Abstract

We report the first study of optical planar and channel waveguides fabricated in the new nonlinear crystal Ca4YO(BO3)3 by use of MeV He+-implantations. The n x, n y, and n z refractive index modifications are studied. Losses in nonannealed YCOB waveguides measured with a CCD camera are found to be less than 2 dB cm-1. This work is the first step toward the investigation of frequency conversion within the obtained guiding structures.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  2. G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, J. L. Damelet, “Linear and nonlinear-optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium crystal Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238–2247 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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  4. F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:saphire or laser diode,” Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 19 of Trends in Optics and Photonics, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 53–55.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Boudrioua, Ch. Bakhouya, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, K. Polgar, “Low-loss optical planar waveguides in Li2B4O7 crystal formed by He+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7716–7721 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  18. K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. P. Biersach, J. F. Ziegler, U. Littmark, Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1985).
  20. R. Baets, P. Kaczmarski, P. Vankwikelberge, “Design and modeling of passive and active optical waveguide devices,” in Waveguide Optoelectronics, J. H. Marsh, R. M. De La Rue, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1992), pp. 21–71.
    [CrossRef]

2002

K.-M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, B.-R. Shi, D.-Y. Shen, Y.-G. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, Q.-M. Lu, “Refractive index profiles in YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd:YCa4O(BO3)3 waveguides created by MeV He ions,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 191, 789–793 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, K. Polgar, “Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, β-BBO and LBO) for frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. 18, 73–76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, Ch. Bakhouya, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, K. Polgar, “Low-loss optical planar waveguides in Li2B4O7 crystal formed by He+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7716–7721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, C. A. Ebbers, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear optical properties of LaCa4O(BO3)3,” Opt. Lett. 26, 217–219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, B. H. T. Chai, L. Shah, R. E. Peale, M. Richardson, H. Qiu, “Laser action in Yb3+:YCOB (Yb3+:Yca4O(BO3)3),” Opt. Commun. 156, 327–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, G. Aka, “Formation of planar waveguides in the new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3, crystal by 2-MeV He+ implantation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1680–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, J. L. Damelet, “Linear and nonlinear-optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium crystal Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238–2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. D. Townsend, “Ion implanted waveguides and waveguides lasers,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 65, 243–250 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1973

Adams, J. J.

Aka, G.

F. Mougel, K. Dardenne, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, “Ytterbium-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3: an efficient infrared laser and self-frequency doubling crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 164–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, D. Vivien, “Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB) planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1299–1301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, G. Aka, “Formation of planar waveguides in the new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3, crystal by 2-MeV He+ implantation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1680–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, J. L. Damelet, “Linear and nonlinear-optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium crystal Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238–2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. SalinCRISMATEC Co., “Les borates mixtes (M2+ = Ca2+, Sr2+; Ln3+, = Y3+, Gd3+, La3+, Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications,” French PatentFR 95/01963 (February1995), European Patent extension96904152 (February1996);4-2205 (International patent extension pending).

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:saphire or laser diode,” Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 19 of Trends in Optics and Photonics, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 53–55.

Augé, F.

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:saphire or laser diode,” Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 19 of Trends in Optics and Photonics, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 53–55.

Baets, R.

R. Baets, P. Kaczmarski, P. Vankwikelberge, “Design and modeling of passive and active optical waveguide devices,” in Waveguide Optoelectronics, J. H. Marsh, R. M. De La Rue, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1992), pp. 21–71.
[CrossRef]

Bakhouya, C.

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, K. Polgar, “Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, β-BBO and LBO) for frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. 18, 73–76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bakhouya, Ch.

A. Boudrioua, Ch. Bakhouya, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, K. Polgar, “Low-loss optical planar waveguides in Li2B4O7 crystal formed by He+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7716–7721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balembois, F.

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:saphire or laser diode,” Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 19 of Trends in Optics and Photonics, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 53–55.

Benitez, J. M.

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biersach, J. P.

J. P. Biersach, J. F. Ziegler, U. Littmark, Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

Bloch, L.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. SalinCRISMATEC Co., “Les borates mixtes (M2+ = Ca2+, Sr2+; Ln3+, = Y3+, Gd3+, La3+, Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications,” French PatentFR 95/01963 (February1995), European Patent extension96904152 (February1996);4-2205 (International patent extension pending).

Boudrioua, A.

A. Boudrioua, Ch. Bakhouya, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, K. Polgar, “Low-loss optical planar waveguides in Li2B4O7 crystal formed by He+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7716–7721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, K. Polgar, “Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, β-BBO and LBO) for frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. 18, 73–76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, D. Vivien, “Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB) planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1299–1301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, G. Aka, “Formation of planar waveguides in the new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3, crystal by 2-MeV He+ implantation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1680–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brun, A.

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:saphire or laser diode,” Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 19 of Trends in Optics and Photonics, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 53–55.

Chai, B. H. T.

B. H. T. Chai, “Advances in bulk inorganic nonlinear optical materials,” Opt. Photon. News, January1999, pp. 31–38.

D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, B. H. T. Chai, L. Shah, R. E. Peale, M. Richardson, H. Qiu, “Laser action in Yb3+:YCOB (Yb3+:Yca4O(BO3)3),” Opt. Commun. 156, 327–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P. J.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, London, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

K.-M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, B.-R. Shi, D.-Y. Shen, Y.-G. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, Q.-M. Lu, “Refractive index profiles in YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd:YCa4O(BO3)3 waveguides created by MeV He ions,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 191, 789–793 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Colin, P.

Damelet, J. L.

Dardenne, K.

Ebbers, C. A.

Eichenholz, J. M.

D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, B. H. T. Chai, L. Shah, R. E. Peale, M. Richardson, H. Qiu, “Laser action in Yb3+:YCOB (Yb3+:Yca4O(BO3)3),” Opt. Commun. 156, 327–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Georges, P.

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:saphire or laser diode,” Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 19 of Trends in Optics and Photonics, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 53–55.

Godard, J.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. SalinCRISMATEC Co., “Les borates mixtes (M2+ = Ca2+, Sr2+; Ln3+, = Y3+, Gd3+, La3+, Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications,” French PatentFR 95/01963 (February1995), European Patent extension96904152 (February1996);4-2205 (International patent extension pending).

Hammons, D. A.

D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, B. H. T. Chai, L. Shah, R. E. Peale, M. Richardson, H. Qiu, “Laser action in Yb3+:YCOB (Yb3+:Yca4O(BO3)3),” Opt. Commun. 156, 327–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

K.-M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, B.-R. Shi, D.-Y. Shen, Y.-G. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, Q.-M. Lu, “Refractive index profiles in YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd:YCa4O(BO3)3 waveguides created by MeV He ions,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 191, 789–793 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hubert, H.

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jacquier, B.

Kaczmarski, P.

R. Baets, P. Kaczmarski, P. Vankwikelberge, “Design and modeling of passive and active optical waveguide devices,” in Waveguide Optoelectronics, J. H. Marsh, R. M. De La Rue, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1992), pp. 21–71.
[CrossRef]

Kahn-Harari, A.

F. Mougel, K. Dardenne, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, “Ytterbium-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3: an efficient infrared laser and self-frequency doubling crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 164–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, J. L. Damelet, “Linear and nonlinear-optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium crystal Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238–2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. SalinCRISMATEC Co., “Les borates mixtes (M2+ = Ca2+, Sr2+; Ln3+, = Y3+, Gd3+, La3+, Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications,” French PatentFR 95/01963 (February1995), European Patent extension96904152 (February1996);4-2205 (International patent extension pending).

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:saphire or laser diode,” Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 19 of Trends in Optics and Photonics, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 53–55.

Kremer, R.

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, K. Polgar, “Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, β-BBO and LBO) for frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. 18, 73–76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Littmark, U.

J. P. Biersach, J. F. Ziegler, U. Littmark, Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

Liu, Y.-G.

K.-M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, B.-R. Shi, D.-Y. Shen, Y.-G. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, Q.-M. Lu, “Refractive index profiles in YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd:YCa4O(BO3)3 waveguides created by MeV He ions,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 191, 789–793 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Loulergue, J. C.

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, K. Polgar, “Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, β-BBO and LBO) for frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. 18, 73–76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, Ch. Bakhouya, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, K. Polgar, “Low-loss optical planar waveguides in Li2B4O7 crystal formed by He+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7716–7721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, D. Vivien, “Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB) planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1299–1301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, G. Aka, “Formation of planar waveguides in the new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3, crystal by 2-MeV He+ implantation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1680–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, F.

K.-M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, B.-R. Shi, D.-Y. Shen, Y.-G. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, Q.-M. Lu, “Refractive index profiles in YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd:YCa4O(BO3)3 waveguides created by MeV He ions,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 191, 789–793 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q.-M.

K.-M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, B.-R. Shi, D.-Y. Shen, Y.-G. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, Q.-M. Lu, “Refractive index profiles in YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd:YCa4O(BO3)3 waveguides created by MeV He ions,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 191, 789–793 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, K. Polgar, “Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, β-BBO and LBO) for frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. 18, 73–76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, Ch. Bakhouya, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, K. Polgar, “Low-loss optical planar waveguides in Li2B4O7 crystal formed by He+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7716–7721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, D. Vivien, “Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB) planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1299–1301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, G. Aka, “Formation of planar waveguides in the new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3, crystal by 2-MeV He+ implantation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1680–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mougel, F.

F. Mougel, K. Dardenne, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, “Ytterbium-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3: an efficient infrared laser and self-frequency doubling crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 164–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, J. L. Damelet, “Linear and nonlinear-optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium crystal Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238–2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:saphire or laser diode,” Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 19 of Trends in Optics and Photonics, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 53–55.

F. Mougel, “les oxoborates de calcium et de terres rares (TR) Ca4TRO(BO3)3. Une nouvelle famille de matériaux à fonction multiples pour l’optique: croissance cristalline, propriétés non linéaires et laser,” PhD thesis (University of Paris VI Paris, France, 1999).

Payne, S. A.

Peale, R. E.

D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, B. H. T. Chai, L. Shah, R. E. Peale, M. Richardson, H. Qiu, “Laser action in Yb3+:YCOB (Yb3+:Yca4O(BO3)3),” Opt. Commun. 156, 327–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pelenc, D.

Polgar, K.

A. Boudrioua, Ch. Bakhouya, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, K. Polgar, “Low-loss optical planar waveguides in Li2B4O7 crystal formed by He+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7716–7721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, K. Polgar, “Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, β-BBO and LBO) for frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. 18, 73–76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, H.

D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, B. H. T. Chai, L. Shah, R. E. Peale, M. Richardson, H. Qiu, “Laser action in Yb3+:YCOB (Yb3+:Yca4O(BO3)3),” Opt. Commun. 156, 327–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, B. H. T. Chai, L. Shah, R. E. Peale, M. Richardson, H. Qiu, “Laser action in Yb3+:YCOB (Yb3+:Yca4O(BO3)3),” Opt. Commun. 156, 327–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, J. L. Damelet, “Linear and nonlinear-optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium crystal Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238–2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. SalinCRISMATEC Co., “Les borates mixtes (M2+ = Ca2+, Sr2+; Ln3+, = Y3+, Gd3+, La3+, Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications,” French PatentFR 95/01963 (February1995), European Patent extension96904152 (February1996);4-2205 (International patent extension pending).

Schaffers, K. I.

Shah, L.

D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, B. H. T. Chai, L. Shah, R. E. Peale, M. Richardson, H. Qiu, “Laser action in Yb3+:YCOB (Yb3+:Yca4O(BO3)3),” Opt. Commun. 156, 327–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.-Y.

K.-M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, B.-R. Shi, D.-Y. Shen, Y.-G. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, Q.-M. Lu, “Refractive index profiles in YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd:YCa4O(BO3)3 waveguides created by MeV He ions,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 191, 789–793 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, B.-R.

K.-M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, B.-R. Shi, D.-Y. Shen, Y.-G. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, Q.-M. Lu, “Refractive index profiles in YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd:YCa4O(BO3)3 waveguides created by MeV He ions,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 191, 789–793 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Torge, R.

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, “Ion implanted waveguides and waveguides lasers,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 65, 243–250 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, London, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Vankwikelberge, P.

R. Baets, P. Kaczmarski, P. Vankwikelberge, “Design and modeling of passive and active optical waveguide devices,” in Waveguide Optoelectronics, J. H. Marsh, R. M. De La Rue, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1992), pp. 21–71.
[CrossRef]

Vivien, D.

F. Mougel, K. Dardenne, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, “Ytterbium-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3: an efficient infrared laser and self-frequency doubling crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 164–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, D. Vivien, “Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB) planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1299–1301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, J. L. Damelet, “Linear and nonlinear-optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium crystal Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238–2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. SalinCRISMATEC Co., “Les borates mixtes (M2+ = Ca2+, Sr2+; Ln3+, = Y3+, Gd3+, La3+, Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications,” French PatentFR 95/01963 (February1995), European Patent extension96904152 (February1996);4-2205 (International patent extension pending).

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:saphire or laser diode,” Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 19 of Trends in Optics and Photonics, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 53–55.

Wang, J.-Y.

K.-M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, B.-R. Shi, D.-Y. Shen, Y.-G. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, Q.-M. Lu, “Refractive index profiles in YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd:YCa4O(BO3)3 waveguides created by MeV He ions,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 191, 789–793 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.-M.

K.-M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, B.-R. Shi, D.-Y. Shen, Y.-G. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, Q.-M. Lu, “Refractive index profiles in YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd:YCa4O(BO3)3 waveguides created by MeV He ions,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 191, 789–793 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Q.

D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, B. H. T. Chai, L. Shah, R. E. Peale, M. Richardson, H. Qiu, “Laser action in Yb3+:YCOB (Yb3+:Yca4O(BO3)3),” Opt. Commun. 156, 327–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, London, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, J. F.

J. P. Biersach, J. F. Ziegler, U. Littmark, Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Boudrioua, Ch. Bakhouya, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, K. Polgar, “Low-loss optical planar waveguides in Li2B4O7 crystal formed by He+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7716–7721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B

K.-M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, B.-R. Shi, D.-Y. Shen, Y.-G. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, Q.-M. Lu, “Refractive index profiles in YCa4O(BO3)3 and Nd:YCa4O(BO3)3 waveguides created by MeV He ions,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 191, 789–793 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, “Ion implanted waveguides and waveguides lasers,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 65, 243–250 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, B. H. T. Chai, L. Shah, R. E. Peale, M. Richardson, H. Qiu, “Laser action in Yb3+:YCOB (Yb3+:Yca4O(BO3)3),” Opt. Commun. 156, 327–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, K. Polgar, “Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, β-BBO and LBO) for frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. 18, 73–76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News

B. H. T. Chai, “Advances in bulk inorganic nonlinear optical materials,” Opt. Photon. News, January1999, pp. 31–38.

Other

F. Mougel, “les oxoborates de calcium et de terres rares (TR) Ca4TRO(BO3)3. Une nouvelle famille de matériaux à fonction multiples pour l’optique: croissance cristalline, propriétés non linéaires et laser,” PhD thesis (University of Paris VI Paris, France, 1999).

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:saphire or laser diode,” Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 19 of Trends in Optics and Photonics, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 53–55.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, London, 1994).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Biersach, J. F. Ziegler, U. Littmark, Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

R. Baets, P. Kaczmarski, P. Vankwikelberge, “Design and modeling of passive and active optical waveguide devices,” in Waveguide Optoelectronics, J. H. Marsh, R. M. De La Rue, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1992), pp. 21–71.
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. SalinCRISMATEC Co., “Les borates mixtes (M2+ = Ca2+, Sr2+; Ln3+, = Y3+, Gd3+, La3+, Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications,” French PatentFR 95/01963 (February1995), European Patent extension96904152 (February1996);4-2205 (International patent extension pending).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the fabrication method of planar and channel waveguides in YCOB crystal by multiple He+ implantations: the implanted areas (the optical barrier) are darker and with the surface delimit the waveguiding area.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Index profiles of YCOB:He+ planar waveguides. The computation is based on inverse WKB method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of the propagated light within He+-implanted YCOB waveguides: (a) planar guide, (b) channel guide. Left-hand images are scattered light from the top surface, and the right-hand images are the output field pattern of the guided modes imaged on a screen (same scale for planar and channel waveguides).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light intensity variation versus the guide length for a YCOB:He+ planar waveguide.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Implantation Conditions of Planar and Channel Waveguides in YCOB Crystals

Tables Icon

Table 2 Refractive Index Behavior of Planar YCOB He+ Waveguide

Tables Icon

Table 3 Theoretical Phase-Matching Wavelengths of YCOB Waveguides

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