Abstract

A neural network is developed to retrieve chlorophyll a concentration from marine reflectance by use of the five visible spectral bands of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The network, dedicated to the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, is calibrated with synthetic data that vary in terms of atmospheric content, solar zenith angle, and secondary pigments. Pigment variability is based on in situ data collected in the study region and is introduced through nonlinear modeling of phytoplankton absorption as a function of chlorophyll a, b, and c and photosynthetic and photoprotectant carotenoids. Tests performed on simulated yet realistic data show that chlorophyll a retrievals are substantially improved by use of the neural network instead of classical algorithms, which are sensitive to spectrally uncorrelated effects. The methodology is general, i.e., is applicable to regions other than the western equatorial Pacific Ocean.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8138, 10.1029/2001JC001298(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Bricaud, C. S. Roesler, J. S. Parslow, J. Ishizaka, “Bio-optical studies during the JGOFS-equatorial Pacific program: a contribution to the knowledge of the equatorial system,” Deep Sea Res. II 49, 2583–2599 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1291–1201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

P. Cipollini, C. Giovanni, D. Marco, G. Raffaelle, “Retrieval of sea water optically active parameters from hyperspectral data by means of generalized radial basis function neural networks,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 1508–1524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, E. Dilligeard, R. Santer, “Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2398–2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the southern ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, B. G. Mitchell, “Artificial neural network for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3483–3495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Dupouy, J. Neveux, A. Subramaniam, M. Mulholland, L. Campbell, L. Montoya, J. E. Carpenter, D. Capone, “SEAWiFS captures Trichodesmium blooms in the southwestern tropical Pacific,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 2–16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from the irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3001–3011 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

Y. Dandonneau, “Introduction to special section: biochemical conditions in the equatorial Pacific in late 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3291–3295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Schiller, R. Doerffer, “Neural network for emulation of an inverse model—operational derivation of Case II properties from MERIS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1735–1746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Keiner, C. W. Brown, “Estimating oceanic chlorophyll concentrations with neural networks,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 189–194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).

C. B. Field, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, P. Falkowski, “Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components,” Science 281, 237–240 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (Case 1) waters: analysis and implication for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in Case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Stuart, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maas, B. D. Irwin, “Pigments and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra,” J. Plankton. Res. 20, 187–217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

C. Dupouy, J. Neveux, J. M. Andre, “Spectral absorption coefficient of photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (165E-150W),” Deep Sea Res. II 44, 1881–1906 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Murray, R. Le Borgne, Y. Dandonneau, “JGOFS studies in the equatorial Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. II 44, 1759–1763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, “Spatial variations in the chlorophyll-specific absorptions of phytoplankton and photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 12,412–12,423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18,607–18,625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite” retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, J. H. Bustillos-Guzman, C. Caillau, J. C. Marty, “Rapid HPLC method for determination of phytoplankton chemotaxinomic pigments: separation of chlorophyll a from divinyl-chlorophyll a and zeaxanthin from lutein,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2377–2382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Cleveland, “Regional models for phytoplankton absorption in function of chlorophyll a concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,333–13,344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).

C. M. Bishop, “Training with noise is equivalent to Tikhonov regularization,” Neural Comput. 7, 108–116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. Doerffer, J. Fisher, “Concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter, and gelstoff in Case II waters derived from satellite coastal zone color scanner data with inverse modeling methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7457–7466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

M. F. Møller, “A scaled conjugate gradient algorithm for fast supervised learning,” Neural Networks 6, 525–533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Neveux, F. Lantoine, “Spectrofluorometric assay of chlorophylls and phaeopigments using the least squares approximation technique,” Deep Sea Res. 40, 1747–1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (5)

J. M. André, “Ocean color remote-sensing and the subsurface vertical structure of phytoplankton pigments,” Deep Sea Res. 39, 763–779 (1991).

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, Y. H. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagelattes and ciliates: a tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared with those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res. 49, 1–26 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

J. H. Morrow, W. S. Chamberlin, D. A. Kiefer, “A two-component description of spectral absorption by marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1500–1509 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the western Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 323–341 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Dependence of the diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the Sun angle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1484–1489 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Ewans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 35, 634–642 (1985).

1981 (3)

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. I 28A, 1375–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
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A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (Case 1) waters: analysis and implication for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
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K. Allali, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, “Spatial variations in the chlorophyll-specific absorptions of phytoplankton and photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 12,412–12,423 (1997).
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Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (Case 1) waters: analysis and implication for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
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A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
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H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Ewans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
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Behrenfeld, M. J.

C. B. Field, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, P. Falkowski, “Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components,” Science 281, 237–240 (1998).
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R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the western Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 323–341 (1989).
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Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, C. S. Roesler, J. S. Parslow, J. Ishizaka, “Bio-optical studies during the JGOFS-equatorial Pacific program: a contribution to the knowledge of the equatorial system,” Deep Sea Res. II 49, 2583–2599 (2002).
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A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (Case 1) waters: analysis and implication for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
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K. Allali, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, “Spatial variations in the chlorophyll-specific absorptions of phytoplankton and photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 12,412–12,423 (1997).
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A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
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Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Ewans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
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Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Ewans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
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H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
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Brown, S. L.

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8138, 10.1029/2001JC001298(2003).
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Caillau, C.

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Campbell, L.

C. Dupouy, J. Neveux, A. Subramaniam, M. Mulholland, L. Campbell, L. Montoya, J. E. Carpenter, D. Capone, “SEAWiFS captures Trichodesmium blooms in the southwestern tropical Pacific,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 2–16 (2000).
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Capone, D.

C. Dupouy, J. Neveux, A. Subramaniam, M. Mulholland, L. Campbell, L. Montoya, J. E. Carpenter, D. Capone, “SEAWiFS captures Trichodesmium blooms in the southwestern tropical Pacific,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 2–16 (2000).
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Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1291–1201 (2002).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
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K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. Lee, K. Hawes, J. P. Cannizzaro, “Case 2 chlorophyll a,” MODIS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Doc. 19 (College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Fl., 2003).

Carpenter, J. E.

C. Dupouy, J. Neveux, A. Subramaniam, M. Mulholland, L. Campbell, L. Montoya, J. E. Carpenter, D. Capone, “SEAWiFS captures Trichodesmium blooms in the southwestern tropical Pacific,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 2–16 (2000).
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Chamberlin, W. S.

J. H. Morrow, W. S. Chamberlin, D. A. Kiefer, “A two-component description of spectral absorption by marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1500–1509 (1989).
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Chami, M.

Chen, F. R.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. Lee, K. Hawes, J. P. Cannizzaro, “Case 2 chlorophyll a,” MODIS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Doc. 19 (College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Fl., 2003).

Cipollini, P.

P. Cipollini, C. Giovanni, D. Marco, G. Raffaelle, “Retrieval of sea water optically active parameters from hyperspectral data by means of generalized radial basis function neural networks,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 1508–1524 (2001).
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Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Ewans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
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D. K. Clark, “Bio-optical algorithms, Case 1 waters,” MODIS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Doc. 18 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Environmental Satellite Service, Washington, D.C., 1999).

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (Case 1) waters: analysis and implication for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, “Spatial variations in the chlorophyll-specific absorptions of phytoplankton and photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 12,412–12,423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, J. H. Bustillos-Guzman, C. Caillau, J. C. Marty, “Rapid HPLC method for determination of phytoplankton chemotaxinomic pigments: separation of chlorophyll a from divinyl-chlorophyll a and zeaxanthin from lutein,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2377–2382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
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J. S. Cleveland, “Regional models for phytoplankton absorption in function of chlorophyll a concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,333–13,344 (1995).
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Y. Dandonneau, “Introduction to special section: biochemical conditions in the equatorial Pacific in late 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3291–3295 (1999).
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J. W. Murray, R. Le Borgne, Y. Dandonneau, “JGOFS studies in the equatorial Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. II 44, 1759–1763 (1997).
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Doerffer, R.

H. Schiller, R. Doerffer, “Neural network for emulation of an inverse model—operational derivation of Case II properties from MERIS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1735–1746 (1999).
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R. Doerffer, J. Fisher, “Concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter, and gelstoff in Case II waters derived from satellite coastal zone color scanner data with inverse modeling methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7457–7466 (1994).
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Dupouy, C.

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8138, 10.1029/2001JC001298(2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Dupouy, J. Neveux, A. Subramaniam, M. Mulholland, L. Campbell, L. Montoya, J. E. Carpenter, D. Capone, “SEAWiFS captures Trichodesmium blooms in the southwestern tropical Pacific,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 2–16 (2000).
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C. Dupouy, J. Neveux, J. M. Andre, “Spectral absorption coefficient of photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (165E-150W),” Deep Sea Res. II 44, 1881–1906 (1997).
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C. Dupouy, J. Siméon, “An example of in vivo spectral absorption coefficient of procaryotes and eucaryotes in the equatorial upwelling (0–177 W) of the Pacific Ocean during La Niña condition,” in Aquatic Sciences Meeting, Program and Abstracts, J. J. Cole, J. T. Hollibaugh, eds. (American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Santa Fe, N. Mex.1997), p. 152.

Duysens, L. N. M.

L. N. M. Duysens, “The flattening of the absorption spectrum of suspensions, as compared to that of solutions,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 19, 1–12 (1956).
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Esaias, W. E.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 1.

Ewans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Ewans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Falkowski, P.

C. B. Field, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, P. Falkowski, “Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components,” Science 281, 237–240 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldman, G. C.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 1.

Field, C. B.

C. B. Field, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, P. Falkowski, “Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components,” Science 281, 237–240 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, J.

R. Doerffer, J. Fisher, “Concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter, and gelstoff in Case II waters derived from satellite coastal zone color scanner data with inverse modeling methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7457–7466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, B. G. Mitchell, “Artificial neural network for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3483–3495 (2000).
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Fry, E. S.

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18,607–18,625 (1997).
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Gentili, B.

Giovanni, C.

P. Cipollini, C. Giovanni, D. Marco, G. Raffaelle, “Retrieval of sea water optically active parameters from hyperspectral data by means of generalized radial basis function neural networks,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 1508–1524 (2001).
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H. R. Gordon, “Dependence of the diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the Sun angle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1484–1489 (1989).
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H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Ewans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregg, W. W.

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 1.

Gross, L.

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, B. G. Mitchell, “Artificial neural network for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3483–3495 (2000).
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L. Gross, “Inversion des mesures satellitales de la couleur de l’océan à l’aide des réseaux de neurones,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Versailles Saint Quentin, Versailles, France, 2001).

Hawes, K.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. Lee, K. Hawes, J. P. Cannizzaro, “Case 2 chlorophyll a,” MODIS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Doc. 19 (College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Fl., 2003).

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N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
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F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite” retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 1.

Ichimura, S.

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 557–566 (1986).
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M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 35, 634–642 (1985).

Irwin, B. D.

V. Stuart, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maas, B. D. Irwin, “Pigments and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra,” J. Plankton. Res. 20, 187–217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishizaka, J.

A. Bricaud, C. S. Roesler, J. S. Parslow, J. Ishizaka, “Bio-optical studies during the JGOFS-equatorial Pacific program: a contribution to the knowledge of the equatorial system,” Deep Sea Res. II 49, 2583–2599 (2002).
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I. T. Jolliffe, Principal Component Analysis (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986).
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Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).

Keiner, L. E.

L. E. Keiner, C. W. Brown, “Estimating oceanic chlorophyll concentrations with neural networks,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 189–194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the western Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 323–341 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Morrow, W. S. Chamberlin, D. A. Kiefer, “A two-component description of spectral absorption by marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1500–1509 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 290–302 (1990).

Kishino, M.

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 35, 634–642 (1985).

Landry, M. R.

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8138, 10.1029/2001JC001298(2003).
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Lantoine, F.

J. Neveux, F. Lantoine, “Spectrofluorometric assay of chlorophylls and phaeopigments using the least squares approximation technique,” Deep Sea Res. 40, 1747–1765 (1993).
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Lazzara, L.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
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Le Borgne, R.

J. W. Murray, R. Le Borgne, Y. Dandonneau, “JGOFS studies in the equatorial Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. II 44, 1759–1763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Le Bouteiller, A.

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8138, 10.1029/2001JC001298(2003).
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Lee, Z.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. Lee, K. Hawes, J. P. Cannizzaro, “Case 2 chlorophyll a,” MODIS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Doc. 19 (College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Fl., 2003).

Lee, Z. P.

Loisel, H.

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8138, 10.1029/2001JC001298(2003).
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H. Loisel, D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from the irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3001–3011 (2000).
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H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in Case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
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Lyon, P. E.

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite” retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maas, H.

V. Stuart, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maas, B. D. Irwin, “Pigments and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra,” J. Plankton. Res. 20, 187–217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marco, D.

P. Cipollini, C. Giovanni, D. Marco, G. Raffaelle, “Retrieval of sea water optically active parameters from hyperspectral data by means of generalized radial basis function neural networks,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 1508–1524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).

Marty, J. C.

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, J. H. Bustillos-Guzman, C. Caillau, J. C. Marty, “Rapid HPLC method for determination of phytoplankton chemotaxinomic pigments: separation of chlorophyll a from divinyl-chlorophyll a and zeaxanthin from lutein,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2377–2382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).

McClain, C. R.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 1.

Mitchell, B. G.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the southern ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, B. G. Mitchell, “Artificial neural network for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3483–3495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).

Mitchell, G.

G. Mitchell, “Algorithm for determining the absorption coefficient of aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique (QFT),” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 136–147 (1990).
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C. D. Mobley, Light and Water (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

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M. F. Møller, “A scaled conjugate gradient algorithm for fast supervised learning,” Neural Networks 6, 525–533 (1993).
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Montoya, L.

C. Dupouy, J. Neveux, A. Subramaniam, M. Mulholland, L. Campbell, L. Montoya, J. E. Carpenter, D. Capone, “SEAWiFS captures Trichodesmium blooms in the southwestern tropical Pacific,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 2–16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (Case 1) waters: analysis and implication for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in Case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, Y. H. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagelattes and ciliates: a tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared with those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res. 49, 1–26 (1991).
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A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
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A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
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A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
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A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. I 28A, 1375–1393 (1981).
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A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
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A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

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J. H. Morrow, W. S. Chamberlin, D. A. Kiefer, “A two-component description of spectral absorption by marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1500–1509 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the western Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 323–341 (1989).
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R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 290–302 (1990).

Moulin, C.

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8138, 10.1029/2001JC001298(2003).
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Mulholland, M.

C. Dupouy, J. Neveux, A. Subramaniam, M. Mulholland, L. Campbell, L. Montoya, J. E. Carpenter, D. Capone, “SEAWiFS captures Trichodesmium blooms in the southwestern tropical Pacific,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 2–16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J. W.

J. W. Murray, R. Le Borgne, Y. Dandonneau, “JGOFS studies in the equatorial Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. II 44, 1759–1763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neveux, J.

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8138, 10.1029/2001JC001298(2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Dupouy, J. Neveux, A. Subramaniam, M. Mulholland, L. Campbell, L. Montoya, J. E. Carpenter, D. Capone, “SEAWiFS captures Trichodesmium blooms in the southwestern tropical Pacific,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 2–16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Dupouy, J. Neveux, J. M. Andre, “Spectral absorption coefficient of photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (165E-150W),” Deep Sea Res. II 44, 1881–1906 (1997).
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J. Neveux, F. Lantoine, “Spectrofluorometric assay of chlorophylls and phaeopigments using the least squares approximation technique,” Deep Sea Res. 40, 1747–1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).

Okami, N.

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 557–566 (1986).
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M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 35, 634–642 (1985).

Ondrusek, M. E.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 290–302 (1990).

Parslow, J. S.

A. Bricaud, C. S. Roesler, J. S. Parslow, J. Ishizaka, “Bio-optical studies during the JGOFS-equatorial Pacific program: a contribution to the knowledge of the equatorial system,” Deep Sea Res. II 49, 2583–2599 (2002).
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Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).

Platt, T.

V. Stuart, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maas, B. D. Irwin, “Pigments and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra,” J. Plankton. Res. 20, 187–217 (1998).
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Pope, R. M.

Prieur, L.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
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A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, “Transfert radiatif dans les eaux de mer: application a la détermination des paramètres optiques caractérisant leurs substances dissoutes et particulaires,” State thesis (Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, 1976).

Raffaelle, G.

P. Cipollini, C. Giovanni, D. Marco, G. Raffaelle, “Retrieval of sea water optically active parameters from hyperspectral data by means of generalized radial basis function neural networks,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 1508–1524 (2001).
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Randerson, J. T.

C. B. Field, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, P. Falkowski, “Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components,” Science 281, 237–240 (1998).
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Reynolds, R. A.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the southern ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

A. Bricaud, C. S. Roesler, J. S. Parslow, J. Ishizaka, “Bio-optical studies during the JGOFS-equatorial Pacific program: a contribution to the knowledge of the equatorial system,” Deep Sea Res. II 49, 2583–2599 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).

Santer, R.

Sathyendranath, S.

V. Stuart, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maas, B. D. Irwin, “Pigments and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra,” J. Plankton. Res. 20, 187–217 (1998).
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N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
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S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, H.

H. Schiller, R. Doerffer, “Neural network for emulation of an inverse model—operational derivation of Case II properties from MERIS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1735–1746 (1999).
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Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18,607–18,625 (1997).
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Siméon, J.

C. Dupouy, J. Siméon, “An example of in vivo spectral absorption coefficient of procaryotes and eucaryotes in the equatorial upwelling (0–177 W) of the Pacific Ocean during La Niña condition,” in Aquatic Sciences Meeting, Program and Abstracts, J. J. Cole, J. T. Hollibaugh, eds. (American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Santa Fe, N. Mex.1997), p. 152.

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Ewans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
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Stramski, D.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the southern ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
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H. Loisel, D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from the irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3001–3011 (2000).
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D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
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A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, V.

V. Stuart, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maas, B. D. Irwin, “Pigments and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra,” J. Plankton. Res. 20, 187–217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, A.

C. Dupouy, J. Neveux, A. Subramaniam, M. Mulholland, L. Campbell, L. Montoya, J. E. Carpenter, D. Capone, “SEAWiFS captures Trichodesmium blooms in the southwestern tropical Pacific,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 2–16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 35, 634–642 (1985).

Thiria, S.

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, B. G. Mitchell, “Artificial neural network for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3483–3495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, W. H.

W. H. Thomas, “Anomalous nutrient-chlorophyll interrelationships in the off-shore eastern tropical Pacific Ocean,” J. Mar. Res. 37, 327–335 (1979).

Vidussi, F.

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, J. H. Bustillos-Guzman, C. Caillau, J. C. Marty, “Rapid HPLC method for determination of phytoplankton chemotaxinomic pigments: separation of chlorophyll a from divinyl-chlorophyll a and zeaxanthin from lutein,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2377–2382 (1996).
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Appl. Opt. (6)

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

L. N. M. Duysens, “The flattening of the absorption spectrum of suspensions, as compared to that of solutions,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 19, 1–12 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Mar. Sci. (1)

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 35, 634–642 (1985).

Deep Sea Res. (2)

J. M. André, “Ocean color remote-sensing and the subsurface vertical structure of phytoplankton pigments,” Deep Sea Res. 39, 763–779 (1991).

J. Neveux, F. Lantoine, “Spectrofluorometric assay of chlorophylls and phaeopigments using the least squares approximation technique,” Deep Sea Res. 40, 1747–1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. I (1)

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. I 28A, 1375–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. II (3)

C. Dupouy, J. Neveux, J. M. Andre, “Spectral absorption coefficient of photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (165E-150W),” Deep Sea Res. II 44, 1881–1906 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Murray, R. Le Borgne, Y. Dandonneau, “JGOFS studies in the equatorial Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. II 44, 1759–1763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, C. S. Roesler, J. S. Parslow, J. Ishizaka, “Bio-optical studies during the JGOFS-equatorial Pacific program: a contribution to the knowledge of the equatorial system,” Deep Sea Res. II 49, 2583–2599 (2002).
[CrossRef]

EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

C. Dupouy, J. Neveux, A. Subramaniam, M. Mulholland, L. Campbell, L. Montoya, J. E. Carpenter, D. Capone, “SEAWiFS captures Trichodesmium blooms in the southwestern tropical Pacific,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 2–16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

P. Cipollini, C. Giovanni, D. Marco, G. Raffaelle, “Retrieval of sea water optically active parameters from hyperspectral data by means of generalized radial basis function neural networks,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 1508–1524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (2)

H. Schiller, R. Doerffer, “Neural network for emulation of an inverse model—operational derivation of Case II properties from MERIS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1735–1746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Keiner, C. W. Brown, “Estimating oceanic chlorophyll concentrations with neural networks,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 189–194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (16)

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, B. G. Mitchell, “Artificial neural network for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3483–3495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Ewans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).

J. S. Cleveland, “Regional models for phytoplankton absorption in function of chlorophyll a concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,333–13,344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (Case 1) waters: analysis and implication for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the southern ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dandonneau, “Introduction to special section: biochemical conditions in the equatorial Pacific in late 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3291–3295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Doerffer, J. Fisher, “Concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter, and gelstoff in Case II waters derived from satellite coastal zone color scanner data with inverse modeling methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7457–7466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite” retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18,607–18,625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8138, 10.1029/2001JC001298(2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, “Spatial variations in the chlorophyll-specific absorptions of phytoplankton and photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 12,412–12,423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (3)

W. H. Thomas, “Anomalous nutrient-chlorophyll interrelationships in the off-shore eastern tropical Pacific Ocean,” J. Mar. Res. 37, 327–335 (1979).

R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the western Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 323–341 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, Y. H. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagelattes and ciliates: a tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared with those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res. 49, 1–26 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Plankton Res. (1)

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, J. H. Bustillos-Guzman, C. Caillau, J. C. Marty, “Rapid HPLC method for determination of phytoplankton chemotaxinomic pigments: separation of chlorophyll a from divinyl-chlorophyll a and zeaxanthin from lutein,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2377–2382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Plankton. Res. (1)

V. Stuart, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maas, B. D. Irwin, “Pigments and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra,” J. Plankton. Res. 20, 187–217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (10)

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in Case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Morrow, W. S. Chamberlin, D. A. Kiefer, “A two-component description of spectral absorption by marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1500–1509 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Dependence of the diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the Sun angle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1484–1489 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 557–566 (1986).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Locations of the water samples collected during the four cruises.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of phytoplankton absorption spectra in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. For each of the six spectra, the five pigment concentrations are the following: (1) c 1 = 0.083, c 2 = 0.010, c 3 = 0.006, c 4 = 0.022, c 5 = 0.066; (2) c 1 = 0.123, c 2 = 0.026, c 3 = 0.029, c 4 = 0.050, c 5 = 0.111; (3) c 1 = 0.120, c 2 = 0.012, c 3 = 0.010, c 4 = 0.029, c 5 = 0.067; (4) c 1 = 0.302, c 2 = 0.063, c 3 = 0.065, c 4 = 0.153, c 5 = 0.121; (5) c 1 = 0.348, c 2 = 0.078, c 3 = 0.055, c 4 = 0.224, c 5 = 0.188; (6) c 1 = 0.391, c 2 = 0.121, c 3 = 0.083, c 4 = 0.442, c 5 = 0.102.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phytoplankton absorption intensity, defined as the norm of spectral absorption computed from 400 to 700 nm, plotted versus chlorophyll a concentration c 1. A comparison of the two curves shows that absorption nonlinearity may be nonnegligible above 0.3 mg m-3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Neural architecture for modeling phytoplankton absorption coefficients in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scatterplots of (a) estimated versus desired spectral phytoplankton absorption and (b) estimated versus desired absorption intensity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Examples of simulated spectra compared with the original measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Value of spectral slope S for each measured detritic material absorption spectrum of the four cruises.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Slight increase of detritic material absorption with chlorophyll a concentration c 1.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Auxiliary pigment concentrations plotted versus chlorophyll a concentration (in milligrams per cubic meter) on a logarithmic scale: (a) chlorophyll b, (b) chlorophyll c, (c) photosynthetic carotenoids, (d) photoprotectant carotenoids. In each figure the corresponding linear fit is displayed together with a vertical bar that represents a confidence interval of 50%.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Scatterplots of estimated versus desired chlorophyll a concentrations. MLP-chla tested on a BN data ensemble, and RROC2 tested on a BN data ensemble.

Tables (9)

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Table 1 Campaigns during Which Our in situ Data Set Was Collected

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Table 2 Composition of the Phytoplankton Pigment Groupsa

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Table 3 Matrix of Correlation Coefficients of the Five Measured Pigment Groups

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Table 4 Mean and Standard Deviation of Each Pigment Group Concentration (mg m-3)

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Table 5 First Three Eigenvectors of the Centered Normalized Pigment Covariance Matrix

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Table 6 Encoding Coefficients of the Neural Network Inputs and Output

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Table 7 Performance of the Neural Absorption Modela on Spectral Absorption a ϕ(λ) and Absorption Intensity ‖aϕ

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Table 8 Coefficients of Eq. (19) That Allow Variability of the Auxiliary Pigments to be Simulated

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Table 9 Performance of the Neural Model MLP-chla and of the Polynomial Modelsa on Data Ensemble BN

Equations (29)

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c1HPLC=0.7122×c1SP+0.0191 43 data,
c2HPLC=0.4673×c2SP+0.0056 38 data,
c3HPLC=0.7055×c3SP-0.0006 36 data.
ĉij=cij-c¯jσcj,
vik=ĉi · ek,
aϕ=Fλ, v1, v2, v3.
Rλ=fλbbλaλ,
f=0.6279-0.2227ηb-0.0513ηb2+ -0.3119+0.2465ηbμ0,
μ0=0.73α+1-αcosθs.
bbλ=1/2bwλ+bbpλ,
bbpλ=0.002+0.010.50-0.25 log10c1×λ/550vbp550c1,
bp550c1=0.416c10.766.
aλ=awλ+aϕλ+adetλ+ayλ,
ayλ=ay440exp-0.014λ-440,
ay440=0.2aw440+aϕ440+adet440.
adetλ=adet440exp-Sλ-440.
adet440=0.0044c10.2912.
i=1Nlog10cij-Bj log10ci1+log10Aj2,
log10cj=Bj log10c1+log10Aj+εj,
δRRδff+δaa.
log10c1=a3X3+a2X2+a1X+a0,
sj=fjAj.
fsigu=A expαu-1expαu+1.
W = 12 n=1Nyxn; W-tn2,
xˆik=0.66×xik-x¯kσxk,
Erms=1N×pi=1Nk=1peik21/2,
B=1N×pi=1Nk=1pyik-tik,
ERel=1N×pi=1Nk=1pyik-tiktik21/2×100,
r2=1Ni=1Nyi-y¯ · ti-t¯σy · σt × 100,

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