Abstract

We describe recent research into using the visual primitive of texture to analyze and manage large collections of remote sensed image and video data. Texture is regarded as the spatial dependence of pixel intensity. It is characterized by the amount of dependence at different scales and orientations, as measured with frequency-selective filters. A homogeneous texture descriptor based on the filter outputs is shown to enable (1) content-based image retrieval in large collections of satellite imagery, (2) semantic labeling and layout retrieval in an aerial video management system, and (3) statistical object modeling in geographic digital libraries.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Huertas, R. Nevatia, “Detecting buildings in aerial images,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 41(2), 131–152 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Shufelt, D. M. McKeown, “Fusion of monocular cues to detect man-made structures in aerial imagery,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 57(3), 307–330 (1993).
  3. T. Chang, C.-C. J. Kuo, “Texture analysis and classification with tree-structured wavelet transform,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2(4), 429–441 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. Haralick, K. Shanmugam, I. Dinstein, “Textural features for image classification,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 3(6), 610–621 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Liu, R. W. Picard, “Periodicity, directionality, and randomness: wold features for image modeling and retrieval,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 18(7), 722–733 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Mao, A. Jain, “Texture classification and segmentation using multiresolution simultaneous autoregressive models,” Pattern Recogn. 25(2), 173–188 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Chellappa, S. Chatterjee, “Classification of textures using Gaussian Markov random fields,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 33, 959–963 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. S. Manjunath, W. Y. Ma, “Texture features for browsing and retrieval of image data,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 18, 837–842 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Daugman, “Complete discrete 2D Gabor transform by neural networks for image analysis and compression,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 36, 1169–1179 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Marcelja, “Mathematical description of the responses of simple cortical cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1297–1300 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Wu, B. S. Manjunath, S. Newsam, H. D. Shin, “A texture descriptor for browsing and similarity retrieval,” J. Signal Process. 16(1–2), 33–43 (2000).
  12. B. S. Manjunath, P. Salembier, T. Sikora, eds., Introduction to MPEG7: Multimedia Content Description Interface (Wiley, New York, 2002).
  13. M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. R. Bach, C. Fuller, A. Gupta, A. Hampapur, B. Horowitz, R. Humphrey, R. Jain, C. F. Shu, “The Virage image search engine: an open framework for image management,” in Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases IV, I. K. Sethi, R. C. Jain, eds., Proc. SPIE2670, 76–87 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Pentland, R. W. Picard, S. Sclaroff, “Photobook: content-based manipulation of image databases,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 18(3), 233–254 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. R. Smith, S.-F. Chang, “VisualSEEk: a fully automated content-based image query system,” in Proceedings of the Fourth ACM International Conference on Multimedia (AMC Multimedia, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 87–98.
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Newsam, J. Tes̆ić, M. Saban, B. S. Manjunath, MPEG-7 Homogeneous Texture Descriptor Demo, http://vision.ece.ucsb.edu/texture/mpeg7/instructions.html .
  18. S. Z. Li, Markov Random Field Modeling in Image Analysis (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Bhagavathy, S. Newsam, B. S. Manjunath, “Modeling object classes in aerial images using texture motifs,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2002), pp. 981–984.
  20. A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood estimation from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Statistical Soc. Ser. B 39(1), 1–38 (1977).
  21. The Alexandria Digital Library Project, http://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu .

2000 (1)

P. Wu, B. S. Manjunath, S. Newsam, H. D. Shin, “A texture descriptor for browsing and similarity retrieval,” J. Signal Process. 16(1–2), 33–43 (2000).

1996 (3)

B. S. Manjunath, W. Y. Ma, “Texture features for browsing and retrieval of image data,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 18, 837–842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, R. W. Picard, “Periodicity, directionality, and randomness: wold features for image modeling and retrieval,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 18(7), 722–733 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Pentland, R. W. Picard, S. Sclaroff, “Photobook: content-based manipulation of image databases,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 18(3), 233–254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. Shufelt, D. M. McKeown, “Fusion of monocular cues to detect man-made structures in aerial imagery,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 57(3), 307–330 (1993).

T. Chang, C.-C. J. Kuo, “Texture analysis and classification with tree-structured wavelet transform,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2(4), 429–441 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. Mao, A. Jain, “Texture classification and segmentation using multiresolution simultaneous autoregressive models,” Pattern Recogn. 25(2), 173–188 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

J. Daugman, “Complete discrete 2D Gabor transform by neural networks for image analysis and compression,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 36, 1169–1179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Huertas, R. Nevatia, “Detecting buildings in aerial images,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 41(2), 131–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Chellappa, S. Chatterjee, “Classification of textures using Gaussian Markov random fields,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 33, 959–963 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1977 (1)

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood estimation from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Statistical Soc. Ser. B 39(1), 1–38 (1977).

1973 (1)

R. M. Haralick, K. Shanmugam, I. Dinstein, “Textural features for image classification,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 3(6), 610–621 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ashley, J.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bach, J. R.

J. R. Bach, C. Fuller, A. Gupta, A. Hampapur, B. Horowitz, R. Humphrey, R. Jain, C. F. Shu, “The Virage image search engine: an open framework for image management,” in Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases IV, I. K. Sethi, R. C. Jain, eds., Proc. SPIE2670, 76–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bhagavathy, S.

S. Bhagavathy, S. Newsam, B. S. Manjunath, “Modeling object classes in aerial images using texture motifs,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2002), pp. 981–984.

Chang, S.-F.

J. R. Smith, S.-F. Chang, “VisualSEEk: a fully automated content-based image query system,” in Proceedings of the Fourth ACM International Conference on Multimedia (AMC Multimedia, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 87–98.
[CrossRef]

Chang, T.

T. Chang, C.-C. J. Kuo, “Texture analysis and classification with tree-structured wavelet transform,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2(4), 429–441 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chatterjee, S.

R. Chellappa, S. Chatterjee, “Classification of textures using Gaussian Markov random fields,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 33, 959–963 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chellappa, R.

R. Chellappa, S. Chatterjee, “Classification of textures using Gaussian Markov random fields,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 33, 959–963 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Daugman, J.

J. Daugman, “Complete discrete 2D Gabor transform by neural networks for image analysis and compression,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 36, 1169–1179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dempster, A. P.

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood estimation from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Statistical Soc. Ser. B 39(1), 1–38 (1977).

Dinstein, I.

R. M. Haralick, K. Shanmugam, I. Dinstein, “Textural features for image classification,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 3(6), 610–621 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dom, B.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flickner, M.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, C.

J. R. Bach, C. Fuller, A. Gupta, A. Hampapur, B. Horowitz, R. Humphrey, R. Jain, C. F. Shu, “The Virage image search engine: an open framework for image management,” in Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases IV, I. K. Sethi, R. C. Jain, eds., Proc. SPIE2670, 76–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gorkani, M.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, A.

J. R. Bach, C. Fuller, A. Gupta, A. Hampapur, B. Horowitz, R. Humphrey, R. Jain, C. F. Shu, “The Virage image search engine: an open framework for image management,” in Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases IV, I. K. Sethi, R. C. Jain, eds., Proc. SPIE2670, 76–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hafine, J.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hampapur, A.

J. R. Bach, C. Fuller, A. Gupta, A. Hampapur, B. Horowitz, R. Humphrey, R. Jain, C. F. Shu, “The Virage image search engine: an open framework for image management,” in Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases IV, I. K. Sethi, R. C. Jain, eds., Proc. SPIE2670, 76–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haralick, R. M.

R. M. Haralick, K. Shanmugam, I. Dinstein, “Textural features for image classification,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 3(6), 610–621 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, B.

J. R. Bach, C. Fuller, A. Gupta, A. Hampapur, B. Horowitz, R. Humphrey, R. Jain, C. F. Shu, “The Virage image search engine: an open framework for image management,” in Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases IV, I. K. Sethi, R. C. Jain, eds., Proc. SPIE2670, 76–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huertas, A.

A. Huertas, R. Nevatia, “Detecting buildings in aerial images,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 41(2), 131–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Humphrey, R.

J. R. Bach, C. Fuller, A. Gupta, A. Hampapur, B. Horowitz, R. Humphrey, R. Jain, C. F. Shu, “The Virage image search engine: an open framework for image management,” in Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases IV, I. K. Sethi, R. C. Jain, eds., Proc. SPIE2670, 76–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A.

J. Mao, A. Jain, “Texture classification and segmentation using multiresolution simultaneous autoregressive models,” Pattern Recogn. 25(2), 173–188 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R.

J. R. Bach, C. Fuller, A. Gupta, A. Hampapur, B. Horowitz, R. Humphrey, R. Jain, C. F. Shu, “The Virage image search engine: an open framework for image management,” in Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases IV, I. K. Sethi, R. C. Jain, eds., Proc. SPIE2670, 76–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-C. J.

T. Chang, C.-C. J. Kuo, “Texture analysis and classification with tree-structured wavelet transform,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2(4), 429–441 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Laird, N. M.

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood estimation from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Statistical Soc. Ser. B 39(1), 1–38 (1977).

Lee, D.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. Z.

S. Z. Li, Markov Random Field Modeling in Image Analysis (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

F. Liu, R. W. Picard, “Periodicity, directionality, and randomness: wold features for image modeling and retrieval,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 18(7), 722–733 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W. Y.

B. S. Manjunath, W. Y. Ma, “Texture features for browsing and retrieval of image data,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 18, 837–842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Manjunath, B. S.

P. Wu, B. S. Manjunath, S. Newsam, H. D. Shin, “A texture descriptor for browsing and similarity retrieval,” J. Signal Process. 16(1–2), 33–43 (2000).

B. S. Manjunath, W. Y. Ma, “Texture features for browsing and retrieval of image data,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 18, 837–842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhagavathy, S. Newsam, B. S. Manjunath, “Modeling object classes in aerial images using texture motifs,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2002), pp. 981–984.

Mao, J.

J. Mao, A. Jain, “Texture classification and segmentation using multiresolution simultaneous autoregressive models,” Pattern Recogn. 25(2), 173–188 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marcelja, S.

McKeown, D. M.

J. Shufelt, D. M. McKeown, “Fusion of monocular cues to detect man-made structures in aerial imagery,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 57(3), 307–330 (1993).

Nevatia, R.

A. Huertas, R. Nevatia, “Detecting buildings in aerial images,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 41(2), 131–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Newsam, S.

P. Wu, B. S. Manjunath, S. Newsam, H. D. Shin, “A texture descriptor for browsing and similarity retrieval,” J. Signal Process. 16(1–2), 33–43 (2000).

S. Bhagavathy, S. Newsam, B. S. Manjunath, “Modeling object classes in aerial images using texture motifs,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2002), pp. 981–984.

Niblack, W.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pentland, A.

A. Pentland, R. W. Picard, S. Sclaroff, “Photobook: content-based manipulation of image databases,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 18(3), 233–254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petkovic, D.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Picard, R. W.

A. Pentland, R. W. Picard, S. Sclaroff, “Photobook: content-based manipulation of image databases,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 18(3), 233–254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, R. W. Picard, “Periodicity, directionality, and randomness: wold features for image modeling and retrieval,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 18(7), 722–733 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D. B.

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood estimation from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Statistical Soc. Ser. B 39(1), 1–38 (1977).

Sawhney, H.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sclaroff, S.

A. Pentland, R. W. Picard, S. Sclaroff, “Photobook: content-based manipulation of image databases,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 18(3), 233–254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shanmugam, K.

R. M. Haralick, K. Shanmugam, I. Dinstein, “Textural features for image classification,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 3(6), 610–621 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. D.

P. Wu, B. S. Manjunath, S. Newsam, H. D. Shin, “A texture descriptor for browsing and similarity retrieval,” J. Signal Process. 16(1–2), 33–43 (2000).

Shu, C. F.

J. R. Bach, C. Fuller, A. Gupta, A. Hampapur, B. Horowitz, R. Humphrey, R. Jain, C. F. Shu, “The Virage image search engine: an open framework for image management,” in Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases IV, I. K. Sethi, R. C. Jain, eds., Proc. SPIE2670, 76–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shufelt, J.

J. Shufelt, D. M. McKeown, “Fusion of monocular cues to detect man-made structures in aerial imagery,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 57(3), 307–330 (1993).

Smith, J. R.

J. R. Smith, S.-F. Chang, “VisualSEEk: a fully automated content-based image query system,” in Proceedings of the Fourth ACM International Conference on Multimedia (AMC Multimedia, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 87–98.
[CrossRef]

Steele, D.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P.

P. Wu, B. S. Manjunath, S. Newsam, H. D. Shin, “A texture descriptor for browsing and similarity retrieval,” J. Signal Process. 16(1–2), 33–43 (2000).

Yanker, P.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. (2)

A. Huertas, R. Nevatia, “Detecting buildings in aerial images,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 41(2), 131–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Shufelt, D. M. McKeown, “Fusion of monocular cues to detect man-made structures in aerial imagery,” Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 57(3), 307–330 (1993).

IEEE Comput. (1)

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafine, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28(9), 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. (2)

J. Daugman, “Complete discrete 2D Gabor transform by neural networks for image analysis and compression,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 36, 1169–1179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Chellappa, S. Chatterjee, “Classification of textures using Gaussian Markov random fields,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 33, 959–963 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

T. Chang, C.-C. J. Kuo, “Texture analysis and classification with tree-structured wavelet transform,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2(4), 429–441 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (2)

B. S. Manjunath, W. Y. Ma, “Texture features for browsing and retrieval of image data,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 18, 837–842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, R. W. Picard, “Periodicity, directionality, and randomness: wold features for image modeling and retrieval,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 18(7), 722–733 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (1)

R. M. Haralick, K. Shanmugam, I. Dinstein, “Textural features for image classification,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 3(6), 610–621 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Comput. Vision (1)

A. Pentland, R. W. Picard, S. Sclaroff, “Photobook: content-based manipulation of image databases,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 18(3), 233–254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. R. Statistical Soc. Ser. B (1)

A. P. Dempster, N. M. Laird, D. B. Rubin, “Maximum likelihood estimation from incomplete data via the EM algorithm,” J. R. Statistical Soc. Ser. B 39(1), 1–38 (1977).

J. Signal Process. (1)

P. Wu, B. S. Manjunath, S. Newsam, H. D. Shin, “A texture descriptor for browsing and similarity retrieval,” J. Signal Process. 16(1–2), 33–43 (2000).

Pattern Recogn. (1)

J. Mao, A. Jain, “Texture classification and segmentation using multiresolution simultaneous autoregressive models,” Pattern Recogn. 25(2), 173–188 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

B. S. Manjunath, P. Salembier, T. Sikora, eds., Introduction to MPEG7: Multimedia Content Description Interface (Wiley, New York, 2002).

J. R. Bach, C. Fuller, A. Gupta, A. Hampapur, B. Horowitz, R. Humphrey, R. Jain, C. F. Shu, “The Virage image search engine: an open framework for image management,” in Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases IV, I. K. Sethi, R. C. Jain, eds., Proc. SPIE2670, 76–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Smith, S.-F. Chang, “VisualSEEk: a fully automated content-based image query system,” in Proceedings of the Fourth ACM International Conference on Multimedia (AMC Multimedia, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 87–98.
[CrossRef]

S. Newsam, J. Tes̆ić, M. Saban, B. S. Manjunath, MPEG-7 Homogeneous Texture Descriptor Demo, http://vision.ece.ucsb.edu/texture/mpeg7/instructions.html .

S. Z. Li, Markov Random Field Modeling in Image Analysis (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhagavathy, S. Newsam, B. S. Manjunath, “Modeling object classes in aerial images using texture motifs,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2002), pp. 981–984.

The Alexandria Digital Library Project, http://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu .

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Results of a range query in a satellite image. The rightmost tile is the query tile. The other tiles are the results.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results of a nearest-neighbor query in a data set of satellite images. The top-left tile is the query tile. The other tiles are the results.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of an orientation-invariant nearest-neighbor query. The top-left tile is the query tile. The other tiles are some of the results.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of a spatial layout retrieval in a prototype video management system. The top frame is the query. The lower four frames are the results.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of a spatial layout retrieval in a prototype video management system. The top frame is the query. The lower four frames are the results.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Model parameters are learned from a sample set with the expectation maximization algorithm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Motif labeling with a MAP classifier.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Harbor image and its corresponding labeling. The gray level indicates the motif.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Second harbor image and its corresponding labeling. The gray level indicates the motif.

Equations (13)

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gx, y=12πσxσyexp-12x2σx2+y2σy2+2πjWx,
Gu, ν=exp-12u-W2σu2+ν2σν2,
grsx, y=a-sgx, y, a>1, s0,, S-1, r1,R, x=a-sx cos θ+y sin θ, y=a-s-x sin θ+y cos θ,
f=μ11, σ11, μ12, σ12,, μ1S, σ1S,, μRS, σRS
dI1, I2=f1-f22.
dRII1, I2=minrR fr1-f22.
Py|θm=j=1K αmj12πd|mj|1/2exp-12y-μmjTmj-1y-μmj,
px=1Zexp-Ux,
Ux=cQ Vcx,
Ux=sSsNs -αLPs-s-βLPs,
S3=sSj=13 a1ajδxs,jq, xs,11+sSj=13 a2ajδxs,jq, xs,2I×1-i=13 δxs,iq, xs,1I+sSj=13 a3ajδxs,jq, xs,3I×1-i=13 δxs,iq, xs,1I×1-i=13 δxs,iq, xs,2I,
pc=j=1N Pjpc|j,
i*=arg max1iNPi|c.

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