Abstract

Fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particles glued to the end of an atomic force microscope tip have been used to perform scanning near-field optical measurements on nanostructured samples. The fixation procedure of the fluorescent fragment at the end of the tip is described in detail. The procedure consists of depositing a thin adhesive layer on the tip. Then a tip approach is performed on a fragment that remains stuck near the tip extremity. To displace the particle and position it at the very end of the tip, a nanomanipulation is achieved by use of a second tip mounted on piezoelectric scanners. Afterward, the particle size is reduced by focused ion beam milling. These particles exhibit a strong green luminescence where excited in the near infrared by an upconversion mechanism. Images obtained near a metallic edge show a lateral resolution in the 180–200-nm range. Images we obtained by measuring the light scattered by 250-nm holes show a resolution well below 100 nm. This phenomenon can be explained by a local excitation of the particle and by the nonlinear nature of the excitation.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  39. E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, “Single molecules observed by scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Science 262, 1422–1425 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2003 (3)

L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, M. Mortier, “Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 147–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. de Jonge, N. J. van Druten, “Field emission from individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes prepared in an electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 95, 85–91 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bainier, C. Vannier, D. Courjon, J. C. Rivoal, S. Ducourtieux, Y. De Wilde, L. Aigouy, F. Formanek, L. Belliard, P. Siry, B. Perrin, “Comparison of test images obtained from various configurations of scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Appl. Opt. 42, 691–700 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

G. Colas des Francs, C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Theory of near-field optical imaging with a single molecule as light source,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 4659–4666 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Shubeita, S. K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, V. S. Letokhov, “Local fluorescent probes for the fluorescence resonance energy transfer scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2625–2627 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (6)

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. Pozat, V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 2–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “A single gold particle as a probe for apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 72–76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Goldner, M. Mortier, “Effect of rare earth impurities on fluorescent cooling in ZBLAN glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 249–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Lihui, L. Xingren, X. Wu, C. Baojiu, L. Jiuling, “Infrared and visible luminescence properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions codoped Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glass under 978 nm diode laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5550–5553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Hafner, C.-L. Cheung, T. H. Oosterkamp, C. M. Lieber, “High-yield assembly of individual single-walled carbon nanotube tips for scanning probe microscopies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 743–746 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source,” Nature 405, 325–328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5312–5315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

B. Knoll, F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature 399, 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vickery, R. C. Dunn, “Scanning near-field fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy,” Biophys. J. 76, 1812–1818 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. A. Veerman, A. M. Otter, L. Kuipers, N. F. van Hulst, “High definition aperture probes for near-field optical microscopy fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3115–3117 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Henkel, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-molecule spectroscopy near structured dielectrics,” Opt. Commun. 158, 250–262 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

L. Novotny, “Single molecule fluorescence in inhomogeneous environments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3806–3808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sekatskii, V. S. Letokhov, “Single fluorescence centers on the tips of crystal needles: first observation and prospects for application in scanning one-atom fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 525–530 (1996).

R. D. Grober, T. Rutherford, T. D. Harris, “Modal approximation for the electromagnetic field of a near-field optical probe,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3488–3495 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, “Near-field optical microscope based on local perturbation of a diffraction spot,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1924–1926 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Göttlich, W. M. Heckl, “A novel probe for near field optical microscopy based on luminescent silicon,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 145–153 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, R. A. Keller, “Alterations of single-molecule fluorescence lifetimes in near-field optical microscopy,” Science 265, 364–367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Courjon, C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 989–1028 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye, S. Kawata, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip, Opt. Lett. 19, 159–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, “Single molecules observed by scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Science 262, 1422–1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, “Superresolution optical imaging with a high-brightness subwavelength light source,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 399–407 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, J. S. Weiner, T. D. Harris, R. Wolfe, “Polarization contrast in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4563–4568 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. Lewis, K. Lieberman, “Near-field optical imaging with a non-evanescently excited high-brightness light-source of subwavelength dimensions,” Nature 354, 214–216 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

R. Kopelman, A. Lewis, K. Lieberman, “Nanometer light source and molecular exciton microscopy,” J. Lumin. 45, 298–299 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Lieberman, S. Harush, A. Lewis, R. Kopelman, “A light-source smaller than the optical wavelength,” Science 247, 59–61 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

A. Roberts, “Near-zone fields behind circular apertures in thick, perfectly conducting screens,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2896–2899 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Y. Leviatan, “Study of near-zone fields of a small aperture,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1577–1583 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1932 (1)

E. H. Synge, “Note on fluorescent particles,” Philos. Mag. 13, 299–300 (1932).

1928 (1)

E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into ultramicroscopic region,” Philos. Mag. 6, 356–362 (1928).

Aigouy, L.

Ambrose, W. P.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, R. A. Keller, “Alterations of single-molecule fluorescence lifetimes in near-field optical microscopy,” Science 265, 364–367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

Bainier, C.

Baojiu, C.

H. Lihui, L. Xingren, X. Wu, C. Baojiu, L. Jiuling, “Infrared and visible luminescence properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions codoped Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glass under 978 nm diode laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5550–5553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Belliard, L.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, “Single molecules observed by scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Science 262, 1422–1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, R. E.

Boccara, A. C.

Bourillot, E.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chappert, C.

J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, C.-L.

J. H. Hafner, C.-L. Cheung, T. H. Oosterkamp, C. M. Lieber, “High-yield assembly of individual single-walled carbon nanotube tips for scanning probe microscopies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 743–746 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chichester, R. J.

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, “Single molecules observed by scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Science 262, 1422–1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colas des Francs, G.

G. Colas des Francs, C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Theory of near-field optical imaging with a single molecule as light source,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 4659–4666 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

Courjon, W. D.

W. D. Courjon, C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 989–1028 (1994).
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, N.

N. de Jonge, N. J. van Druten, “Field emission from individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes prepared in an electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 95, 85–91 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Wilde, Y.

Deckert, V.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Denk, P.

J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

G. Colas des Francs, C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Theory of near-field optical imaging with a single molecule as light source,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 4659–4666 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dietler, G.

G. T. Shubeita, S. K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, V. S. Letokhov, “Local fluorescent probes for the fluorescence resonance energy transfer scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2625–2627 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ducourtieux, S.

Dunn, R. C.

S. A. Vickery, R. C. Dunn, “Scanning near-field fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy,” Biophys. J. 76, 1812–1818 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faini, G.

J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferré, J.

J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferrell, T. L.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Flicstein, J.

J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Formanek, F.

García-Parajó, M. F.

H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5312–5315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gayral, B.

J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gerard, J. M.

J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gersen, H.

H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5312–5315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giérak, J.

J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

G. Colas des Francs, C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Theory of near-field optical imaging with a single molecule as light source,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 4659–4666 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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J. H. Hafner, C.-L. Cheung, T. H. Oosterkamp, C. M. Lieber, “High-yield assembly of individual single-walled carbon nanotube tips for scanning probe microscopies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 743–746 (2001).
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S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. Pozat, V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 2–6 (2001).
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J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
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W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, R. A. Keller, “Alterations of single-molecule fluorescence lifetimes in near-field optical microscopy,” Science 265, 364–367 (1994).
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K. Lieberman, S. Harush, A. Lewis, R. Kopelman, “A light-source smaller than the optical wavelength,” Science 247, 59–61 (1990).
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R. Kopelman, A. Lewis, K. Lieberman, “Nanometer light source and molecular exciton microscopy,” J. Lumin. 45, 298–299 (1990).
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Krenn, J. R.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
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S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. Pozat, V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 2–6 (2001).
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H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5312–5315 (2000).
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J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
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J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
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G. T. Shubeita, S. K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, V. S. Letokhov, “Local fluorescent probes for the fluorescence resonance energy transfer scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2625–2627 (2002).
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R. Kopelman, A. Lewis, K. Lieberman, “Nanometer light source and molecular exciton microscopy,” J. Lumin. 45, 298–299 (1990).
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J. H. Hafner, C.-L. Cheung, T. H. Oosterkamp, C. M. Lieber, “High-yield assembly of individual single-walled carbon nanotube tips for scanning probe microscopies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 743–746 (2001).
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K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, “Superresolution optical imaging with a high-brightness subwavelength light source,” Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 399–407 (1992).
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A. Lewis, K. Lieberman, “Near-field optical imaging with a non-evanescently excited high-brightness light-source of subwavelength dimensions,” Nature 354, 214–216 (1991).
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K. Lieberman, S. Harush, A. Lewis, R. Kopelman, “A light-source smaller than the optical wavelength,” Science 247, 59–61 (1990).
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R. Kopelman, A. Lewis, K. Lieberman, “Nanometer light source and molecular exciton microscopy,” J. Lumin. 45, 298–299 (1990).
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H. Lihui, L. Xingren, X. Wu, C. Baojiu, L. Jiuling, “Infrared and visible luminescence properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions codoped Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glass under 978 nm diode laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5550–5553 (2001).
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J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
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Martin, J. C.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, R. A. Keller, “Alterations of single-molecule fluorescence lifetimes in near-field optical microscopy,” Science 265, 364–367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
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J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
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J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source,” Nature 405, 325–328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “A single gold particle as a probe for apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 72–76 (2001).
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J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source,” Nature 405, 325–328 (2000).
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L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, M. Mortier, “Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 147–149 (2003).
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P. Goldner, M. Mortier, “Effect of rare earth impurities on fluorescent cooling in ZBLAN glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 249–254 (2001).
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M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, Near Field Optics: Theory, Instrumentation, and Applications (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1996).

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H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5312–5315 (2000).
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E. J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014–4017 (1999).
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L. Novotny, “Single molecule fluorescence in inhomogeneous environments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3806–3808 (1996).
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F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
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J. H. Hafner, C.-L. Cheung, T. H. Oosterkamp, C. M. Lieber, “High-yield assembly of individual single-walled carbon nanotube tips for scanning probe microscopies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 743–746 (2001).
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J. A. Veerman, A. M. Otter, L. Kuipers, N. F. van Hulst, “High definition aperture probes for near-field optical microscopy fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3115–3117 (1998).
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M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, Near Field Optics: Theory, Instrumentation, and Applications (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1996).

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J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
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Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. Pozat, V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 2–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “A single gold particle as a probe for apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 72–76 (2001).
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R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
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Roberts, A.

A. Roberts, “Near-zone fields behind circular apertures in thick, perfectly conducting screens,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2896–2899 (1989).
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Sanchez, E. J.

E. J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014–4017 (1999).
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Sandoghdar, V.

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “A single gold particle as a probe for apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 72–76 (2001).
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S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. Pozat, V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 2–6 (2001).
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J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source,” Nature 405, 325–328 (2000).
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C. Henkel, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-molecule spectroscopy near structured dielectrics,” Opt. Commun. 158, 250–262 (1998).
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J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
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J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
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S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. Pozat, V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 2–6 (2001).
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G. T. Shubeita, S. K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, V. S. Letokhov, “Local fluorescent probes for the fluorescence resonance energy transfer scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2625–2627 (2002).
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S. K. Sekatskii, V. S. Letokhov, “Single fluorescence centers on the tips of crystal needles: first observation and prospects for application in scanning one-atom fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 525–530 (1996).

Septier, A.

J. Giérak, D. Mailly, G. Faini, J. L. Pelouard, P. Denk, F. Pardo, J. Y. Marzin, A. Septier, G. Schmid, J. Ferré, R. Hydman, C. Chappert, J. Flicstein, B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, “Nano-fabrication with focused ion beams” Microelectron Eng. 57–58, 865–875 (2001).
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G. T. Shubeita, S. K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, V. S. Letokhov, “Local fluorescent probes for the fluorescence resonance energy transfer scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2625–2627 (2002).
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B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

J. A. Veerman, A. M. Otter, L. Kuipers, N. F. van Hulst, “High definition aperture probes for near-field optical microscopy fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3115–3117 (1998).
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Vannier, C.

Veerman, J. A.

H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5312–5315 (2000).
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J. A. Veerman, A. M. Otter, L. Kuipers, N. F. van Hulst, “High definition aperture probes for near-field optical microscopy fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3115–3117 (1998).
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S. A. Vickery, R. C. Dunn, “Scanning near-field fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy,” Biophys. J. 76, 1812–1818 (1999).
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Warmack, R. J.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weber, J. C.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
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Wickramasinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
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B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
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Wu, X.

H. Lihui, L. Xingren, X. Wu, C. Baojiu, L. Jiuling, “Infrared and visible luminescence properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions codoped Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glass under 978 nm diode laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5550–5553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

E. J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014–4017 (1999).
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Xingren, L.

H. Lihui, L. Xingren, X. Wu, C. Baojiu, L. Jiuling, “Infrared and visible luminescence properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions codoped Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glass under 978 nm diode laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5550–5553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zenhausern, F.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
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Zenobi, R.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. K. Sekatskii, V. S. Letokhov, “Single fluorescence centers on the tips of crystal needles: first observation and prospects for application in scanning one-atom fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 525–530 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, M. Mortier, “Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 147–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Shubeita, S. K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, V. S. Letokhov, “Local fluorescent probes for the fluorescence resonance energy transfer scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2625–2627 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, “Single molecule fluorescence in inhomogeneous environments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3806–3808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Veerman, A. M. Otter, L. Kuipers, N. F. van Hulst, “High definition aperture probes for near-field optical microscopy fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3115–3117 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

S. A. Vickery, R. C. Dunn, “Scanning near-field fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy,” Biophys. J. 76, 1812–1818 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

Y. Leviatan, “Study of near-zone fields of a small aperture,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1577–1583 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Roberts, “Near-zone fields behind circular apertures in thick, perfectly conducting screens,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2896–2899 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Lihui, L. Xingren, X. Wu, C. Baojiu, L. Jiuling, “Infrared and visible luminescence properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions codoped Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glass under 978 nm diode laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5550–5553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

G. Colas des Francs, C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Theory of near-field optical imaging with a single molecule as light source,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 4659–4666 (2002).
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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Excitation diagram of the fluoride glass Zbyban.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photoluminescence spectrum of the fluoride glass Zbyban. Excitation is performed at λ = 980 nm. (b) Dependence of the photoluminescence intensity on pump power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of the extremity of a tip covered with an adhesive layer: (a) image at around 600 nm from the extremity, (b) image at the tip end, (c) drawing of the border between the tungsten and the glue layer. The scale bar is 100 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Sketch of the setup developed for picking up the particles. (b)–(f) Sequence of optical images showing the picking up of a particle by the tip. The particles are 250-nm gold beads. The images are 16.5 μm × 11.7 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)–(f) Sequence of optical images showing the nanomanipulation of a particle at the end of a tip. The particle is made of Zbyban fluoride glass and is between 500 and 800 nm. The vertical tip is used to move the particle toward the tip end. The images are 18.2 μm × 15.2 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM images of the tips with a fluorescent particle glued to the end. The scale bar is 1 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SIM images of the particle (a) before and (b) and (c) after its size reduction with a FIB. The scale bar is 500 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Optical image of a tip with a fluorescent particle at its end and (b) fluorescence image of the same tip. Excitation is performed at λ = 980 nm. The images are 18.0 μm × 12.7 μm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental setup used for near-field optical imaging experiments.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Topography of a gold step on a glass slide and (b) corresponding fluorescence image of the particle when the tip is in contact with the surface.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Line scans extracted from the fluorescence image of Fig. 10(b).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Topography of 250-nm holes made in a thin chromium film, (b) the corresponding fluorescence image of the particle when the tip is in contact with the surface, (c) fluorescence image of the particle when the tip is 1 μm from the surface.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) and (c) Line scans extracted from the topographic image of Fig. 12(a); (b) and (d) line scans of the corresponding fluorescence image of Fig. 12(b).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) Fluorescence image of Fig. 12(b) and (b) zoom of the zone indicated in (a). (c) Same as (b) but the image has been filtered and an isointensity contour plot has been drawn (for values of 1.42 and 1.7). (d) and (e) Corresponding line scans extracted from (b) and (c).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Topography of a 1-μm gold island deposited on a glass slide, (b) corresponding fluorescence image of the particle, (c) line scan extracted from the topographic image, (d) line scan extracted from the fluorescence image.

Equations (1)

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