Abstract

We propose a technique for retrieving seawater-backscattering profiles that is based on the joint use of elastic and Raman lidar returns. We suggest using two lidar channels: the Raman channel and the elastic channel with a light frequency equal to a half-sum of initial and Raman-shifted frequencies of the Raman channel. These specific wavelengths provide the same attenuation laws for elastic and Raman signals if absorption and scattering spectra can be approximated by a power law. In particular, seawater supplies such a possibility in the region of 400–500 nm if extremely bioproductive waters are not considered and the chlorophyll absorption peak at 440 nm does not come out of the background of dissolved organic matter absorption. With these specific initial wavelengths, the elastic and Raman lidar returns differ only in the backscattering coefficients. Because the Raman-backscattering coefficient is constant along the profile, the (elastic-to-Raman) ratio of these lidar returns directly produces the profile of the elastic-backscattering coefficient. This technique stays valid even under multiple-scattering conditions, which is of great importance for seawater sounding.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. W. Wright, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, C. R. Schirtzinger, “Next-generation NASA airborne oceanographic lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 40, 336–342 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, “Combined Raman lidar for aerosol, ozone, and moisture measurements,” Opt. Eng. 5, 1457–1465 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. N. Klyshko, V. V. Fadeev, “Remote detecting of water impurity by means of laser spectroscopy calibrated by Raman scattering,” Dokl. Akad. Nawk SSSR, 238, 320–323 (1978).
  5. M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of water Raman emission to correct airborne laser fluorosensor data for effects of water optical attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889–2906 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. Sherlock, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, “Implementation and validation of a Raman lidar measurement of middle and upper tropospheric water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5838–5850 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Sherlock, A. Hauchecorne, J. Lenoble, “Methodology for the independent calibration of Raman backscatter water-vapor lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5816–5837 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Bartlett, K. J. Voss, S. Sathyendranath, A. Vodacek, “Raman scattering by pure water and seawater,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3324–3332 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. V. Kopelevich, “Low-parametric model of seawater optical properties,” in Ocean Optics I: Physical Ocean Optics, A. S. Monin, ed. (Moscow, Nauka1983), pp. 208–234.
  11. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships on the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. V. Malinka, E. P. Zege, “Analytical modeling of Raman lidar return, including multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1075–1081 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. I. L. Katsev, E. P. Zege, A. S. Prikhach, I. N. Polonsky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and oceanic sounding and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. S. Shifrin, Introduction to Ocean Optics (Leningrad, Hydrometeoizdat, 1983), p. 184.
  19. C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, G. D. Ludbrook, P. Bruscaglioni, “Analytical and computer modeling of the oceanic lidar performance,” in Twelfth International Workshop on Lidar Multiple Scattering Experiments, C. Werner, U. G. Oppel, T. Rother, eds., Proc. SPIE5059, 189–199 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. M. Concannon, D. M. Allocca, T. P. Curran, J. E. Prentice, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, “A successful comparison of experimental and modeled lidar data,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002).
  22. R. N. Keeler, B. L. Ulich, E. Branham, E. P. Zege, “Secchi disk measurements made under ideal conditions,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002); see also www.wetlabs.com .
  23. E. Zege, I. Katsev, A. Prikhach, G. Ludbrook, “Computer simulation with regard to pulse stretching for oceanic lidar return,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters (ONW 2001), Iosif Levin, Gary Gilbert, eds. (St. Petersburg, Russia, D. S. Rozhdestvensky Optical Society, 2001), p. 255.
  24. J. W. McLean, J. D. Freeman, R. E. Walker, “Beam spread function with time dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4701–4711 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

1998 (3)

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, “Combined Raman lidar for aerosol, ozone, and moisture measurements,” Opt. Eng. 5, 1457–1465 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

1978 (1)

D. N. Klyshko, V. V. Fadeev, “Remote detecting of water impurity by means of laser spectroscopy calibrated by Raman scattering,” Dokl. Akad. Nawk SSSR, 238, 320–323 (1978).

Allocca, D. M.

B. M. Concannon, D. M. Allocca, T. P. Curran, J. E. Prentice, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, “A successful comparison of experimental and modeled lidar data,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships on the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, J. S.

Boss, E.

Branham, E.

R. N. Keeler, B. L. Ulich, E. Branham, E. P. Zege, “Secchi disk measurements made under ideal conditions,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002); see also www.wetlabs.com .

Bristow, M.

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bruscaglioni, P.

E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, G. D. Ludbrook, P. Bruscaglioni, “Analytical and computer modeling of the oceanic lidar performance,” in Twelfth International Workshop on Lidar Multiple Scattering Experiments, C. Werner, U. G. Oppel, T. Rother, eds., Proc. SPIE5059, 189–199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bundy, D.

Carder, K. L.

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Concannon, B. M.

B. M. Concannon, D. M. Allocca, T. P. Curran, J. E. Prentice, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, “A successful comparison of experimental and modeled lidar data,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Curran, T. P.

B. M. Concannon, D. M. Allocca, T. P. Curran, J. E. Prentice, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, “A successful comparison of experimental and modeled lidar data,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Davis, C. O.

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fadeev, V. V.

D. N. Klyshko, V. V. Fadeev, “Remote detecting of water impurity by means of laser spectroscopy calibrated by Raman scattering,” Dokl. Akad. Nawk SSSR, 238, 320–323 (1978).

Freeman, J. D.

Fry, E. S.

Furtek, R.

Garnier, A.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hauchecorne, A.

Hawes, S. K.

Hoge, F. E.

Katsev, I.

E. Zege, I. Katsev, A. Prikhach, G. Ludbrook, “Computer simulation with regard to pulse stretching for oceanic lidar return,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters (ONW 2001), Iosif Levin, Gary Gilbert, eds. (St. Petersburg, Russia, D. S. Rozhdestvensky Optical Society, 2001), p. 255.

Katsev, I. L.

I. L. Katsev, E. P. Zege, A. S. Prikhach, I. N. Polonsky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and oceanic sounding and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Concannon, D. M. Allocca, T. P. Curran, J. E. Prentice, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, “A successful comparison of experimental and modeled lidar data,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002).

E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, G. D. Ludbrook, P. Bruscaglioni, “Analytical and computer modeling of the oceanic lidar performance,” in Twelfth International Workshop on Lidar Multiple Scattering Experiments, C. Werner, U. G. Oppel, T. Rother, eds., Proc. SPIE5059, 189–199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keckhut, P.

Keeler, R. N.

R. N. Keeler, B. L. Ulich, E. Branham, E. P. Zege, “Secchi disk measurements made under ideal conditions,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002); see also www.wetlabs.com .

Klyshko, D. N.

D. N. Klyshko, V. V. Fadeev, “Remote detecting of water impurity by means of laser spectroscopy calibrated by Raman scattering,” Dokl. Akad. Nawk SSSR, 238, 320–323 (1978).

Kopelevich, O. V.

O. V. Kopelevich, “Low-parametric model of seawater optical properties,” in Ocean Optics I: Physical Ocean Optics, A. S. Monin, ed. (Moscow, Nauka1983), pp. 208–234.

Lahmann, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lazzara, L.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Lenoble, J.

Ludbrook, G.

E. Zege, I. Katsev, A. Prikhach, G. Ludbrook, “Computer simulation with regard to pulse stretching for oceanic lidar return,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters (ONW 2001), Iosif Levin, Gary Gilbert, eds. (St. Petersburg, Russia, D. S. Rozhdestvensky Optical Society, 2001), p. 255.

Ludbrook, G. D.

E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, G. D. Ludbrook, P. Bruscaglioni, “Analytical and computer modeling of the oceanic lidar performance,” in Twelfth International Workshop on Lidar Multiple Scattering Experiments, C. Werner, U. G. Oppel, T. Rother, eds., Proc. SPIE5059, 189–199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Malinka, A. V.

McLean, J. W.

Michaelis, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Nielsen, D.

Peacock, T. G.

Pegau, W. S.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships on the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Polonsky, I. N.

Pope, R. M.

Prentice, J. E.

B. M. Concannon, D. M. Allocca, T. P. Curran, J. E. Prentice, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, “A successful comparison of experimental and modeled lidar data,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Prieur, L.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Prikhach, A.

E. Zege, I. Katsev, A. Prikhach, G. Ludbrook, “Computer simulation with regard to pulse stretching for oceanic lidar return,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters (ONW 2001), Iosif Levin, Gary Gilbert, eds. (St. Petersburg, Russia, D. S. Rozhdestvensky Optical Society, 2001), p. 255.

Prikhach, A. S.

I. L. Katsev, E. P. Zege, A. S. Prikhach, I. N. Polonsky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and oceanic sounding and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Concannon, D. M. Allocca, T. P. Curran, J. E. Prentice, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, “A successful comparison of experimental and modeled lidar data,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002).

E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, G. D. Ludbrook, P. Bruscaglioni, “Analytical and computer modeling of the oceanic lidar performance,” in Twelfth International Workshop on Lidar Multiple Scattering Experiments, C. Werner, U. G. Oppel, T. Rother, eds., Proc. SPIE5059, 189–199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reichardt, J.

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, “Combined Raman lidar for aerosol, ozone, and moisture measurements,” Opt. Eng. 5, 1457–1465 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Riebesell, M.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

J. S. Bartlett, K. J. Voss, S. Sathyendranath, A. Vodacek, “Raman scattering by pure water and seawater,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3324–3332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schirtzinger, C. R.

Serwazi, M.

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, “Combined Raman lidar for aerosol, ozone, and moisture measurements,” Opt. Eng. 5, 1457–1465 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sherlock, V.

Shifrin, K. S.

K. S. Shifrin, Introduction to Ocean Optics (Leningrad, Hydrometeoizdat, 1983), p. 184.

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

Sundman, L. K.

Swift, R. N.

Ulich, B. L.

R. N. Keeler, B. L. Ulich, E. Branham, E. P. Zege, “Secchi disk measurements made under ideal conditions,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002); see also www.wetlabs.com .

Vodacek, A.

Voss, E.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

Walker, R. E.

Wandinger, U.

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, “Combined Raman lidar for aerosol, ozone, and moisture measurements,” Opt. Eng. 5, 1457–1465 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, “Combined Raman lidar for aerosol, ozone, and moisture measurements,” Opt. Eng. 5, 1457–1465 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wright, C. W.

Yungel, J. K.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships on the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zege, E.

E. Zege, I. Katsev, A. Prikhach, G. Ludbrook, “Computer simulation with regard to pulse stretching for oceanic lidar return,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters (ONW 2001), Iosif Levin, Gary Gilbert, eds. (St. Petersburg, Russia, D. S. Rozhdestvensky Optical Society, 2001), p. 255.

Zege, E. P.

A. V. Malinka, E. P. Zege, “Analytical modeling of Raman lidar return, including multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1075–1081 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. L. Katsev, E. P. Zege, A. S. Prikhach, I. N. Polonsky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and oceanic sounding and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Concannon, D. M. Allocca, T. P. Curran, J. E. Prentice, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, “A successful comparison of experimental and modeled lidar data,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002).

R. N. Keeler, B. L. Ulich, E. Branham, E. P. Zege, “Secchi disk measurements made under ideal conditions,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002); see also www.wetlabs.com .

E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, G. D. Ludbrook, P. Bruscaglioni, “Analytical and computer modeling of the oceanic lidar performance,” in Twelfth International Workshop on Lidar Multiple Scattering Experiments, C. Werner, U. G. Oppel, T. Rother, eds., Proc. SPIE5059, 189–199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (11)

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of water Raman emission to correct airborne laser fluorosensor data for effects of water optical attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889–2906 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. McLean, J. D. Freeman, R. E. Walker, “Beam spread function with time dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4701–4711 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bartlett, K. J. Voss, S. Sathyendranath, A. Vodacek, “Raman scattering by pure water and seawater,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3324–3332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Sherlock, A. Hauchecorne, J. Lenoble, “Methodology for the independent calibration of Raman backscatter water-vapor lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5816–5837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sherlock, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, “Implementation and validation of a Raman lidar measurement of middle and upper tropospheric water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5838–5850 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Wright, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, C. R. Schirtzinger, “Next-generation NASA airborne oceanographic lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 40, 336–342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Malinka, E. P. Zege, “Analytical modeling of Raman lidar return, including multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1075–1081 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dokl. Akad. Nawk SSSR (1)

D. N. Klyshko, V. V. Fadeev, “Remote detecting of water impurity by means of laser spectroscopy calibrated by Raman scattering,” Dokl. Akad. Nawk SSSR, 238, 320–323 (1978).

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships on the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Other (6)

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E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, G. D. Ludbrook, P. Bruscaglioni, “Analytical and computer modeling of the oceanic lidar performance,” in Twelfth International Workshop on Lidar Multiple Scattering Experiments, C. Werner, U. G. Oppel, T. Rother, eds., Proc. SPIE5059, 189–199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Concannon, D. M. Allocca, T. P. Curran, J. E. Prentice, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, “A successful comparison of experimental and modeled lidar data,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002).

R. N. Keeler, B. L. Ulich, E. Branham, E. P. Zege, “Secchi disk measurements made under ideal conditions,” in Ocean Optics XVI, CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 2002); see also www.wetlabs.com .

E. Zege, I. Katsev, A. Prikhach, G. Ludbrook, “Computer simulation with regard to pulse stretching for oceanic lidar return,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters (ONW 2001), Iosif Levin, Gary Gilbert, eds. (St. Petersburg, Russia, D. S. Rozhdestvensky Optical Society, 2001), p. 255.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral absorptions of seawater obtained by Barnard et al.14 for different values of a(488) (symbols) and power-law approximations for the 400–500-nm range (solid curves).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scattering and absorption profiles at three wavelengths: initial (417 nm), Raman (486 nm) and effective (449 nm), measured in situ. Cases (a) and (b) correspond to different times of measurements on the same date.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase functions (elastic and Raman) used for simulation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of backscattering profile retrieval, in which lidar returns are simulated with and without regard to forward pulse stretching. Raman lidar initial wavelength, 417 nm; elastic lidar wavelength, 449 nm; lidar altitude, 500 m; source field of view, 6 mrad; receiver field of view, 40 mrad (full angles); receiver diameter, 20 cm; pulse duration, 6 ns; receiver bandwidth, 250 MHz for both Raman and elastic channels.

Equations (23)

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λR=11/λ0-δν˜,
Pλ, z, θ=4π bλ, z, θbλ, z,
Pbθ=Pπ-θPπ
FRzbRπexp-2τR,
τR=120zcλ0, z+cλR, zdz.
Felλ, zbz, λ, πexp-2τ,
τ=0z cλ, zdz.
cλ0, z+cλR, z=2cλeff, z.
bλeff, z, πbRπ=Felλeff, zFRz.
bλ0, z, θ+bλR, z, θ=2bλeff, z, θ,
aλ0, z+aλR, z=2aλeff, z,
bλ, z, θ=j Vjbjz, θ550λνj,
2λeff=1λ0+1λR.
λ0,R=λeff1±λeffδν˜/2.
λ0-ν+λR-ν=2λeff-ν1+Ox2.
aλ=βλa488+mλ.
FRzbRπ  dnPRb|n|IRz, r=0, n,
φeffr, n= drdnφsrcr, nφrecr+r, n+n
Felλ, zbλ, z, π  dnPb|n|Ielλ, z, r=0, n,
IRz, r, n=Ielλeff, z, r, n=Iz, r, n.
PRbθ=121+3ρ1+ρ1+1-ρ1+3ρcos2 θ,
δ= dnPRb|n|-Pb|n|Iz, r=0, n dnPb|n|Iz, r=0, n.
t=2 zV+2 Hc,

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