Abstract

The control of line-edge roughness (LER) of features printed in photoresist poses significant challenges to next-generation lithography techniques such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Achieving adequately low LER levels requires accurate resist characterization as well as the ability to separate resist effects from other potential contributors to LER. One potentially significant contributor to LER arises from roughness on the mask coupling to speckle in the aerial image and consequently to LER in the printed image. Here I numerically study mask surface roughness and phase roughness to resist LER coupling both as a function of illumination coherence and defocus. Moreover, the potential consequences of this mask effect for recent EUV lithography experiments is studied through direct comparison with experimental through-focus printing data collected at a variety of coherence settings. Finally, the effect that mask roughness will play in upcoming 0.3-numerical-aperture resist testing is considered.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003

P. Naulleau, G. Gallatin, “The line-edge roughness transfer function and its application to determining mask effects in EUV resist characterization,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3390–3397 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. Gullikson, C. Cerjan, D. Stearns, P. Mirkarimi, D. Sweeney, “Practical approach for modeling extreme ultraviolet lithography mask defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 81–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, H. Chapman, “Testing EUV optics with visible-light and EUV interferometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2834–2839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo-Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Pistor, T. Y. Deng, A. Neureuther, “Extreme ultraviolet mask defect simulation: Low-profile defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2926–2929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Beaudry, T. Milster, “Effects of object roughness on partially coherent image formation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 454–456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. Stearns, “Stochastic model for thin film growth and erosion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745–1747 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1981

Anderson, E.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo-Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ballard, W.

D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, S. Lee, W. Ballard, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Goldsmith, J. Wronosky, L. Hale, H. Chapman, J. Taylor, K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “Performance upgrades in the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 72–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Batson, P.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beaudry, N.

N. Beaudry, T. Milster, “Effects of object roughness on partially coherent image formation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 454–456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Beaudry, T. Milster, “Effects of mask roughness and condenser scattering in EUVL systems,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 653–662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benschop, J.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 52–63 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berger, K.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernardez, L.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blaedel, K.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, H. Chapman, “Testing EUV optics with visible-light and EUV interferometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2834–2839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 357–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bozman, D.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, R.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cardinale, G.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cerjan, C.

E. Gullikson, C. Cerjan, D. Stearns, P. Mirkarimi, D. Sweeney, “Practical approach for modeling extreme ultraviolet lithography mask defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 81–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

W. Li, H. Solak, F. Cerrina, “EUV nanolithography: sub-50 nm L/S,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 794–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chambers, J.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H.

K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, H. Chapman, “Testing EUV optics with visible-light and EUV interferometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2834–2839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, S. Lee, W. Ballard, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Goldsmith, J. Wronosky, L. Hale, H. Chapman, J. Taylor, K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “Performance upgrades in the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 72–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.

M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 357–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cobb, J.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhengrong, K. Lucas, J. Cobb, S. Hector, A. Strojwas, “Rigorous EUV mask simulator using 2D and 3D waveguide methods,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 494–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, S.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Decker, T.

J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, L. Hale, T. Decker, G. Kubiak, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “EUV Microexposure Tool (MET) for near-term development using a high NA projection system,” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

Deng, T. Y.

T. Pistor, T. Y. Deng, A. Neureuther, “Extreme ultraviolet mask defect simulation: Low-profile defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2926–2929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Denham, P.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, A.

A. Erdmann, C. Kalus, T. Schmoller, A. Wolter, “Efficient simulation of light diffraction from three-dimensional EUV masks using field decomposition techniques,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 482–493 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Folk, D.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gallatin, G.

Gaughan, R.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geyl, R.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 52–63 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, K.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, H. Chapman, “Testing EUV optics with visible-light and EUV interferometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2834–2839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 357–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, S. Lee, W. Ballard, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Goldsmith, J. Wronosky, L. Hale, H. Chapman, J. Taylor, K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “Performance upgrades in the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 72–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, S. Lee, W. Ballard, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Goldsmith, J. Wronosky, L. Hale, H. Chapman, J. Taylor, K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “Performance upgrades in the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 72–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Chap. 7, pp. 286–360.

Gullikson, E.

E. Gullikson, C. Cerjan, D. Stearns, P. Mirkarimi, D. Sweeney, “Practical approach for modeling extreme ultraviolet lithography mask defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 81–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, S.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gwyn, C.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hada, H.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hale, L.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, S. Lee, W. Ballard, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Goldsmith, J. Wronosky, L. Hale, H. Chapman, J. Taylor, K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “Performance upgrades in the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 72–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, L. Hale, T. Decker, G. Kubiak, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “EUV Microexposure Tool (MET) for near-term development using a high NA projection system,” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

R. Hudyma, J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, L. Hale, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “E-D characteristics and aberration sensitivity of the Microexposure Tool (MET),” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

Hamamoto, K.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haney, S.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harned, N.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 52–63 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harteneck, B.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, R.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 52–63 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hector, S.

Z. Zhengrong, K. Lucas, J. Cobb, S. Hector, A. Strojwas, “Rigorous EUV mask simulator using 2D and 3D waveguide methods,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 494–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Hector, “EUVL masks: requirements and potential solutions,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 134–149 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, C.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoef, B.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Høghøj, P.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 52–63 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoko, H.

T. Ogawa, M. Ito, H. Yamanashi, H. Hoko, E. Hoshino, S. Okazaki, “Simulation studies of roughness-smoothing effect of molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating based on resputtering model,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 716–724 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, E.

T. Ogawa, M. Ito, H. Yamanashi, H. Hoko, E. Hoshino, S. Okazaki, “Simulation studies of roughness-smoothing effect of molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating based on resputtering model,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 716–724 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hudyma, R.

R. Hudyma, J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, L. Hale, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “E-D characteristics and aberration sensitivity of the Microexposure Tool (MET),” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, L. Hale, T. Decker, G. Kubiak, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “EUV Microexposure Tool (MET) for near-term development using a high NA projection system,” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Irie, S.

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

T. Ogawa, M. Ito, H. Yamanashi, H. Hoko, E. Hoshino, S. Okazaki, “Simulation studies of roughness-smoothing effect of molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating based on resputtering model,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 716–724 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jefferson, K.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kalus, C.

A. Erdmann, C. Kalus, T. Schmoller, A. Wolter, “Efficient simulation of light diffraction from three-dimensional EUV masks using field decomposition techniques,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 482–493 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, H.

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kishimura, S.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klebanoff, L.

D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, S. Lee, W. Ballard, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Goldsmith, J. Wronosky, L. Hale, H. Chapman, J. Taylor, K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “Performance upgrades in the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 72–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Komano, H.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 600–607 (2000).
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Kubiak, G.

D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, S. Lee, W. Ballard, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Goldsmith, J. Wronosky, L. Hale, H. Chapman, J. Taylor, K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “Performance upgrades in the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 72–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
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J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, L. Hale, T. Decker, G. Kubiak, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “EUV Microexposure Tool (MET) for near-term development using a high NA projection system,” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

Kürz, P.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 52–63 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 357–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, S. Lee, W. Ballard, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Goldsmith, J. Wronosky, L. Hale, H. Chapman, J. Taylor, K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “Performance upgrades in the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 72–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leung, A.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

W. Li, H. Solak, F. Cerrina, “EUV nanolithography: sub-50 nm L/S,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 794–798 (2000).
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Lucas, K.

Z. Zhengrong, K. Lucas, J. Cobb, S. Hector, A. Strojwas, “Rigorous EUV mask simulator using 2D and 3D waveguide methods,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 494–503 (2003).
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Mackevich, J.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meiling, H.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 52–63 (2002).
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Milster, T.

N. Beaudry, T. Milster, “Effects of object roughness on partially coherent image formation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 454–456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Beaudry, T. Milster, “Effects of mask roughness and condenser scattering in EUVL systems,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 653–662 (1999).
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Mirkarimi, P.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Gullikson, C. Cerjan, D. Stearns, P. Mirkarimi, D. Sweeney, “Practical approach for modeling extreme ultraviolet lithography mask defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 81–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo-Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miyafuji, A.

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 600–607 (2000).
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Montcalm, C.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
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Mori, S.

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 600–607 (2000).
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Naulleau, P.

P. Naulleau, G. Gallatin, “The line-edge roughness transfer function and its application to determining mask effects in EUV resist characterization,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3390–3397 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, H. Chapman, “Testing EUV optics with visible-light and EUV interferometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2834–2839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 357–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, S. Lee, W. Ballard, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Goldsmith, J. Wronosky, L. Hale, H. Chapman, J. Taylor, K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “Performance upgrades in the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 72–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neureuther, A.

T. Pistor, T. Y. Deng, A. Neureuther, “Extreme ultraviolet mask defect simulation: Low-profile defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2926–2929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O’Connell, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

T. Ogawa, M. Ito, H. Yamanashi, H. Hoko, E. Hoshino, S. Okazaki, “Simulation studies of roughness-smoothing effect of molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating based on resputtering model,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 716–724 (2002).
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Ohmori, K.

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, S.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Ogawa, M. Ito, H. Yamanashi, H. Hoko, E. Hoshino, S. Okazaki, “Simulation studies of roughness-smoothing effect of molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating based on resputtering model,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 716–724 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okoroanyanwu, U.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Olynick, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Panning, E.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pistor, T.

T. Pistor, T. Y. Deng, A. Neureuther, “Extreme ultraviolet mask defect simulation: Low-profile defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2926–2929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rao, V.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ray-Chaudhuri, A.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rekawa, S.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Replogle, W.

D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, S. Lee, W. Ballard, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Goldsmith, J. Wronosky, L. Hale, H. Chapman, J. Taylor, K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “Performance upgrades in the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 72–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salmassi, F.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmoller, T.

A. Erdmann, C. Kalus, T. Schmoller, A. Wolter, “Efficient simulation of light diffraction from three-dimensional EUV masks using field decomposition techniques,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 482–493 (2003).
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Shafer, D.

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shirayone, S.

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shumway, M.

M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 357–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solak, H.

W. Li, H. Solak, F. Cerrina, “EUV nanolithography: sub-50 nm L/S,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 794–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sperry, V.

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo-Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo-Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D.

E. Gullikson, C. Cerjan, D. Stearns, P. Mirkarimi, D. Sweeney, “Practical approach for modeling extreme ultraviolet lithography mask defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 81–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo-Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Stearns, “Stochastic model for thin film growth and erosion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745–1747 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, K.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Strojwas, A.

Z. Zhengrong, K. Lucas, J. Cobb, S. Hector, A. Strojwas, “Rigorous EUV mask simulator using 2D and 3D waveguide methods,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 494–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sweatt, W.

J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, L. Hale, T. Decker, G. Kubiak, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “EUV Microexposure Tool (MET) for near-term development using a high NA projection system,” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

R. Hudyma, J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, L. Hale, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “E-D characteristics and aberration sensitivity of the Microexposure Tool (MET),” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

Sweeney, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Gullikson, C. Cerjan, D. Stearns, P. Mirkarimi, D. Sweeney, “Practical approach for modeling extreme ultraviolet lithography mask defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 81–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Hudyma, J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, L. Hale, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “E-D characteristics and aberration sensitivity of the Microexposure Tool (MET),” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, L. Hale, T. Decker, G. Kubiak, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “EUV Microexposure Tool (MET) for near-term development using a high NA projection system,” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

Sweeney, D. W.

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, S. Lee, W. Ballard, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Goldsmith, J. Wronosky, L. Hale, H. Chapman, J. Taylor, K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “Performance upgrades in the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 72–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, L. Hale, T. Decker, G. Kubiak, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “EUV Microexposure Tool (MET) for near-term development using a high NA projection system,” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

R. Hudyma, J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, L. Hale, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “E-D characteristics and aberration sensitivity of the Microexposure Tool (MET),” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

Tichenor, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, S. Lee, W. Ballard, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Goldsmith, J. Wronosky, L. Hale, H. Chapman, J. Taylor, K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “Performance upgrades in the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 72–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

Walton, C.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wester, N.

R. Hudyma, J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, L. Hale, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “E-D characteristics and aberration sensitivity of the Microexposure Tool (MET),” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, L. Hale, T. Decker, G. Kubiak, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “EUV Microexposure Tool (MET) for near-term development using a high NA projection system,” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

Williams, J.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolter, A.

A. Erdmann, C. Kalus, T. Schmoller, A. Wolter, “Efficient simulation of light diffraction from three-dimensional EUV masks using field decomposition techniques,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 482–493 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wronosky, J.

D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, S. Lee, W. Ballard, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Goldsmith, J. Wronosky, L. Hale, H. Chapman, J. Taylor, K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “Performance upgrades in the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 72–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wurm, S.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamanashi, H.

T. Ogawa, M. Ito, H. Yamanashi, H. Hoko, E. Hoshino, S. Okazaki, “Simulation studies of roughness-smoothing effect of molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating based on resputtering model,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 716–724 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yan, P.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yano, E.

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhengrong, Z.

Z. Zhengrong, K. Lucas, J. Cobb, S. Hector, A. Strojwas, “Rigorous EUV mask simulator using 2D and 3D waveguide methods,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 494–503 (2003).
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P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
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T. Pistor, T. Y. Deng, A. Neureuther, “Extreme ultraviolet mask defect simulation: Low-profile defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2926–2929 (2000).
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E. Gullikson, C. Cerjan, D. Stearns, P. Mirkarimi, D. Sweeney, “Practical approach for modeling extreme ultraviolet lithography mask defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 81–86 (2002).
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K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, H. Chapman, “Testing EUV optics with visible-light and EUV interferometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2834–2839 (2002).
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P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Bokor, B. Harteneck, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Printing-based performance analysis of the ETS Set-2 optic using a synchrotron exposure station with variable sigma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2697–2700 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

A. Erdmann, C. Kalus, T. Schmoller, A. Wolter, “Efficient simulation of light diffraction from three-dimensional EUV masks using field decomposition techniques,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 482–493 (2003).
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M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE4343, 357–362 (2001).
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R. Hudyma, J. Taylor, D. Sweeney, L. Hale, W. Sweatt, N. Wester, “E-D characteristics and aberration sensitivity of the Microexposure Tool (MET),” Proceedings of the 2nd International EUVL Workshop (International Sematech, Austin, Tex., 2000).

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D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, S. Lee, W. Ballard, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Goldsmith, J. Wronosky, L. Hale, H. Chapman, J. Taylor, K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “Performance upgrades in the EUV engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 72–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL engineering test stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
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D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Atomic force microscope image from a clear area on an EUV mask fabricated for printing with a 0.1-numerical-aperture optic. The rms roughness is 0.54 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Isotropic power-spectral density (PSD) based on the AFM in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative input 4× mask for aerial-image simulations. Phase roughness is generated based on the PSD in Fig. 2. This particular mask is designed to model 100-nm printed line-space patterns. The solid black regions represent the chrome absorber, and the gray-scale regions represent the wrapped phase, where black is 0 and white is 2π.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation results for three different printed line widths as a function of focus and the coherence factor, σ. (a) 100-nm lines and spaces, (b) 90-nm lines and spaces, and (c) 80-nm lines and spaces. An ideal 0.1-NA EUV optical system has been assumed. A binary resist model is used with the threshold set separately for each σ value to provide proper sizing of the 100-nm lines at best focus. The single-sided 3σ LER is then calculated from the resulting binary image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

LER plots as a function of realization number for 10 independent realizations of the rough mask with 100-nm lines and spaces. Each plot represents a single focus value: (a) -0.8 μm, (b) -0.4 μm, and (c) 0 μm, with the individual traces representing different partial-coherence values.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

LER modeling results, including the effects of projection optics aberrations. Aberrations based on the EUV engineering test stand (ETS) Set-2 optic with an rms wave-front error in the first 37 Zernikes of 0.69 nm. Each plot represents a different nested-feature size: (a) 100 nm, (b) 90 nm, and (c) 80 nm, with the individual traces representing different partial-coherence values.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental LER results obtained from the ETS Set-2 optic operating in the Lawrence Berkeley static exposure tool. Each plot represents a different nested-feature size: (a) 100 nm, (b) 90 nm, and (c) 80 nm, with the individual traces representing different partial-coherence values. Symbols, the actual data; lines, quadratic fits to the data.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Predicted fractional contribution of mask-roughness-induced LER to the experimentally observed LER from Fig. 7. Each plot represents a different nested-feature size: (a) 100 nm, (b) 90 nm, and (c) 80 nm, with the individual traces representing different partial-coherence values.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

LER modeling results for the 0.3-NA MET optic design. Each plot represents a different nested-feature size: (a) 50 nm, (b) 45 nm, and (c) 40 nm. In all cases the illumination is annular with an inner σ of 0.3, and the individual traces represent different outer σ values.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

LER modeling results for the 0.3-NA MET optic design. Each plot represents a different nested-feature size: (a) 35 nm, (b) 30 nm, and (c) 25 nm. In all cases the illumination is annular with an inner σ of 0.3, and the individual traces represent different outer σ values.

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