64–73 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Leith, B. G. Hoover, S. M. Grannell, K. D. Mills, H. S. Chen, “Realization of time gating by use of spatial filtering,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1370–1376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Papaioannou, G. W. Gooft, J. J. M. Baselmans, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Image quality in time-resolved transillumination of highly scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6144–6157 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Vassilieva, R. C. Chaney, “Method for reducing background artifacts from images in single-photon emission computed tomography with a uniformly redundant array coded aperture,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1454–1461 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mills, Z. Zalevsky, E. N. Leith, “Holographic generalized first-arriving light approach for resolving images viewed through a scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2116–2121 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. C. Wilson, S. L. Jacques, “Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2186–2199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

K. Doh, T. C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Sun, J.-H. Xie, Y.-R. Jiang, “Relationship between the fringe number of the scanning beam and the twin-image noise,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 735–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

A. Yodh, B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48, 34–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

R. R. Alfano, X. Liang, L. Wang, P. P. Ho, “Time-resolved imaging of translucent droplets in highly scattering turbid media,” Science 264, 1913–1915 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Near-infrared imaging system of scanning holography with a FZP coded aperture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical calculation of the system point spread function (PSF).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Computer simulation results: (a) original image, (b) sine-mode hologram, (c) sine-mode reconstruction, (d) cosine-mode hologram, (e) cosine-mode reconstruction, (f) composite hologram, and (g) composite reconstruction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity along one row of the reconstructions, as shown in Fig. 3: (a) sine-mode reconstruction, (b) cosine-mode reconstruction, (c) composite reconstruction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Composite reconstructions of the metal ring (a) immersing in pure water, (b) immersing in 1% intralipid solution.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I1sx1, y1; z1=1+sinπ x12+y12λz1,I1cx1, y1; z1=1+cosπ x12+y12λz1.
α=π x2+y2λzi,I2sx, y; zi=1+sin α,I2cx, y; zi=1+cos α.
Hsx, y; zi=Ox, y; zi+Ox, y; zisin α,Hcx, y; zi=Ox, y; zi+Ox, y; zicos α,
Oˆsx, y; zi=Hsx, y; zi sin α=Ox, y; zisin α sin α+Ox, y; zi sin α,Oˆcx, y; zi=Hcx, y; zi cos α=Ox, y; zicos α cos α+Ox, y; zi cos α,
Oˆsx, y; zi=Ox, y; zi+Ox, y; zi sin α,Oˆcx, y; zi=Ox, y; zi+Ox, y; zi cos α.
Hsc=Hsx, y; zi-Hcx, y; zi=Ox, y; zisin α-cos α,
Oˆx, y; zi=Hscx, y; zisin α-cos α=Ox, y; zisin α-cos αsin α-cos α.
Oˆx, y; ziOx, y; zi.
SNR=20 logsignal intensitynoise intensity.

Metrics