Abstract

The influence of lactic acid or porphyrins on the optical properties of tissue fluorophores is investigated by autofluorescence (AF) spectroscopy measurement with a GaN-based ultraviolet laser diode along with Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy measurement. As the lactic-acid concentration becomes dense, the AF peak intensity from elastin and desmosine solutions become wholly weak. A similar reduction in the AF intensity is observed for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) solutions. FTIR analysis indicates that the lactic acid causes the conformational change in elastin and the oxidation of NADH, which can be related to changes in the AF properties. The peak intensity of the tissue fluorophores also becomes weak when porphyrins are added, although the conformational change in each tissue fluorophore is not confirmed from FTIR analysis. Judging from the change in the scattering-light intensity of the excitation source, the observed change mainly originates from the absorption of the excitation source by porphyrins.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, S. J. Wahl, “Optical spectroscopic diagnosis of cancer and normal breast tissue,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1018–1023 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Wang, J. V. Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. Apreisinger, Y. Wang, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopy imaging of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Ulzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. R. Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385–396 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Tang, F. Zeng, H. Savage, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence spectroscopic imaging to detect changes in collagen and elastin following laser tissue welding,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 3–8 (2000).
  5. B. J. W. Venmans, T. J. M. Van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Results of two years experience with fluorescence bronchoscopy in detection of preinvasive bronchial neoplasia,” Diagn. Ther. Endosc. 5, 77–84 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. C. leRiche, B. Palcic, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Cancer Suppl. 89, 2468–2473 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Kobayashi, K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, T. Fujisawa, “Spectroscopic analysis of the autofluorescence from human bronchus using an ultraviolet laser diode,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 603–608 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Kobayashi, K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, T. Fujisawa, “Autofluorescence measurement of human bronchi using ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Jpn. Soc. Bronchol. 24, 384–390 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. N. R. Davis, R. A. Anwar, “On the mechanism of formation of desmosine and isodesmosine cross-links of elastin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 92, 3778–3782 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Czochralska, “Oxidation of excited-state NADH and NAD dimer in an aqueous medium,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 80, 403–409 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Cassanas, M. Morssli, E. Fabregue, L. Bardet, “Vibrational spectra of lactic acid and lactates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 409–413 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Bertoluzza, S. Bonora, G. Fini, M. A. Morelli, “Spectroscopic studies of connective tissues: native and hydrated elastin,” Can. J. Spectrosc. 34, 13–14 (1989).
  16. M. Jackson, L. P. Choo, P. H. Watson, W. C. Halliday, H. H. Mantsch, “Beware of connective proteins: assignment and implications of collagen absorption in infrared spectra of human tissue,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1270, 1–6 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Nadolny, G. Zundel, “Protonation, conformation, and hydrogen bonding of nicotinamide adenin dinucleotide—an FTIR study,” J. Mol. Struct. 385, 81–87 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Abe, Y. Kyogoku, “Vibrational analysis of flavin derivatives: normal coordinate treatments of lumiflavin,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 43, 1027–1037 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. I. Birss, A. S. Hinman, C. E. McGarvey, J. Segal, “In situ FTIR thin-layer reflectance spectroscopy of flavin adenine dinucleotide at a mercury/gold electrode,” Electrochim. Acta 39, 2449–2454 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. L. Jacques, “Tissue fluorescence,” in Fifth International Photodynamic Association Biennial Meeting, P. A. Cortest, ed., Proc. SPIE2371, 2–7 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. P. Berthier, E. Raynal, S. Kimel, S. Avrillier, J. P. Ollivier, “XeCl laser action at medium fluences on biological tissues: fluorescence study and simulation with a chemical solution,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 5, 495–503 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. MacAulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging technique,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Tamura, “Optical characterization of a living body,” O plus E 20, 569–575 (1998; in Japanese).
  24. R. K. Murray, D. K. Granner, P. A. Mayes, V. W. Rodwell, Harper’s Biochemistry (Appleton Lange, Stamford, Conn., 1999), pp. 359–373.

2002 (2)

M. Kobayashi, K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, T. Fujisawa, “Spectroscopic analysis of the autofluorescence from human bronchus using an ultraviolet laser diode,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 603–608 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kobayashi, K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, T. Fujisawa, “Autofluorescence measurement of human bronchi using ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Jpn. Soc. Bronchol. 24, 384–390 (2002).

2001 (1)

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Ulzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. R. Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. Tang, F. Zeng, H. Savage, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence spectroscopic imaging to detect changes in collagen and elastin following laser tissue welding,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 3–8 (2000).

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. C. leRiche, B. Palcic, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Cancer Suppl. 89, 2468–2473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

B. J. W. Venmans, T. J. M. Van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Results of two years experience with fluorescence bronchoscopy in detection of preinvasive bronchial neoplasia,” Diagn. Ther. Endosc. 5, 77–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Adachi, T. Utsui, K. Furuawa, “Development of autofluorescence endoscope imaging system,” Diagn. Ther. Endosc. 5, 65–70 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Tamura, “Optical characterization of a living body,” O plus E 20, 569–575 (1998; in Japanese).

1996 (2)

D. Wang, J. V. Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. Apreisinger, Y. Wang, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopy imaging of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Nadolny, G. Zundel, “Protonation, conformation, and hydrogen bonding of nicotinamide adenin dinucleotide—an FTIR study,” J. Mol. Struct. 385, 81–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Jackson, L. P. Choo, P. H. Watson, W. C. Halliday, H. H. Mantsch, “Beware of connective proteins: assignment and implications of collagen absorption in infrared spectra of human tissue,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1270, 1–6 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

V. I. Birss, A. S. Hinman, C. E. McGarvey, J. Segal, “In situ FTIR thin-layer reflectance spectroscopy of flavin adenine dinucleotide at a mercury/gold electrode,” Electrochim. Acta 39, 2449–2454 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, M. Chiyo, K. Yasufuku, T. Iizasa, Y. Saitoh, M. Baba, K. Hiroshima, H. Ohwada, T. Fujisawa, “Subepithelia vascular patterns in bronchial dysplasias using a high magnification bronchovideoscope,” Thorax 57, 902–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

G. Cassanas, M. Morssli, E. Fabregue, L. Bardet, “Vibrational spectra of lactic acid and lactates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 409–413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. MacAulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging technique,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. P. Berthier, E. Raynal, S. Kimel, S. Avrillier, J. P. Ollivier, “XeCl laser action at medium fluences on biological tissues: fluorescence study and simulation with a chemical solution,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 5, 495–503 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

A. Bertoluzza, S. Bonora, G. Fini, M. A. Morelli, “Spectroscopic studies of connective tissues: native and hydrated elastin,” Can. J. Spectrosc. 34, 13–14 (1989).

R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, S. J. Wahl, “Optical spectroscopic diagnosis of cancer and normal breast tissue,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1018–1023 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. Abe, Y. Kyogoku, “Vibrational analysis of flavin derivatives: normal coordinate treatments of lumiflavin,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 43, 1027–1037 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

B. Czochralska, “Oxidation of excited-state NADH and NAD dimer in an aqueous medium,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 80, 403–409 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

N. R. Davis, R. A. Anwar, “On the mechanism of formation of desmosine and isodesmosine cross-links of elastin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 92, 3778–3782 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

M. Abe, Y. Kyogoku, “Vibrational analysis of flavin derivatives: normal coordinate treatments of lumiflavin,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 43, 1027–1037 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, R.

R. Adachi, T. Utsui, K. Furuawa, “Development of autofluorescence endoscope imaging system,” Diagn. Ther. Endosc. 5, 65–70 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

J. Tang, F. Zeng, H. Savage, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence spectroscopic imaging to detect changes in collagen and elastin following laser tissue welding,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 3–8 (2000).

R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, S. J. Wahl, “Optical spectroscopic diagnosis of cancer and normal breast tissue,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1018–1023 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Anwar, R. A.

N. R. Davis, R. A. Anwar, “On the mechanism of formation of desmosine and isodesmosine cross-links of elastin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 92, 3778–3782 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Apreisinger, E.

D. Wang, J. V. Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. Apreisinger, Y. Wang, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopy imaging of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrillier, S.

J. P. Berthier, E. Raynal, S. Kimel, S. Avrillier, J. P. Ollivier, “XeCl laser action at medium fluences on biological tissues: fluorescence study and simulation with a chemical solution,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 5, 495–503 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, M.

K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, M. Chiyo, K. Yasufuku, T. Iizasa, Y. Saitoh, M. Baba, K. Hiroshima, H. Ohwada, T. Fujisawa, “Subepithelia vascular patterns in bronchial dysplasias using a high magnification bronchovideoscope,” Thorax 57, 902–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bardet, L.

G. Cassanas, M. Morssli, E. Fabregue, L. Bardet, “Vibrational spectra of lactic acid and lactates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 409–413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berthier, J. P.

J. P. Berthier, E. Raynal, S. Kimel, S. Avrillier, J. P. Ollivier, “XeCl laser action at medium fluences on biological tissues: fluorescence study and simulation with a chemical solution,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 5, 495–503 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertoluzza, A.

A. Bertoluzza, S. Bonora, G. Fini, M. A. Morelli, “Spectroscopic studies of connective tissues: native and hydrated elastin,” Can. J. Spectrosc. 34, 13–14 (1989).

Birss, V. I.

V. I. Birss, A. S. Hinman, C. E. McGarvey, J. Segal, “In situ FTIR thin-layer reflectance spectroscopy of flavin adenine dinucleotide at a mercury/gold electrode,” Electrochim. Acta 39, 2449–2454 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boiko, I.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Ulzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. R. Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonora, S.

A. Bertoluzza, S. Bonora, G. Fini, M. A. Morelli, “Spectroscopic studies of connective tissues: native and hydrated elastin,” Can. J. Spectrosc. 34, 13–14 (1989).

Cassanas, G.

G. Cassanas, M. Morssli, E. Fabregue, L. Bardet, “Vibrational spectra of lactic acid and lactates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 409–413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chiyo, M.

K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, M. Chiyo, K. Yasufuku, T. Iizasa, Y. Saitoh, M. Baba, K. Hiroshima, H. Ohwada, T. Fujisawa, “Subepithelia vascular patterns in bronchial dysplasias using a high magnification bronchovideoscope,” Thorax 57, 902–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Choo, L. P.

M. Jackson, L. P. Choo, P. H. Watson, W. C. Halliday, H. H. Mantsch, “Beware of connective proteins: assignment and implications of collagen absorption in infrared spectra of human tissue,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1270, 1–6 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

D. Wang, J. V. Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. Apreisinger, Y. Wang, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopy imaging of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czochralska, B.

B. Czochralska, “Oxidation of excited-state NADH and NAD dimer in an aqueous medium,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 80, 403–409 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dam, J. V.

D. Wang, J. V. Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. Apreisinger, Y. Wang, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopy imaging of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, N. R.

N. R. Davis, R. A. Anwar, “On the mechanism of formation of desmosine and isodesmosine cross-links of elastin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 92, 3778–3782 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Ulzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. R. Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabregue, E.

G. Cassanas, M. Morssli, E. Fabregue, L. Bardet, “Vibrational spectra of lactic acid and lactates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 409–413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

D. Wang, J. V. Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. Apreisinger, Y. Wang, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopy imaging of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fini, G.

A. Bertoluzza, S. Bonora, G. Fini, M. A. Morelli, “Spectroscopic studies of connective tissues: native and hydrated elastin,” Can. J. Spectrosc. 34, 13–14 (1989).

Follen, M.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Ulzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. R. Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujisawa, T.

M. Kobayashi, K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, T. Fujisawa, “Spectroscopic analysis of the autofluorescence from human bronchus using an ultraviolet laser diode,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 603–608 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kobayashi, K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, T. Fujisawa, “Autofluorescence measurement of human bronchi using ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Jpn. Soc. Bronchol. 24, 384–390 (2002).

K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, M. Chiyo, K. Yasufuku, T. Iizasa, Y. Saitoh, M. Baba, K. Hiroshima, H. Ohwada, T. Fujisawa, “Subepithelia vascular patterns in bronchial dysplasias using a high magnification bronchovideoscope,” Thorax 57, 902–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Furuawa, K.

R. Adachi, T. Utsui, K. Furuawa, “Development of autofluorescence endoscope imaging system,” Diagn. Ther. Endosc. 5, 65–70 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Granner, D. K.

R. K. Murray, D. K. Granner, P. A. Mayes, V. W. Rodwell, Harper’s Biochemistry (Appleton Lange, Stamford, Conn., 1999), pp. 359–373.

Halliday, W. C.

M. Jackson, L. P. Choo, P. H. Watson, W. C. Halliday, H. H. Mantsch, “Beware of connective proteins: assignment and implications of collagen absorption in infrared spectra of human tissue,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1270, 1–6 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinman, A. S.

V. I. Birss, A. S. Hinman, C. E. McGarvey, J. Segal, “In situ FTIR thin-layer reflectance spectroscopy of flavin adenine dinucleotide at a mercury/gold electrode,” Electrochim. Acta 39, 2449–2454 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hiroshima, K.

K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, M. Chiyo, K. Yasufuku, T. Iizasa, Y. Saitoh, M. Baba, K. Hiroshima, H. Ohwada, T. Fujisawa, “Subepithelia vascular patterns in bronchial dysplasias using a high magnification bronchovideoscope,” Thorax 57, 902–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. P.

J. Tang, F. Zeng, H. Savage, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence spectroscopic imaging to detect changes in collagen and elastin following laser tissue welding,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 3–8 (2000).

Hopkins, N. H.

J. D. Watson, N. H. Hopkins, J. W. Roberts, J. A. Steiz, A. M. Weiner, Molecular Biology of the Gene (Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1987).

Hoshino, H.

M. Kobayashi, K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, T. Fujisawa, “Autofluorescence measurement of human bronchi using ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Jpn. Soc. Bronchol. 24, 384–390 (2002).

M. Kobayashi, K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, T. Fujisawa, “Spectroscopic analysis of the autofluorescence from human bronchus using an ultraviolet laser diode,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 603–608 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, M. Chiyo, K. Yasufuku, T. Iizasa, Y. Saitoh, M. Baba, K. Hiroshima, H. Ohwada, T. Fujisawa, “Subepithelia vascular patterns in bronchial dysplasias using a high magnification bronchovideoscope,” Thorax 57, 902–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hung, J.

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. MacAulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging technique,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iizasa, T.

K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, M. Chiyo, K. Yasufuku, T. Iizasa, Y. Saitoh, M. Baba, K. Hiroshima, H. Ohwada, T. Fujisawa, “Subepithelia vascular patterns in bronchial dysplasias using a high magnification bronchovideoscope,” Thorax 57, 902–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, M.

M. Jackson, L. P. Choo, P. H. Watson, W. C. Halliday, H. H. Mantsch, “Beware of connective proteins: assignment and implications of collagen absorption in infrared spectra of human tissue,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1270, 1–6 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Tissue fluorescence,” in Fifth International Photodynamic Association Biennial Meeting, P. A. Cortest, ed., Proc. SPIE2371, 2–7 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kimel, S.

J. P. Berthier, E. Raynal, S. Kimel, S. Avrillier, J. P. Ollivier, “XeCl laser action at medium fluences on biological tissues: fluorescence study and simulation with a chemical solution,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 5, 495–503 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, M.

M. Kobayashi, K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, T. Fujisawa, “Autofluorescence measurement of human bronchi using ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Jpn. Soc. Bronchol. 24, 384–390 (2002).

M. Kobayashi, K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, T. Fujisawa, “Spectroscopic analysis of the autofluorescence from human bronchus using an ultraviolet laser diode,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 603–608 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kortum, R. R.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Ulzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. R. Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kyogoku, Y.

M. Abe, Y. Kyogoku, “Vibrational analysis of flavin derivatives: normal coordinate treatments of lumiflavin,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 43, 1027–1037 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lam, S.

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. C. leRiche, B. Palcic, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Cancer Suppl. 89, 2468–2473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. MacAulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging technique,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

leRiche, J. C.

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. C. leRiche, B. Palcic, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Cancer Suppl. 89, 2468–2473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

MacAulay, C.

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. C. leRiche, B. Palcic, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Cancer Suppl. 89, 2468–2473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. MacAulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging technique,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Ulzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. R. Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mantsch, H. H.

M. Jackson, L. P. Choo, P. H. Watson, W. C. Halliday, H. H. Mantsch, “Beware of connective proteins: assignment and implications of collagen absorption in infrared spectra of human tissue,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1270, 1–6 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayes, P. A.

R. K. Murray, D. K. Granner, P. A. Mayes, V. W. Rodwell, Harper’s Biochemistry (Appleton Lange, Stamford, Conn., 1999), pp. 359–373.

McGarvey, C. E.

V. I. Birss, A. S. Hinman, C. E. McGarvey, J. Segal, “In situ FTIR thin-layer reflectance spectroscopy of flavin adenine dinucleotide at a mercury/gold electrode,” Electrochim. Acta 39, 2449–2454 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morelli, M. A.

A. Bertoluzza, S. Bonora, G. Fini, M. A. Morelli, “Spectroscopic studies of connective tissues: native and hydrated elastin,” Can. J. Spectrosc. 34, 13–14 (1989).

Morssli, M.

G. Cassanas, M. Morssli, E. Fabregue, L. Bardet, “Vibrational spectra of lactic acid and lactates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 409–413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Murray, R. K.

R. K. Murray, D. K. Granner, P. A. Mayes, V. W. Rodwell, Harper’s Biochemistry (Appleton Lange, Stamford, Conn., 1999), pp. 359–373.

Nadolny, C.

C. Nadolny, G. Zundel, “Protonation, conformation, and hydrogen bonding of nicotinamide adenin dinucleotide—an FTIR study,” J. Mol. Struct. 385, 81–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ohwada, H.

K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, M. Chiyo, K. Yasufuku, T. Iizasa, Y. Saitoh, M. Baba, K. Hiroshima, H. Ohwada, T. Fujisawa, “Subepithelia vascular patterns in bronchial dysplasias using a high magnification bronchovideoscope,” Thorax 57, 902–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ollivier, J. P.

J. P. Berthier, E. Raynal, S. Kimel, S. Avrillier, J. P. Ollivier, “XeCl laser action at medium fluences on biological tissues: fluorescence study and simulation with a chemical solution,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 5, 495–503 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palcic, B.

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. C. leRiche, B. Palcic, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Cancer Suppl. 89, 2468–2473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. MacAulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging technique,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Postmus, P. E.

B. J. W. Venmans, T. J. M. Van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Results of two years experience with fluorescence bronchoscopy in detection of preinvasive bronchial neoplasia,” Diagn. Ther. Endosc. 5, 77–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, A.

R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, S. J. Wahl, “Optical spectroscopic diagnosis of cancer and normal breast tissue,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1018–1023 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Raynal, E.

J. P. Berthier, E. Raynal, S. Kimel, S. Avrillier, J. P. Ollivier, “XeCl laser action at medium fluences on biological tissues: fluorescence study and simulation with a chemical solution,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 5, 495–503 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, J. W.

J. D. Watson, N. H. Hopkins, J. W. Roberts, J. A. Steiz, A. M. Weiner, Molecular Biology of the Gene (Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1987).

Rodwell, V. W.

R. K. Murray, D. K. Granner, P. A. Mayes, V. W. Rodwell, Harper’s Biochemistry (Appleton Lange, Stamford, Conn., 1999), pp. 359–373.

Saitoh, Y.

K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, M. Chiyo, K. Yasufuku, T. Iizasa, Y. Saitoh, M. Baba, K. Hiroshima, H. Ohwada, T. Fujisawa, “Subepithelia vascular patterns in bronchial dysplasias using a high magnification bronchovideoscope,” Thorax 57, 902–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Savage, H.

J. Tang, F. Zeng, H. Savage, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence spectroscopic imaging to detect changes in collagen and elastin following laser tissue welding,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 3–8 (2000).

Segal, J.

V. I. Birss, A. S. Hinman, C. E. McGarvey, J. Segal, “In situ FTIR thin-layer reflectance spectroscopy of flavin adenine dinucleotide at a mercury/gold electrode,” Electrochim. Acta 39, 2449–2454 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shibuya, K.

M. Kobayashi, K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, T. Fujisawa, “Spectroscopic analysis of the autofluorescence from human bronchus using an ultraviolet laser diode,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 603–608 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kobayashi, K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, T. Fujisawa, “Autofluorescence measurement of human bronchi using ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Jpn. Soc. Bronchol. 24, 384–390 (2002).

K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, M. Chiyo, K. Yasufuku, T. Iizasa, Y. Saitoh, M. Baba, K. Hiroshima, H. Ohwada, T. Fujisawa, “Subepithelia vascular patterns in bronchial dysplasias using a high magnification bronchovideoscope,” Thorax 57, 902–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smit, E. F.

B. J. W. Venmans, T. J. M. Van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Results of two years experience with fluorescence bronchoscopy in detection of preinvasive bronchial neoplasia,” Diagn. Ther. Endosc. 5, 77–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, K.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Ulzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. R. Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiz, J. A.

J. D. Watson, N. H. Hopkins, J. W. Roberts, J. A. Steiz, A. M. Weiner, Molecular Biology of the Gene (Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1987).

Sutedja, T. G.

B. J. W. Venmans, T. J. M. Van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Results of two years experience with fluorescence bronchoscopy in detection of preinvasive bronchial neoplasia,” Diagn. Ther. Endosc. 5, 77–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, M.

M. Tamura, “Optical characterization of a living body,” O plus E 20, 569–575 (1998; in Japanese).

Tang, G. C.

R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, S. J. Wahl, “Optical spectroscopic diagnosis of cancer and normal breast tissue,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1018–1023 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J.

J. Tang, F. Zeng, H. Savage, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence spectroscopic imaging to detect changes in collagen and elastin following laser tissue welding,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 3–8 (2000).

Ulzinger, U.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Ulzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. R. Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utsui, T.

R. Adachi, T. Utsui, K. Furuawa, “Development of autofluorescence endoscope imaging system,” Diagn. Ther. Endosc. 5, 65–70 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Boxem, T. J. M.

B. J. W. Venmans, T. J. M. Van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Results of two years experience with fluorescence bronchoscopy in detection of preinvasive bronchial neoplasia,” Diagn. Ther. Endosc. 5, 77–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Venmans, B. J. W.

B. J. W. Venmans, T. J. M. Van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Results of two years experience with fluorescence bronchoscopy in detection of preinvasive bronchial neoplasia,” Diagn. Ther. Endosc. 5, 77–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wahl, S. J.

R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, S. J. Wahl, “Optical spectroscopic diagnosis of cancer and normal breast tissue,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1018–1023 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, J. V. Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. Apreisinger, Y. Wang, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopy imaging of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

D. Wang, J. V. Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. Apreisinger, Y. Wang, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopy imaging of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, J. D.

J. D. Watson, N. H. Hopkins, J. W. Roberts, J. A. Steiz, A. M. Weiner, Molecular Biology of the Gene (Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1987).

Watson, P. H.

M. Jackson, L. P. Choo, P. H. Watson, W. C. Halliday, H. H. Mantsch, “Beware of connective proteins: assignment and implications of collagen absorption in infrared spectra of human tissue,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1270, 1–6 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

J. D. Watson, N. H. Hopkins, J. W. Roberts, J. A. Steiz, A. M. Weiner, Molecular Biology of the Gene (Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1987).

Yasufuku, K.

K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, M. Chiyo, K. Yasufuku, T. Iizasa, Y. Saitoh, M. Baba, K. Hiroshima, H. Ohwada, T. Fujisawa, “Subepithelia vascular patterns in bronchial dysplasias using a high magnification bronchovideoscope,” Thorax 57, 902–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, F.

J. Tang, F. Zeng, H. Savage, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence spectroscopic imaging to detect changes in collagen and elastin following laser tissue welding,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 3–8 (2000).

Zundel, G.

C. Nadolny, G. Zundel, “Protonation, conformation, and hydrogen bonding of nicotinamide adenin dinucleotide—an FTIR study,” J. Mol. Struct. 385, 81–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2)

B. Czochralska, “Oxidation of excited-state NADH and NAD dimer in an aqueous medium,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 80, 403–409 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Jackson, L. P. Choo, P. H. Watson, W. C. Halliday, H. H. Mantsch, “Beware of connective proteins: assignment and implications of collagen absorption in infrared spectra of human tissue,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1270, 1–6 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Can. J. Spectrosc. (1)

A. Bertoluzza, S. Bonora, G. Fini, M. A. Morelli, “Spectroscopic studies of connective tissues: native and hydrated elastin,” Can. J. Spectrosc. 34, 13–14 (1989).

Cancer Suppl. (1)

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. C. leRiche, B. Palcic, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Cancer Suppl. 89, 2468–2473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chest (1)

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. MacAulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging technique,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diagn. Ther. Endosc. (2)

B. J. W. Venmans, T. J. M. Van Boxem, E. F. Smit, P. E. Postmus, T. G. Sutedja, “Results of two years experience with fluorescence bronchoscopy in detection of preinvasive bronchial neoplasia,” Diagn. Ther. Endosc. 5, 77–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Adachi, T. Utsui, K. Furuawa, “Development of autofluorescence endoscope imaging system,” Diagn. Ther. Endosc. 5, 65–70 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electrochim. Acta (1)

V. I. Birss, A. S. Hinman, C. E. McGarvey, J. Segal, “In situ FTIR thin-layer reflectance spectroscopy of flavin adenine dinucleotide at a mercury/gold electrode,” Electrochim. Acta 39, 2449–2454 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gastroenterology (1)

D. Wang, J. V. Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. Apreisinger, Y. Wang, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopy imaging of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

N. R. Davis, R. A. Anwar, “On the mechanism of formation of desmosine and isodesmosine cross-links of elastin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 92, 3778–3782 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Ulzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. R. Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kobayashi, K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, T. Fujisawa, “Spectroscopic analysis of the autofluorescence from human bronchus using an ultraviolet laser diode,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 603–608 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. (1)

J. Tang, F. Zeng, H. Savage, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence spectroscopic imaging to detect changes in collagen and elastin following laser tissue welding,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 18, 3–8 (2000).

J. Jpn. Soc. Bronchol. (1)

M. Kobayashi, K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, T. Fujisawa, “Autofluorescence measurement of human bronchi using ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Jpn. Soc. Bronchol. 24, 384–390 (2002).

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

C. Nadolny, G. Zundel, “Protonation, conformation, and hydrogen bonding of nicotinamide adenin dinucleotide—an FTIR study,” J. Mol. Struct. 385, 81–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, S. J. Wahl, “Optical spectroscopic diagnosis of cancer and normal breast tissue,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1018–1023 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

J. P. Berthier, E. Raynal, S. Kimel, S. Avrillier, J. P. Ollivier, “XeCl laser action at medium fluences on biological tissues: fluorescence study and simulation with a chemical solution,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 5, 495–503 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

G. Cassanas, M. Morssli, E. Fabregue, L. Bardet, “Vibrational spectra of lactic acid and lactates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 409–413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O plus E (1)

M. Tamura, “Optical characterization of a living body,” O plus E 20, 569–575 (1998; in Japanese).

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (1)

M. Abe, Y. Kyogoku, “Vibrational analysis of flavin derivatives: normal coordinate treatments of lumiflavin,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 43, 1027–1037 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thorax (1)

K. Shibuya, H. Hoshino, M. Chiyo, K. Yasufuku, T. Iizasa, Y. Saitoh, M. Baba, K. Hiroshima, H. Ohwada, T. Fujisawa, “Subepithelia vascular patterns in bronchial dysplasias using a high magnification bronchovideoscope,” Thorax 57, 902–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. D. Watson, N. H. Hopkins, J. W. Roberts, J. A. Steiz, A. M. Weiner, Molecular Biology of the Gene (Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1987).

R. K. Murray, D. K. Granner, P. A. Mayes, V. W. Rodwell, Harper’s Biochemistry (Appleton Lange, Stamford, Conn., 1999), pp. 359–373.

S. L. Jacques, “Tissue fluorescence,” in Fifth International Photodynamic Association Biennial Meeting, P. A. Cortest, ed., Proc. SPIE2371, 2–7 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical configuration of (a) the AF spectroscopy system and (b) the FTIR system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Autofluorescence spectra of the solution of elastin (200 g/l), desmosine (200 g/l), NADH (0.3 M/l), and FAD (0.1 M/l) excited by the UV-LD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The FTIR spectra of the solution of elastin (200 g/l), desmosine (200 g/l), NADH (0.3 M/l), and FAD (0.1 M/l). The interference fringes caused by IR light reflected on the surface and the bottom of the liquid could be observed in the wide-range spectrum as shown in the inset. This interference fringe interval was kept constant to maintain the optical thickness of the liquid.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change in each AF spectrum when lactic acid is added: (a) elastin (200 g/l), (b) desmosine (200 g/l), (c) NADH (0.3 M/l), and (d) FAD (0.1 M/l).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Changes in the IR spectra of each tissue fluorophore solution when lactic acid is added. (a) Elastin solution (200 g/l) containing 0 M/l and 1 Mol/l of lactic acid. (b) Desmosine solution (200 g/l) containing 0 M/l and 1 M/l of lactic acid. (c) NADH solution (0.3 M/l) containing 0 M/l and 0.5 M/l of lactic acid. The band at around 1130 cm-1 from lactic acid14 became more intense when lactic acid was added to the NADH solution. (d) FAD solution (0.1 M/l) containing 0 Mol/l, 0.1 M/l, and 1 M/l of lactic acid.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes in AF intensity when porphyrins are added: (a) elastin (200 g/l), (b) NADH (0.3 M/l), and (c) FAD (10 mM/l).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Change in the IR spectrum of each tissue fluorophore solution when porphyrins are added: (a) elastin solution (200 g/l) with 0 M/l, 2.5 mM/l, and 10 mM/l of porphyrin added; (b) NADH solution (0.3 M/l) with 0 M/l, 2.5 mM/l, and 10 mM/l of porphyrin added; and (c) FAD solution (0.1 M/l) with 0 M/l, 2.5 mM/l, and 10 mM/l of porphyrin added.

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