Abstract

A hand-held radiometer, called SIMBAD, has been designed and built specifically for evaluating satellite-derived ocean color. It provides information on the basic ocean-color variables, namely aerosol optical thickness and marine reflectance, in five spectral bands centered at 443, 490, 560, 670, and 870 nm. Aerosol optical thickness is obtained by viewing the Sun disk and measuring the direct atmospheric transmittance. Marine reflectance is obtained by viewing the ocean surface and measuring the upwelling radiance through a vertical polarizer in a geometry that minimizes glitter and reflected sky radiation, i.e., at 45° from nadir (near the Brewster angle) and at 135° in azimuth from the Sun’s principal plane. Relative inaccuracy on marine reflectance, established theoretically, is approximately 6% at 443 and 490 nm, 8% at 560 nm, and 23% at 670 nm for case 1 waters containing 0.1 mg m-3 of chlorophyll a. Measurements by SIMBAD and other instruments during the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment, the Aerosols-99 Experiment, and the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations cruises agree within uncertainties. The radiometer is compact, light, and easy to operate at sea. The measurement protocol is simple, allowing en route measurements from ships of opportunity (research vessels and merchant ships) traveling the world’s oceans.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (2)

S. B. Hooker, A. Morel, “Platform and environmental effects on above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “The calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: aircraft measurements over open ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445–4448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, E. J. Welton, P. K. Quinn, R. Frouin, M. Miller, R. M. Reynolds, “2001: Aerosol depth measurements during the Aerosols99 experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20,811–20,820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

1999 (5)

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurements of diffuse marine reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3844–3856 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Vicarious calibration of the POLDER ocean color spectral bands using in-situ measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1567–1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase emphasis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase analysis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “The Normalized Derived Phytoplankton Index for satellite ocean color applications,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 79, 161 (1998).

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).

M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Validation of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,919–24,936 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209–17,217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery in the Earth observing system era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in-situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

P.-Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598–3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

S. B. Hooker, W. Esaias, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 74, 245–246 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters II: Bi-directional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

H. R. Gordon, K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (4)

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 2145–2153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, D. Lingner, C. Gautier, K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “A simple analytical formula to compute total and photosynthetically available solar irradiance at the ocean surface under clear skies,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9731–9742 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Deuzé, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Fourier series expansion of the transfer equation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 483–494 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Kasten, A. T. Young, “Revised optical air mass tables and approximation formula,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4735–4738 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

T. Matsumoto, P. Russell, C. Mina, W. Van Ark, V. Banta, “Airborne tracking sunphotometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red-tide dinoflagellate off west Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

1982 (1)

M. Viollier, “Radiometric calibration of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus-7, a proposed adjustment,” Appl. Opt. 21, 6142–6145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

1974 (2)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The determination of the index of refraction of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

G. L. Clarke, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, “Spectra of backscattered light from the sea obtained from aircraft as a measure of chlorophyll concentration,” Science 167, 1119–1121 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

O. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, “Fluorometric determination of chlorophyll,” J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 30, 3–15 (1965).

1954 (1)

Aas, E.

E. Aas, “The refractive index of phytoplankton,” Inst. Rep. Ser. 46 (Institutt for Geofysikk, Oslo University, Oslo, Norway, 1981).

Abel, P.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, F.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, K.

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase emphasis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase analysis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

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Barnes, W.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

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P.-Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598–3615 (1994).
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P.-Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598–3615 (1994).
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D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209–17,217 (1997).
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P.-Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598–3615 (1994).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).

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B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Chami, A. Poteau, O. Hagolle, “Computations and measurements of polarized marine reflectance,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. E. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 191–201 (2000).
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R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “The calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
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D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209–17,217 (1997).
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W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
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G. L. Clarke, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, “Spectra of backscattered light from the sea obtained from aircraft as a measure of chlorophyll concentration,” Science 167, 1119–1121 (1970).
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G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
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D’Alimonte, D.

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
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G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
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Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1997).
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Deschamps, P.-Y.

J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: aircraft measurements over open ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445–4448 (2001).
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B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurements of diffuse marine reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3844–3856 (1999).
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B. Fougnie, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Vicarious calibration of the POLDER ocean color spectral bands using in-situ measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1567–1574 (1999).
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M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Validation of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,919–24,936 (1998).
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R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “The Normalized Derived Phytoplankton Index for satellite ocean color applications,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 79, 161 (1998).

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in-situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).
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P.-Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598–3615 (1994).
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B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Chami, A. Poteau, O. Hagolle, “Computations and measurements of polarized marine reflectance,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. E. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 191–201 (2000).
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W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
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T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase emphasis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
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Esaias, W.

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Ewing, G. C.

G. L. Clarke, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, “Spectra of backscattered light from the sea obtained from aircraft as a measure of chlorophyll concentration,” Science 167, 1119–1121 (1970).
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G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
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B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurements of diffuse marine reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3844–3856 (1999).
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B. Fougnie, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Vicarious calibration of the POLDER ocean color spectral bands using in-situ measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1567–1574 (1999).
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B. Fougnie, M. Lecourt, J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Validation of the POLDER ocean color algorithm using in-situ measurements and time series,” in ALPS 99 Symposium (Centre National d’Etude Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1999), Vol. 1, P04, pp. 1–4.

B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Chami, A. Poteau, O. Hagolle, “Computations and measurements of polarized marine reflectance,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. E. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 191–201 (2000).
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B. Fougnie, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Observation et modélisation de la signature spectrale de l’écume de mer,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Colloquium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, G. Guyot, T. Phulpin, eds. (Balkema, Rotterdam, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 227–234.

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G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
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J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: aircraft measurements over open ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445–4448 (2001).
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T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase analysis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
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B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurements of diffuse marine reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3844–3856 (1999).
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B. Fougnie, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Vicarious calibration of the POLDER ocean color spectral bands using in-situ measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1567–1574 (1999).
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T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase emphasis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
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M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Validation of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,919–24,936 (1998).
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R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “The Normalized Derived Phytoplankton Index for satellite ocean color applications,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 79, 161 (1998).

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in-situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).
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R. Frouin, D. Lingner, C. Gautier, K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “A simple analytical formula to compute total and photosynthetically available solar irradiance at the ocean surface under clear skies,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9731–9742 (1989).
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B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Chami, A. Poteau, O. Hagolle, “Computations and measurements of polarized marine reflectance,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. E. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 191–201 (2000).
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T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase analysis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
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T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase emphasis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).

Gautier, C.

R. Frouin, D. Lingner, C. Gautier, K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “A simple analytical formula to compute total and photosynthetically available solar irradiance at the ocean surface under clear skies,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9731–9742 (1989).
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D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209–17,217 (1997).
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Godin, M.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
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C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Hagolle, O.

B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Chami, A. Poteau, O. Hagolle, “Computations and measurements of polarized marine reflectance,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. E. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 191–201 (2000).
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T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase emphasis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
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T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase analysis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
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K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red-tide dinoflagellate off west Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, R. G. Steward, “Remote-sensing reflectance measured with and without a vertical polarizer,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 483–488 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strickland, J. D. H.

O. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, “Fluorometric determination of chlorophyll,” J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 30, 3–15 (1965).

Sturm, B.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanré, D.

Timothy, S. B.

J. M. Livingston, V. N. Kapustin, B. Schmid, P. B. Russell, P. K. Quinn, S. B. Timothy, A. D. Philip, V. Freudenthaler, “Shipboard sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth spectra and columnar water vapor during ACE 2,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 594–619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Toole, D. A.

Toratani, M.

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase emphasis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase analysis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Trees, C.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209–17,217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Ark, W.

T. Matsumoto, P. Russell, C. Mina, W. Van Ark, V. Banta, “Airborne tracking sunphotometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vasilkov, A. P.

Viollier, M.

M. Viollier, “Radiometric calibration of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus-7, a proposed adjustment,” Appl. Opt. 21, 6142–6145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

K. J. Voss, E. J. Welton, P. K. Quinn, R. Frouin, M. Miller, R. M. Reynolds, “2001: Aerosol depth measurements during the Aerosols99 experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20,811–20,820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209–17,217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Welton, E. J.

K. J. Voss, E. J. Welton, P. K. Quinn, R. Frouin, M. Miller, R. M. Reynolds, “2001: Aerosol depth measurements during the Aerosols99 experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20,811–20,820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, P. J.

Wilson, W. H.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wrigley, R. C.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yentsch, C. S.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
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Young, A. T.

Young, D. F.

G. M. Keating, M. C. Pitts, D. F. Young, “Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone (New CIRA),” in Middle Atmosphere Program Handbook for MAP, G. M. Keating, ed. (Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics Secretariat, U. of Illinois, Urbana, Ill., 1989), Vol. 31, pp. 37–49.

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J. R. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The determination of the index of refraction of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
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G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
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S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
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Appl. Opt. (13)

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
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H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
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R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “The calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
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C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
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B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurements of diffuse marine reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3844–3856 (1999).
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N. A. Krotkov, A. P. Vasilkov, “Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurements of diffuse marine reflectance: comment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1379–1381 (2000).
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D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, D. W. Menzies, M. J. Neumann, R. C. Smith, “Remote-sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment: impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability,” Appl. Opt. 39, 456–469 (2000).
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P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, D. Tanré, “Modeling of the atmospheric effects and its application to the remote sensing of ocean color,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3751–3758 (1983).
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D. Tanré, M. Herman, P.-Y. Deschamps, A. de Leffe, “Atmospheric modeling for space measurements of ground reflectances, including bidirectional properties,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3587–3597 (1979).
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EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (2)

R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “The Normalized Derived Phytoplankton Index for satellite ocean color applications,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 79, 161 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. Esaias, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 74, 245–246 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: aircraft measurements over open ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445–4448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (5)

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase analysis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
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V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 2145–2153 (1989).
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P.-Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598–3615 (1994).
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B. Fougnie, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Vicarious calibration of the POLDER ocean color spectral bands using in-situ measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1567–1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Aoki, T. Endoh, H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, Y. Mitomi, B. G. Mitchell, R. Frouin, “Early phase emphasis of OCTS radiance data for aerosol remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1575–1585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (4)

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, A. Morel, “Platform and environmental effects on above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
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T. Matsumoto, P. Russell, C. Mina, W. Van Ark, V. Banta, “Airborne tracking sunphotometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. (1)

O. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, “Fluorometric determination of chlorophyll,” J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 30, 3–15 (1965).

J. Geophys. Res. (9)

K. J. Voss, E. J. Welton, P. K. Quinn, R. Frouin, M. Miller, R. M. Reynolds, “2001: Aerosol depth measurements during the Aerosols99 experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20,811–20,820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The determination of the index of refraction of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, D. Lingner, C. Gautier, K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “A simple analytical formula to compute total and photosynthetically available solar irradiance at the ocean surface under clear skies,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9731–9742 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in-situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).
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A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209–17,217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Validation of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,919–24,936 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery in the Earth observing system era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

J.-L. Deuzé, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Fourier series expansion of the transfer equation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 483–494 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red-tide dinoflagellate off west Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

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W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
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Sol. Phys. (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
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Space Sci. Rev. (1)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
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Tellus Ser. B (1)

J. M. Livingston, V. N. Kapustin, B. Schmid, P. B. Russell, P. K. Quinn, S. B. Timothy, A. D. Philip, V. Freudenthaler, “Shipboard sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth spectra and columnar water vapor during ACE 2,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 594–619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (17)

B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “Algorithms for SeaWiFS standard products developed with the CalCOFI bio-optical data set,” in CalCOFI Reports, J. Olfe, ed. (Marine Life Research Group, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1998), Vol. 39, pp. 133–147.

E. Aas, “The refractive index of phytoplankton,” Inst. Rep. Ser. 46 (Institutt for Geofysikk, Oslo University, Oslo, Norway, 1981).

World Meteorological Organization (WMO), “A preliminary cloudless standard atmosphere for radiation computation,” Reps. WCP-112 and WMO/TD 24 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1986).

B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Chami, A. Poteau, O. Hagolle, “Computations and measurements of polarized marine reflectance,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. E. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 191–201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 1.

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B. Fougnie, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Observation et modélisation de la signature spectrale de l’écume de mer,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Colloquium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, G. Guyot, T. Phulpin, eds. (Balkema, Rotterdam, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 227–234.

A. Morel, J. L. Mueller, “Normalized water-leaving radiance and remote sensing reflectance: Bidirectional reflectance and other factors,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-210004, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), pp. 183–210.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

B. Fougnie, M. Lecourt, J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Validation of the POLDER ocean color algorithm using in-situ measurements and time series,” in ALPS 99 Symposium (Centre National d’Etude Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1999), Vol. 1, P04, pp. 1–4.

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, Revision 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

M. Rast, J.-L. Bézy, “The ESA medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS): requirements to its mission and performance of its system,” in Remote Sensing in Action, Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Remote Sensing Society, P. J. Curran, C. Robertson, eds. (Remote Sensing Society, Nottingham, UK, 1985), pp. 125–132.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
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Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, R. G. Steward, “Remote-sensing reflectance measured with and without a vertical polarizer,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 483–488 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral response of the SIMBAD instrument. Band 1 is centered on 443 nm, band 2 on 490 nm, band 3 on 560 nm, band 4 on 670 nm, and band 5 on 870 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the SIMBAD radiometer. The main parts are five optical subassemblies, including interference filter, lenses, polarizer, and detector (right-hand side); electronic card (middle); memory, GPS, inclinometer, and magnetometer card (left-hand side); and power and GPS antenna input (back face). Only one set of lenses, corresponding to one of the optical subassemblies, is drawn.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

R. Frouin making SIMBAD measurements of marine reflectance (top) and aerosol optical thickness (bottom) from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier in La Jolla, California. To measure marine reflectance, he points the instrument toward the ocean surface at a nadir angle of ∼45° and an azimuth angle of 135° with respect to the Sun’s principal plane. The instrument is secured with a cord. To measure aerosol optical thickness, he points the instrument toward the Sun with the help of a finder.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Parallel-polarized reflectance of the ocean at 443 nm for a solar zenith angle of 47°, a relative azimuth angle of 135°, a wind speed of 5 m s-1, and assuming a water-body reflectance of zero.25 The atmosphere contains molecules and coastal aerosols (C70 model from Ref. 9) of varied optical thicknesses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarization factor γ versus view nadir angle for (a) three types of phytoplankton particles and a pigment concentration of 0.1 mg m-3 versus (b) pigment concentration for particles of Type 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured polarized and (b) final water reflectance for a sea-viewing file corresponding to data collected on 29 January 1999 at 4.04 °S and 18.18 °W during the Aerosols-99 campaign. The solar zenith angle was 41.8°, the wind speed was 6.3 m s-1, and the sky was completely free of clouds.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of aerosol optical thickness derived from three days of measurements made by the SIMBAD radiometer and by the AATS-6 sunphotometer51 during ACE-2 (23 matchups).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of marine reflectance derived from SIMBAD and MER measurements obtained during the CalCOFI and Aerosols-99 cruises: 36 matchups for 443 and 560 nm, and 21 matchups for 490 and 670 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Marine reflectance derived from SIMBAD and MER measurements at (a) 443 nm, (b) 490 nm, (c) 560 nm, and (d) 670 nm versus the pigment concentration estimated from water samples with the fluorometric method. The solid line represents the relation between marine reflectance and pigment concentration that is predicted by the bio-optical model of Morel.12

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the SIMBAD Radiometer

Tables Icon

Table 2 Inaccuracy of the SIMBAD Aerosol Optical Thickness (m = 1)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Inaccuracy of the SIMBAD Diffuse Marine Reflectance

Tables Icon

Table 4 Comparison Statistic of Aerosol Optical Thickness, τa, at 443, 490, 560, 670, and 870 nm, Angström Coefficient, α, and Aerosol Index, τa(870)α, Derived from Measurements by the SIMBAD Radiometer and the AATS-6 Sunphotometer during ACE-2a

Tables Icon

Table 5 Comparison Statistic of Marine Reflectance Derived from SIMBAD and MER-2040 Radiometer Measurements during CalCOFI and Aerosols-99 Cruisesa

Tables Icon

Table 6 Comparison Statistic of Three Bio-optical Indices Computed with Marine Reflectance Derived from SIMBAD and MER Measurements (Table 4)a

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Iiθs=I0id0/d2 exp-τimθs,
lnCNi=lnCN0i+2 lnd0/d-τimθs,
Lsi=i LλRλdλi Rλdλ,
Ki=Lsi/CNi.
τi=lnCN0i+2 lnd0/d-lnCNi/mθs.
τai=τi-τriP-τoiUo,
Tiθs=Toiθs, UoTraiθs, τri, τai=exp-koiUomθsTraiθs, τri, τai,
Traiθs=exp-0.52τri+0.16τaimθs.
ρui=πKiCNid/d02/I0i cosθs.
ρwi=ρui-ρ0i/Ti,
ρwi=ρui-ρ0i/Ti-ρu5-ρ05/T5, i=1,, 4.
ρwi=2γiρwi,

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