Abstract

The nonlinearity characteristics of photoconductive and photovoltaic HgCdTe detectors were experimentally investigated in the infrared wavelength region by use of the National Physical Laboratory detector linearity measurement facility. The nonlinearity of photoconductive HgCdTe detectors was shown to be a function of irradiance rather than the total radiant power incident on the detector. Photoconductive HgCdTe detectors supplied by different vendors were shown to have similar linearity characteristics for wavelengths around 10 μm. However, the nonlinearity of response of a photovoltaic HgCdTe detector was shown to be significantly lower than the corresponding value for photoconductive HgCdTe detectors at the same wavelength.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2002

2000

M. S. Alam, J. Predina, “Identification and estimation of nonlinearity in constant-voltage-biased infrared sensor detected signals,” Opt. Eng. 39, 3267–3271 (2000).

1998

E. Theocharous, T. R. Prior, P. R. Haycocks, N. P. Fox, “High accuracy, infrared spectral responsivity scale,” Metrologia 35, 543–548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, V. I. Sapritsky, S. N. Mekhontsev, S. P. Morozova, “Absolute measurements of blackbody emitted radiance,” Metrologia 35, 549–554 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1993

F. Lei, J. Fischer, “Characterization of photodiodes in the UV and visible region based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 297–303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Boivin, “Automated absolute and relative spectral linearity measurements on photovoltaic detectors,” Metrologia 30, 355–360 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

1984

1979

H. J. Jung, “Spectral nonlinearity characteristics of low noise silicon detectors and their application to accurate measurements of radiation flux ratios,” Metrologia 15, 173–181 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. Bartoli, R. Allen, L. Esterowitz, M. Kruer, “Angular-limited carrier lifetimes in HgCdTe at high excess carrier concentrations,” Appl. Phys. 45, 2150–2154 (1974).

1972

F. J. J. Clarke, “High accuracy spectrophotometry at National Physical Laboratory,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 76A, 375–403 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Sanders, “Accurate measurements of and corrections for nonlinearities in radiometers,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 76A, 437–453 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, K. L. Eckerle, “Spectrophotometer linearity testing using the double aperture method,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2294–2303 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alam, M. S.

M. S. Alam, J. Predina, “Identification and estimation of nonlinearity in constant-voltage-biased infrared sensor detected signals,” Opt. Eng. 39, 3267–3271 (2000).

Allen, R.

J. Bartoli, R. Allen, L. Esterowitz, M. Kruer, “Angular-limited carrier lifetimes in HgCdTe at high excess carrier concentrations,” Appl. Phys. 45, 2150–2154 (1974).

Bartoli, J.

J. Bartoli, R. Allen, L. Esterowitz, M. Kruer, “Angular-limited carrier lifetimes in HgCdTe at high excess carrier concentrations,” Appl. Phys. 45, 2150–2154 (1974).

Bianchini, G.

Birch, J. R.

E. Theocharous, J. R. Birch, “Detectors for mid- and far-infrared spectrometry: selection and use,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers, Peter R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, U.K., 2002), pp. 349–367.

Boivin, L. P.

L. P. Boivin, “Automated absolute and relative spectral linearity measurements on photovoltaic detectors,” Metrologia 30, 355–360 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chase, D. B.

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, “High accuracy spectrophotometry at National Physical Laboratory,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 76A, 375–403 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rogers, N. P. Fox, “Latest measurement techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” in Materials for Infrared Detectors III, R. E. Longshore, S. Sivananthan, eds., Proc. SPIE5209, 228–239 (2003).

Cortesi, U.

Eckerle, K. L.

Esterowitz, L.

J. Bartoli, R. Allen, L. Esterowitz, M. Kruer, “Angular-limited carrier lifetimes in HgCdTe at high excess carrier concentrations,” Appl. Phys. 45, 2150–2154 (1974).

Fischer, J.

F. Lei, J. Fischer, “Characterization of photodiodes in the UV and visible region based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 297–303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N. P.

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, V. I. Sapritsky, S. N. Mekhontsev, S. P. Morozova, “Absolute measurements of blackbody emitted radiance,” Metrologia 35, 549–554 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, T. R. Prior, P. R. Haycocks, N. P. Fox, “High accuracy, infrared spectral responsivity scale,” Metrologia 35, 543–548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rogers, N. P. Fox, “Latest measurement techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” in Materials for Infrared Detectors III, R. E. Longshore, S. Sivananthan, eds., Proc. SPIE5209, 228–239 (2003).

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, “A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications,” in Optical Radiation Measurements III, J. M. Palmer, ed., Proc. SPIE2815, 56–68 (1996).

Griffiths, P. R.

Hansen, L. M.

Haycocks, P. R.

E. Theocharous, T. R. Prior, P. R. Haycocks, N. P. Fox, “High accuracy, infrared spectral responsivity scale,” Metrologia 35, 543–548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H. J.

H. J. Jung, “Spectral nonlinearity characteristics of low noise silicon detectors and their application to accurate measurements of radiation flux ratios,” Metrologia 15, 173–181 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kruer, M.

J. Bartoli, R. Allen, L. Esterowitz, M. Kruer, “Angular-limited carrier lifetimes in HgCdTe at high excess carrier concentrations,” Appl. Phys. 45, 2150–2154 (1974).

Lee, C.

Lei, F.

F. Lei, J. Fischer, “Characterization of photodiodes in the UV and visible region based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 297–303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mekhontsev, S. N.

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, V. I. Sapritsky, S. N. Mekhontsev, S. P. Morozova, “Absolute measurements of blackbody emitted radiance,” Metrologia 35, 549–554 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mielenz, K. D.

Morozova, S. P.

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, V. I. Sapritsky, S. N. Mekhontsev, S. P. Morozova, “Absolute measurements of blackbody emitted radiance,” Metrologia 35, 549–554 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Palchetti, L.

Pascale, E.

Predina, J.

M. S. Alam, J. Predina, “Identification and estimation of nonlinearity in constant-voltage-biased infrared sensor detected signals,” Opt. Eng. 39, 3267–3271 (2000).

Prior, T. R.

E. Theocharous, T. R. Prior, P. R. Haycocks, N. P. Fox, “High accuracy, infrared spectral responsivity scale,” Metrologia 35, 543–548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, “A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications,” in Optical Radiation Measurements III, J. M. Palmer, ed., Proc. SPIE2815, 56–68 (1996).

Richardson, R. L.

Rogers, L. J.

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rogers, N. P. Fox, “Latest measurement techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” in Materials for Infrared Detectors III, R. E. Longshore, S. Sivananthan, eds., Proc. SPIE5209, 228–239 (2003).

Sanders, C. L.

C. L. Sanders, “Accurate measurements of and corrections for nonlinearities in radiometers,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 76A, 437–453 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sapritsky, V. I.

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, V. I. Sapritsky, S. N. Mekhontsev, S. P. Morozova, “Absolute measurements of blackbody emitted radiance,” Metrologia 35, 549–554 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Theocharous, E.

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, V. I. Sapritsky, S. N. Mekhontsev, S. P. Morozova, “Absolute measurements of blackbody emitted radiance,” Metrologia 35, 549–554 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, T. R. Prior, P. R. Haycocks, N. P. Fox, “High accuracy, infrared spectral responsivity scale,” Metrologia 35, 543–548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rogers, N. P. Fox, “Latest measurement techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” in Materials for Infrared Detectors III, R. E. Longshore, S. Sivananthan, eds., Proc. SPIE5209, 228–239 (2003).

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, “A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications,” in Optical Radiation Measurements III, J. M. Palmer, ed., Proc. SPIE2815, 56–68 (1996).

E. Theocharous, J. R. Birch, “Detectors for mid- and far-infrared spectrometry: selection and use,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers, Peter R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, U.K., 2002), pp. 349–367.

Wyatt, C. L.

C. L. Wyatt, “Radiometric linearity calibration,” in Infrared Technology XI, R. A. Mollicone, I. J. Spiro, eds., Proc. SPIE572, 68–73 (1985).

Yang, H.

Zhang, Z. M.

Zhu, C. J.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys.

J. Bartoli, R. Allen, L. Esterowitz, M. Kruer, “Angular-limited carrier lifetimes in HgCdTe at high excess carrier concentrations,” Appl. Phys. 45, 2150–2154 (1974).

Appl. Spectrosc.

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand.

F. J. J. Clarke, “High accuracy spectrophotometry at National Physical Laboratory,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 76A, 375–403 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Sanders, “Accurate measurements of and corrections for nonlinearities in radiometers,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 76A, 437–453 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

H. J. Jung, “Spectral nonlinearity characteristics of low noise silicon detectors and their application to accurate measurements of radiation flux ratios,” Metrologia 15, 173–181 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. Lei, J. Fischer, “Characterization of photodiodes in the UV and visible region based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 297–303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Boivin, “Automated absolute and relative spectral linearity measurements on photovoltaic detectors,” Metrologia 30, 355–360 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, T. R. Prior, P. R. Haycocks, N. P. Fox, “High accuracy, infrared spectral responsivity scale,” Metrologia 35, 543–548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, V. I. Sapritsky, S. N. Mekhontsev, S. P. Morozova, “Absolute measurements of blackbody emitted radiance,” Metrologia 35, 549–554 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. S. Alam, J. Predina, “Identification and estimation of nonlinearity in constant-voltage-biased infrared sensor detected signals,” Opt. Eng. 39, 3267–3271 (2000).

Other

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, “A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications,” in Optical Radiation Measurements III, J. M. Palmer, ed., Proc. SPIE2815, 56–68 (1996).

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rogers, N. P. Fox, “Latest measurement techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” in Materials for Infrared Detectors III, R. E. Longshore, S. Sivananthan, eds., Proc. SPIE5209, 228–239 (2003).

EGG Optoelectronics, Infrared Detectors, (EGG Judson, Montgomeryville, Pa., 1995), pp. 20–21.

E. Theocharous, J. R. Birch, “Detectors for mid- and far-infrared spectrometry: selection and use,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers, Peter R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, U.K., 2002), pp. 349–367.

C. L. Wyatt, “Radiometric linearity calibration,” in Infrared Technology XI, R. A. Mollicone, I. J. Spiro, eds., Proc. SPIE572, 68–73 (1985).

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