Abstract

In color pattern recognition, color channels are normally processed separately and afterward the correlation outputs are combined. This is the definition of multichannel processing. We combine a single-channel method with nonlinear filtering based on nonlinear correlations. These nonlinear correlations yield better discrimination than common matched filtering. The method codes color information as amplitude and phase distributions and is followed by correlations related to binary decompositions. The technique is based on binary decompositions of the red, green, and blue and the hue, saturation, and intensity monochromatic channels of the reference and of the input scene, after which the binary information on the red, green, and blue channels and that of the hue, saturation, and intensity channels are encoded as different angles of a phase distribution. We have applied the method to images degraded by high levels of substitutive noise. Results show that the sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized correlation detects the target with a high degree of discrimination when other methods fail.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Badique, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Ferreira, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filtering,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 27, 498–500 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. S. Millán, M. Corbalán, J. Romero, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical pattern recognition based on color vision models,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1722–1724 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Kober, V. Lashin, I. Moreno, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color component transformation for optical pattern recognition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2656–2669 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channels chromatic transformation for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. J. Esteve-Taboada, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Extended scale-invariant pattern recognition with white-light illumination,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1268–1271 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Nicolás, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Colour pattern recognition in three dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 184, 335–343 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Nicolás, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical encoding for three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 209, 35–43 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Mendlovic, P. García-Martínez, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Color encoding for polychromatic single channel optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7538–7544 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Paquet, P. García-Martínez, J. García, “Tridimensional invariant correlation based on phase-coded and sine-coded range images,” J. Opt. 29, 35–39 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Paquet, P. García-Martínez, I. Moreno, “Invariant optical recognition of color range pattern using image encoding,” Opt. Rev. 4, 370–375 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. R. Kallman, D. H. Goldstein, “Phase encoding input images for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1806–1812 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. García-Martínez, H. H. Arsenault, “A correlation matrix representation using the sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized decomposition,” Opt. Commun. 172, 181–192 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. García-Martínez, H. H. Arsenault, S. Roy, “Optical implementation of the sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized correlation for images degraded by nonoverlapping background noise,” Opt. Commun. 173, 185–193 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Tejera, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Weighted nonlinear correlation for controlled discrimination capability,” Opt. Commun. 201, 29–37 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. García-Martínez, M. Tejera, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Optical implementation of the weighted sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized correlation for nonuniform illumination conditions,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6867–6873 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. R. Gillespie, A. B. Kahle, R. E. Walker, “Color enhancement of highly correlated images. I. Decorrelation and HSI contrast stretches,” Remote Sens. Environ. 20, 209–235 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. García-Martínez, D. Mas, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Nonlinear morphological correlation. Optoelectronic implementation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2112–2118 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. García-Martínez, Ph. Réfrégier, H. H. Arsenault, C. Ferreira, “Maximum likelihood for target location in the presence of substitutive noise,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3855–3860 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (5)

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channels chromatic transformation for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolás, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical encoding for three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 209, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Tejera, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Weighted nonlinear correlation for controlled discrimination capability,” Opt. Commun. 201, 29–37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, M. Tejera, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Optical implementation of the weighted sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized correlation for nonuniform illumination conditions,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6867–6873 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (4)

J. J. Esteve-Taboada, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Extended scale-invariant pattern recognition with white-light illumination,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1268–1271 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolás, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Colour pattern recognition in three dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 184, 335–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, H. H. Arsenault, “A correlation matrix representation using the sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized decomposition,” Opt. Commun. 172, 181–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, H. H. Arsenault, S. Roy, “Optical implementation of the sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized correlation for images degraded by nonoverlapping background noise,” Opt. Commun. 173, 185–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

E. Paquet, P. García-Martínez, J. García, “Tridimensional invariant correlation based on phase-coded and sine-coded range images,” J. Opt. 29, 35–39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, D. Mas, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Nonlinear morphological correlation. Optoelectronic implementation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2112–2118 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

E. Paquet, P. García-Martínez, I. Moreno, “Invariant optical recognition of color range pattern using image encoding,” Opt. Rev. 4, 370–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Kober, V. Lashin, I. Moreno, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color component transformation for optical pattern recognition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2656–2669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 27, 498–500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. S. Millán, M. Corbalán, J. Romero, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical pattern recognition based on color vision models,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1722–1724 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mendlovic, P. García-Martínez, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Color encoding for polychromatic single channel optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7538–7544 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. R. Kallman, D. H. Goldstein, “Phase encoding input images for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1806–1812 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filtering,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

E. Badique, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. R. Gillespie, A. B. Kahle, R. E. Walker, “Color enhancement of highly correlated images. I. Decorrelation and HSI contrast stretches,” Remote Sens. Environ. 20, 209–235 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Arsenault, H. H.

M. Tejera, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Weighted nonlinear correlation for controlled discrimination capability,” Opt. Commun. 201, 29–37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, M. Tejera, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Optical implementation of the weighted sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized correlation for nonuniform illumination conditions,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6867–6873 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. García-Martínez, Ph. Réfrégier, H. H. Arsenault, C. Ferreira, “Maximum likelihood for target location in the presence of substitutive noise,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3855–3860 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, H. H. Arsenault, S. Roy, “Optical implementation of the sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized correlation for images degraded by nonoverlapping background noise,” Opt. Commun. 173, 185–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, H. H. Arsenault, “A correlation matrix representation using the sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized decomposition,” Opt. Commun. 172, 181–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Badique, E.

E. Badique, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bouzid, A.

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channels chromatic transformation for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

J. Nicolás, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical encoding for three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 209, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolás, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Colour pattern recognition in three dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 184, 335–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Kober, V. Lashin, I. Moreno, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color component transformation for optical pattern recognition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2656–2669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 27, 498–500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filtering,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Case, S. K.

Corbalán, M.

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, M. Corbalán, J. Romero, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical pattern recognition based on color vision models,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1722–1724 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esteve-Taboada, J. J.

Fares, A.

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channels chromatic transformation for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, C.

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channels chromatic transformation for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Tejera, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Weighted nonlinear correlation for controlled discrimination capability,” Opt. Commun. 201, 29–37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, M. Tejera, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Optical implementation of the weighted sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized correlation for nonuniform illumination conditions,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6867–6873 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. García-Martínez, Ph. Réfrégier, H. H. Arsenault, C. Ferreira, “Maximum likelihood for target location in the presence of substitutive noise,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3855–3860 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Esteve-Taboada, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Extended scale-invariant pattern recognition with white-light illumination,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1268–1271 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, D. Mas, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Nonlinear morphological correlation. Optoelectronic implementation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2112–2118 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Mendlovic, P. García-Martínez, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Color encoding for polychromatic single channel optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7538–7544 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filtering,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

García, J.

J. J. Esteve-Taboada, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Extended scale-invariant pattern recognition with white-light illumination,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1268–1271 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Paquet, P. García-Martínez, J. García, “Tridimensional invariant correlation based on phase-coded and sine-coded range images,” J. Opt. 29, 35–39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, D. Mas, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Nonlinear morphological correlation. Optoelectronic implementation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2112–2118 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Mendlovic, P. García-Martínez, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Color encoding for polychromatic single channel optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7538–7544 (1995).
[CrossRef]

García-Martínez, P.

P. García-Martínez, M. Tejera, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Optical implementation of the weighted sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized correlation for nonuniform illumination conditions,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6867–6873 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channels chromatic transformation for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Tejera, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Weighted nonlinear correlation for controlled discrimination capability,” Opt. Commun. 201, 29–37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, Ph. Réfrégier, H. H. Arsenault, C. Ferreira, “Maximum likelihood for target location in the presence of substitutive noise,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3855–3860 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, H. H. Arsenault, S. Roy, “Optical implementation of the sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized correlation for images degraded by nonoverlapping background noise,” Opt. Commun. 173, 185–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, H. H. Arsenault, “A correlation matrix representation using the sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized decomposition,” Opt. Commun. 172, 181–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Paquet, P. García-Martínez, J. García, “Tridimensional invariant correlation based on phase-coded and sine-coded range images,” J. Opt. 29, 35–39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, D. Mas, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Nonlinear morphological correlation. Optoelectronic implementation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2112–2118 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Paquet, P. García-Martínez, I. Moreno, “Invariant optical recognition of color range pattern using image encoding,” Opt. Rev. 4, 370–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Mendlovic, P. García-Martínez, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Color encoding for polychromatic single channel optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7538–7544 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, A. R.

A. R. Gillespie, A. B. Kahle, R. E. Walker, “Color enhancement of highly correlated images. I. Decorrelation and HSI contrast stretches,” Remote Sens. Environ. 20, 209–235 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, D. H.

R. R. Kallman, D. H. Goldstein, “Phase encoding input images for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1806–1812 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hamdi, M.

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channels chromatic transformation for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Honda, T.

E. Badique, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Iemmi, C.

J. Nicolás, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical encoding for three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 209, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kahle, A. B.

A. R. Gillespie, A. B. Kahle, R. E. Walker, “Color enhancement of highly correlated images. I. Decorrelation and HSI contrast stretches,” Remote Sens. Environ. 20, 209–235 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kallman, R. R.

R. R. Kallman, D. H. Goldstein, “Phase encoding input images for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1806–1812 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kober, V.

V. Kober, V. Lashin, I. Moreno, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color component transformation for optical pattern recognition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2656–2669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 27, 498–500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lashin, V.

V. Kober, V. Lashin, I. Moreno, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color component transformation for optical pattern recognition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2656–2669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 27, 498–500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, D.

P. García-Martínez, M. Tejera, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Optical implementation of the weighted sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized correlation for nonuniform illumination conditions,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6867–6873 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tejera, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Weighted nonlinear correlation for controlled discrimination capability,” Opt. Commun. 201, 29–37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mas, D.

Mendlovic, D.

D. Mendlovic, P. García-Martínez, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Color encoding for polychromatic single channel optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7538–7544 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Millán, M. S.

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, M. Corbalán, J. Romero, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical pattern recognition based on color vision models,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1722–1724 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filtering,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

V. Kober, V. Lashin, I. Moreno, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color component transformation for optical pattern recognition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2656–2669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Paquet, P. García-Martínez, I. Moreno, “Invariant optical recognition of color range pattern using image encoding,” Opt. Rev. 4, 370–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 27, 498–500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nicolás, J.

J. Nicolás, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical encoding for three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 209, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolás, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Colour pattern recognition in three dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 184, 335–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohyama, N.

E. Badique, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Paquet, E.

E. Paquet, P. García-Martínez, J. García, “Tridimensional invariant correlation based on phase-coded and sine-coded range images,” J. Opt. 29, 35–39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Paquet, P. García-Martínez, I. Moreno, “Invariant optical recognition of color range pattern using image encoding,” Opt. Rev. 4, 370–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Réfrégier, Ph.

Romero, J.

Roy, S.

P. García-Martínez, H. H. Arsenault, S. Roy, “Optical implementation of the sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized correlation for images degraded by nonoverlapping background noise,” Opt. Commun. 173, 185–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tejera, M.

M. Tejera, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Weighted nonlinear correlation for controlled discrimination capability,” Opt. Commun. 201, 29–37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, M. Tejera, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Optical implementation of the weighted sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized correlation for nonuniform illumination conditions,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6867–6873 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsujiuchi, J.

E. Badique, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. E.

A. R. Gillespie, A. B. Kahle, R. E. Walker, “Color enhancement of highly correlated images. I. Decorrelation and HSI contrast stretches,” Remote Sens. Environ. 20, 209–235 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yaroslavsky, L. P.

V. Kober, V. Lashin, I. Moreno, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color component transformation for optical pattern recognition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2656–2669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 27, 498–500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yzuel, M. J.

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolás, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical encoding for three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 209, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolás, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Colour pattern recognition in three dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 184, 335–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Kober, V. Lashin, I. Moreno, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color component transformation for optical pattern recognition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2656–2669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 27, 498–500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, M. Corbalán, J. Romero, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical pattern recognition based on color vision models,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1722–1724 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filtering,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Opt. (1)

E. Paquet, P. García-Martínez, J. García, “Tridimensional invariant correlation based on phase-coded and sine-coded range images,” J. Opt. 29, 35–39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (7)

E. Badique, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channels chromatic transformation for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, H. H. Arsenault, “A correlation matrix representation using the sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized decomposition,” Opt. Commun. 172, 181–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. García-Martínez, H. H. Arsenault, S. Roy, “Optical implementation of the sliced orthogonal nonlinear generalized correlation for images degraded by nonoverlapping background noise,” Opt. Commun. 173, 185–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Tejera, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, D. Lefebvre, H. H. Arsenault, “Weighted nonlinear correlation for controlled discrimination capability,” Opt. Commun. 201, 29–37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolás, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Colour pattern recognition in three dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 184, 335–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolás, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical encoding for three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 209, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filtering,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Kallman, D. H. Goldstein, “Phase encoding input images for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1806–1812 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 27, 498–500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, M. Corbalán, J. Romero, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical pattern recognition based on color vision models,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1722–1724 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Rev. (1)

E. Paquet, P. García-Martínez, I. Moreno, “Invariant optical recognition of color range pattern using image encoding,” Opt. Rev. 4, 370–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

A. R. Gillespie, A. B. Kahle, R. E. Walker, “Color enhancement of highly correlated images. I. Decorrelation and HSI contrast stretches,” Remote Sens. Environ. 20, 209–235 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Color LUT used for the first encoding.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

R, G, and B color channels. Left, input scenes; right, reference objects.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-channel color encoding with a LUT and the SONG correlation for Fig. 2: (a) intensity correlation plane, (b) 3-D profile of the correlation peaks.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single-channel color encoding with a LUT and the morphological correlation for Fig. 2: (a) intensity correlation plane, (b) 3-D profile of the correlation peaks.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Single-channel color encoding with a LUT and the linear correlation for Fig. 2: (a) intensity correlation plane, (b) 3-D profile of the correlation peaks.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

3-D profile of the correlation with hue and intensity channels and the SONG correlation for Fig. 2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

3-D profile of the correlation with hue and intensity channels and the morphological correlation for Fig. 2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

3-D profile of the correlation with hue and intensity channels and the linear correlation for Fig. 2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Input scene strongly degraded by substitutive Gaussian (σ = 1.9, N = 22.000) noise.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) 3-D plot of single-channel color encoding with a LUT and the SONG correlation. (b) 3-D plot for the common morphological correlation. (c) 3-D plot for the common linear correlation. The two last-named methods are not able to detect the reference object.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 DCs of Several Pattern Recognition Operations and the New Single-Channel Color Encoding LUT and Some Correlations for Various Substitutive Noise Degrees

Equations (16)

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fX=RXRˆ+GXĜ+BXBˆ,
feX=AXexpiΦRX, GX, BX,
AX=fX, fX1/2=R2X+G2X+B2X1/2
H=tan-1A-C+nπ,
A=12R-B,
C=16R+B-23 G
IX=RX2+GX2+BX2.
feX=IXexpiHX.
eifX=1fX=i0fXi.
fX=i=0Q-1 ieifX,
eifX, ejfX=δijeifX2.
gX  fX=i=0Q-1j=0Q-1 ijeigX  ejfX.
Ωg,fX=i=0Q-1j=0Q-1 WijeigX  ejfX.
Ωg,fX=i=0Q-1j=0Q-1 CgfijX,
Ωg,fX=i=0Q-1 eigX  eifX.
DC=1-CrossCorrAutoCorr,

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