Abstract

We reanalyze the effects of atmosphere-induced image motions on the measurement of solar polarized light using a formalism developed by Lites. Our reanalysis is prompted by the advent of adaptive optics (AO) systems that reduce image motion and higher-order aberrations, by the availability of liquid crystals as modulation devices, and by the need to understand how best to design polarimeters for future telescopes such as the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope. In this first attempt to understand the major issues, we analyze the influence of residual image motion (tip-tilt) corrections of operational AO systems on the cross talk between Stokes parameters and present results for several polarization analysis schemes. Higher-order wave-front corrections are left for future research. We also restrict our discussion to the solar photosphere, which limits several important parameters of interest, using some recent magnetoconvection simulations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. N. Parker, Cosmical Magnetic Fields (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1979).
  2. J. O. Stenflo, Solar Magnetic Fields: Polarized Radiation Diagnostics, Vol. 189 of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass., 1994).
  3. T. Shimizu, “Solar-B,” Adv. Space Res. 29, 2009–2015 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, C. U. Keller, F. Hill, M. Penn, B. Goodrich, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, J. Oschmann, M. Warner, “Science objectives and technical challenges of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 3–22.
  5. B. W. Lites, “Rotating waveguides as polarization modulators for Stokes polarimetry of the sun: evaluation of seeing-induced crosstalk errors,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3838–3845 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. H. Seagraves, D. F. Elmore, “Use of Mueller and non-Mueller matrices to describe polarization properties of telescope-based polarimeters,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE2265, 231–238 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. del Toro Iniesta, M. Collados, “Optimum modulation and demodulation matrices for solar polarimetry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1637–1642 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. U. Keller, “Instrumentation for astrophysical spectropolarimetry,” in Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry, J. Trujillo-Bueno, F. Moreno-Insertis, F. Sánchez, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002), pp. 303–354.
  9. J. O. Stenflo, H. Povel, “Astronomical polarimeter with 2-D detector arrays,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3893–3898 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. U. Keller, F. L. Deubner, U. Egger, B. Fleck, H. P. Povel, “On the strength of solar intra-network fields,” Astron. Astrophys. 286, 626–634 (1994).
  11. A. M. Gandorfer, H. P. Povel, “First observations with a new imaging polarimeter,” Astron. Astrophys. 328, 381–389 (1997).
  12. F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. B. Scharmer, K. Bjelksjo, T. K. Korhonen, B. Lindberg, B. Petterson, “The 1-meter Swedish solar telescope,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 341–350 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Sánchez Almeida, “Modulation scheme for the polarimeter for the SST,” Tech. Rep. (Instituto Astrofysicas Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife, 1994).
  15. D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, S. Tomczyk, A. P. Skumanich, R. B. Dunn, J. A. Scheunke, K. V. Streander, T. W. Leach, C. W. Chambellan, H. K. Hull, L. B. Lacey, “The Advanced Stokes Polarimeter: a new instrument for solar magnetic field research,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE1746, 22–33 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.
  17. C. U. Keller, J. W. Harvey, M. S. Giampapa, “SOLIS: an innovative suite of synoptic instruments,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 194–204 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Sankarasubramanian, D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, M. Sigwarth, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Hegwer, S. Gregory, K. V. Streander, L. M. Wilkins, K. Richards, C. Berst, “Diffraction limited spectro-polarimeter—phase I,” in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE4843, 414–424 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. U. Keller, “Polarimetry with the ATST,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 31–44.
  20. G. B. Scharmer, B. V. Gudiksen, D. Kiselman, M. G. Löfdahl, L. H. M. R. van der Voort, “Dark cores in sunspot penumbral filaments,” Nature (London) 420, 151–153 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. F. Stein, Å. Nordlund, “Solar surface magneto-convection and dynamo action,” in SOLMAG 2002: Proceedings of the Magnetic Coupling of the Solar Atmosphere Euroconference, ESA SP-505, H. Saway-Lacoste, ed. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002), pp. 83–89.

2002 (2)

T. Shimizu, “Solar-B,” Adv. Space Res. 29, 2009–2015 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Scharmer, B. V. Gudiksen, D. Kiselman, M. G. Löfdahl, L. H. M. R. van der Voort, “Dark cores in sunspot penumbral filaments,” Nature (London) 420, 151–153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

A. M. Gandorfer, H. P. Povel, “First observations with a new imaging polarimeter,” Astron. Astrophys. 328, 381–389 (1997).

1994 (1)

C. U. Keller, F. L. Deubner, U. Egger, B. Fleck, H. P. Povel, “On the strength of solar intra-network fields,” Astron. Astrophys. 286, 626–634 (1994).

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

Berst, C.

K. Sankarasubramanian, D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, M. Sigwarth, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Hegwer, S. Gregory, K. V. Streander, L. M. Wilkins, K. Richards, C. Berst, “Diffraction limited spectro-polarimeter—phase I,” in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE4843, 414–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bjelksjo, K.

G. B. Scharmer, K. Bjelksjo, T. K. Korhonen, B. Lindberg, B. Petterson, “The 1-meter Swedish solar telescope,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chambellan, C. W.

D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, S. Tomczyk, A. P. Skumanich, R. B. Dunn, J. A. Scheunke, K. V. Streander, T. W. Leach, C. W. Chambellan, H. K. Hull, L. B. Lacey, “The Advanced Stokes Polarimeter: a new instrument for solar magnetic field research,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE1746, 22–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Collados, M.

J. C. del Toro Iniesta, M. Collados, “Optimum modulation and demodulation matrices for solar polarimetry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1637–1642 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.

Cruz-Lopéz, A.

V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.

del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

Deubner, F. L.

C. U. Keller, F. L. Deubner, U. Egger, B. Fleck, H. P. Povel, “On the strength of solar intra-network fields,” Astron. Astrophys. 286, 626–634 (1994).

Díaz, J. J.

V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.

Dunn, R. B.

D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, S. Tomczyk, A. P. Skumanich, R. B. Dunn, J. A. Scheunke, K. V. Streander, T. W. Leach, C. W. Chambellan, H. K. Hull, L. B. Lacey, “The Advanced Stokes Polarimeter: a new instrument for solar magnetic field research,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE1746, 22–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Egger, U.

C. U. Keller, F. L. Deubner, U. Egger, B. Fleck, H. P. Povel, “On the strength of solar intra-network fields,” Astron. Astrophys. 286, 626–634 (1994).

Elmore, D. F.

P. H. Seagraves, D. F. Elmore, “Use of Mueller and non-Mueller matrices to describe polarization properties of telescope-based polarimeters,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE2265, 231–238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, S. Tomczyk, A. P. Skumanich, R. B. Dunn, J. A. Scheunke, K. V. Streander, T. W. Leach, C. W. Chambellan, H. K. Hull, L. B. Lacey, “The Advanced Stokes Polarimeter: a new instrument for solar magnetic field research,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE1746, 22–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Sankarasubramanian, D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, M. Sigwarth, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Hegwer, S. Gregory, K. V. Streander, L. M. Wilkins, K. Richards, C. Berst, “Diffraction limited spectro-polarimeter—phase I,” in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE4843, 414–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feeney, O.

V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.

Fleck, B.

C. U. Keller, F. L. Deubner, U. Egger, B. Fleck, H. P. Povel, “On the strength of solar intra-network fields,” Astron. Astrophys. 286, 626–634 (1994).

Gandorfer, A. M.

A. M. Gandorfer, H. P. Povel, “First observations with a new imaging polarimeter,” Astron. Astrophys. 328, 381–389 (1997).

Giampapa, M. S.

C. U. Keller, J. W. Harvey, M. S. Giampapa, “SOLIS: an innovative suite of synoptic instruments,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 194–204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

González, V.

V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.

Goodrich, B.

T. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, C. U. Keller, F. Hill, M. Penn, B. Goodrich, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, J. Oschmann, M. Warner, “Science objectives and technical challenges of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 3–22.

Gregory, S.

K. Sankarasubramanian, D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, M. Sigwarth, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Hegwer, S. Gregory, K. V. Streander, L. M. Wilkins, K. Richards, C. Berst, “Diffraction limited spectro-polarimeter—phase I,” in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE4843, 414–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gudiksen, B. V.

G. B. Scharmer, B. V. Gudiksen, D. Kiselman, M. G. Löfdahl, L. H. M. R. van der Voort, “Dark cores in sunspot penumbral filaments,” Nature (London) 420, 151–153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. W.

C. U. Keller, J. W. Harvey, M. S. Giampapa, “SOLIS: an innovative suite of synoptic instruments,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 194–204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hegwer, S.

T. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, C. U. Keller, F. Hill, M. Penn, B. Goodrich, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, J. Oschmann, M. Warner, “Science objectives and technical challenges of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 3–22.

Hegwer, S. L.

K. Sankarasubramanian, D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, M. Sigwarth, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Hegwer, S. Gregory, K. V. Streander, L. M. Wilkins, K. Richards, C. Berst, “Diffraction limited spectro-polarimeter—phase I,” in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE4843, 414–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hill, F.

T. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, C. U. Keller, F. Hill, M. Penn, B. Goodrich, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, J. Oschmann, M. Warner, “Science objectives and technical challenges of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 3–22.

Hubbard, R.

T. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, C. U. Keller, F. Hill, M. Penn, B. Goodrich, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, J. Oschmann, M. Warner, “Science objectives and technical challenges of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 3–22.

Hull, H. K.

D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, S. Tomczyk, A. P. Skumanich, R. B. Dunn, J. A. Scheunke, K. V. Streander, T. W. Leach, C. W. Chambellan, H. K. Hull, L. B. Lacey, “The Advanced Stokes Polarimeter: a new instrument for solar magnetic field research,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE1746, 22–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Joven, E.

V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.

Keil, S. L.

T. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, C. U. Keller, F. Hill, M. Penn, B. Goodrich, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, J. Oschmann, M. Warner, “Science objectives and technical challenges of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 3–22.

Keller, C. U.

C. U. Keller, F. L. Deubner, U. Egger, B. Fleck, H. P. Povel, “On the strength of solar intra-network fields,” Astron. Astrophys. 286, 626–634 (1994).

C. U. Keller, “Instrumentation for astrophysical spectropolarimetry,” in Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry, J. Trujillo-Bueno, F. Moreno-Insertis, F. Sánchez, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002), pp. 303–354.

T. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, C. U. Keller, F. Hill, M. Penn, B. Goodrich, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, J. Oschmann, M. Warner, “Science objectives and technical challenges of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 3–22.

C. U. Keller, J. W. Harvey, M. S. Giampapa, “SOLIS: an innovative suite of synoptic instruments,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 194–204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. U. Keller, “Polarimetry with the ATST,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 31–44.

Kiselman, D.

G. B. Scharmer, B. V. Gudiksen, D. Kiselman, M. G. Löfdahl, L. H. M. R. van der Voort, “Dark cores in sunspot penumbral filaments,” Nature (London) 420, 151–153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Korhonen, T. K.

G. B. Scharmer, K. Bjelksjo, T. K. Korhonen, B. Lindberg, B. Petterson, “The 1-meter Swedish solar telescope,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, L. B.

D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, S. Tomczyk, A. P. Skumanich, R. B. Dunn, J. A. Scheunke, K. V. Streander, T. W. Leach, C. W. Chambellan, H. K. Hull, L. B. Lacey, “The Advanced Stokes Polarimeter: a new instrument for solar magnetic field research,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE1746, 22–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Leach, T. W.

D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, S. Tomczyk, A. P. Skumanich, R. B. Dunn, J. A. Scheunke, K. V. Streander, T. W. Leach, C. W. Chambellan, H. K. Hull, L. B. Lacey, “The Advanced Stokes Polarimeter: a new instrument for solar magnetic field research,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE1746, 22–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, B.

G. B. Scharmer, K. Bjelksjo, T. K. Korhonen, B. Lindberg, B. Petterson, “The 1-meter Swedish solar telescope,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lites, B. W.

B. W. Lites, “Rotating waveguides as polarization modulators for Stokes polarimetry of the sun: evaluation of seeing-induced crosstalk errors,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3838–3845 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, S. Tomczyk, A. P. Skumanich, R. B. Dunn, J. A. Scheunke, K. V. Streander, T. W. Leach, C. W. Chambellan, H. K. Hull, L. B. Lacey, “The Advanced Stokes Polarimeter: a new instrument for solar magnetic field research,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE1746, 22–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Sankarasubramanian, D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, M. Sigwarth, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Hegwer, S. Gregory, K. V. Streander, L. M. Wilkins, K. Richards, C. Berst, “Diffraction limited spectro-polarimeter—phase I,” in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE4843, 414–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Löfdahl, M. G.

G. B. Scharmer, B. V. Gudiksen, D. Kiselman, M. G. Löfdahl, L. H. M. R. van der Voort, “Dark cores in sunspot penumbral filaments,” Nature (London) 420, 151–153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Manescau, A.

V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.

Martínez Pillet, V.

V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.

Nordlund, Å.

R. F. Stein, Å. Nordlund, “Solar surface magneto-convection and dynamo action,” in SOLMAG 2002: Proceedings of the Magnetic Coupling of the Solar Atmosphere Euroconference, ESA SP-505, H. Saway-Lacoste, ed. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002), pp. 83–89.

Oschmann, J.

T. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, C. U. Keller, F. Hill, M. Penn, B. Goodrich, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, J. Oschmann, M. Warner, “Science objectives and technical challenges of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 3–22.

Paez, E.

V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.

Parker, E. N.

E. N. Parker, Cosmical Magnetic Fields (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1979).

Penn, M.

T. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, C. U. Keller, F. Hill, M. Penn, B. Goodrich, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, J. Oschmann, M. Warner, “Science objectives and technical challenges of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 3–22.

Petterson, B.

G. B. Scharmer, K. Bjelksjo, T. K. Korhonen, B. Lindberg, B. Petterson, “The 1-meter Swedish solar telescope,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Povel, H.

Povel, H. P.

A. M. Gandorfer, H. P. Povel, “First observations with a new imaging polarimeter,” Astron. Astrophys. 328, 381–389 (1997).

C. U. Keller, F. L. Deubner, U. Egger, B. Fleck, H. P. Povel, “On the strength of solar intra-network fields,” Astron. Astrophys. 286, 626–634 (1994).

Richards, K.

K. Sankarasubramanian, D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, M. Sigwarth, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Hegwer, S. Gregory, K. V. Streander, L. M. Wilkins, K. Richards, C. Berst, “Diffraction limited spectro-polarimeter—phase I,” in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE4843, 414–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rimmele, T.

T. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, C. U. Keller, F. Hill, M. Penn, B. Goodrich, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, J. Oschmann, M. Warner, “Science objectives and technical challenges of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 3–22.

Rimmele, T. R.

K. Sankarasubramanian, D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, M. Sigwarth, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Hegwer, S. Gregory, K. V. Streander, L. M. Wilkins, K. Richards, C. Berst, “Diffraction limited spectro-polarimeter—phase I,” in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE4843, 414–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, V.

V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.

Sánchez Almeida, J.

V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.

J. Sánchez Almeida, “Modulation scheme for the polarimeter for the SST,” Tech. Rep. (Instituto Astrofysicas Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife, 1994).

Sankarasubramanian, K.

K. Sankarasubramanian, D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, M. Sigwarth, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Hegwer, S. Gregory, K. V. Streander, L. M. Wilkins, K. Richards, C. Berst, “Diffraction limited spectro-polarimeter—phase I,” in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE4843, 414–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scharmer, G.

V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.

Scharmer, G. B.

G. B. Scharmer, B. V. Gudiksen, D. Kiselman, M. G. Löfdahl, L. H. M. R. van der Voort, “Dark cores in sunspot penumbral filaments,” Nature (London) 420, 151–153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Scharmer, K. Bjelksjo, T. K. Korhonen, B. Lindberg, B. Petterson, “The 1-meter Swedish solar telescope,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scheunke, J. A.

D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, S. Tomczyk, A. P. Skumanich, R. B. Dunn, J. A. Scheunke, K. V. Streander, T. W. Leach, C. W. Chambellan, H. K. Hull, L. B. Lacey, “The Advanced Stokes Polarimeter: a new instrument for solar magnetic field research,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE1746, 22–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seagraves, P. H.

P. H. Seagraves, D. F. Elmore, “Use of Mueller and non-Mueller matrices to describe polarization properties of telescope-based polarimeters,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE2265, 231–238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

T. Shimizu, “Solar-B,” Adv. Space Res. 29, 2009–2015 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sigwarth, M.

K. Sankarasubramanian, D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, M. Sigwarth, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Hegwer, S. Gregory, K. V. Streander, L. M. Wilkins, K. Richards, C. Berst, “Diffraction limited spectro-polarimeter—phase I,” in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE4843, 414–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Skumanich, A. P.

D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, S. Tomczyk, A. P. Skumanich, R. B. Dunn, J. A. Scheunke, K. V. Streander, T. W. Leach, C. W. Chambellan, H. K. Hull, L. B. Lacey, “The Advanced Stokes Polarimeter: a new instrument for solar magnetic field research,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE1746, 22–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soltau, D.

V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.

Stein, R. F.

R. F. Stein, Å. Nordlund, “Solar surface magneto-convection and dynamo action,” in SOLMAG 2002: Proceedings of the Magnetic Coupling of the Solar Atmosphere Euroconference, ESA SP-505, H. Saway-Lacoste, ed. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002), pp. 83–89.

Stenflo, J. O.

J. O. Stenflo, H. Povel, “Astronomical polarimeter with 2-D detector arrays,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3893–3898 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O. Stenflo, Solar Magnetic Fields: Polarized Radiation Diagnostics, Vol. 189 of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass., 1994).

Streander, K. V.

K. Sankarasubramanian, D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, M. Sigwarth, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Hegwer, S. Gregory, K. V. Streander, L. M. Wilkins, K. Richards, C. Berst, “Diffraction limited spectro-polarimeter—phase I,” in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE4843, 414–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, S. Tomczyk, A. P. Skumanich, R. B. Dunn, J. A. Scheunke, K. V. Streander, T. W. Leach, C. W. Chambellan, H. K. Hull, L. B. Lacey, “The Advanced Stokes Polarimeter: a new instrument for solar magnetic field research,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE1746, 22–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tomczyk, S.

D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, S. Tomczyk, A. P. Skumanich, R. B. Dunn, J. A. Scheunke, K. V. Streander, T. W. Leach, C. W. Chambellan, H. K. Hull, L. B. Lacey, “The Advanced Stokes Polarimeter: a new instrument for solar magnetic field research,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE1746, 22–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

van der Voort, L. H. M. R.

G. B. Scharmer, B. V. Gudiksen, D. Kiselman, M. G. Löfdahl, L. H. M. R. van der Voort, “Dark cores in sunspot penumbral filaments,” Nature (London) 420, 151–153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Warner, M.

T. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, C. U. Keller, F. Hill, M. Penn, B. Goodrich, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, J. Oschmann, M. Warner, “Science objectives and technical challenges of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 3–22.

Wilkins, L. M.

K. Sankarasubramanian, D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, M. Sigwarth, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Hegwer, S. Gregory, K. V. Streander, L. M. Wilkins, K. Richards, C. Berst, “Diffraction limited spectro-polarimeter—phase I,” in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE4843, 414–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

T. Shimizu, “Solar-B,” Adv. Space Res. 29, 2009–2015 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

C. U. Keller, F. L. Deubner, U. Egger, B. Fleck, H. P. Povel, “On the strength of solar intra-network fields,” Astron. Astrophys. 286, 626–634 (1994).

A. M. Gandorfer, H. P. Povel, “First observations with a new imaging polarimeter,” Astron. Astrophys. 328, 381–389 (1997).

Nature (London) (1)

G. B. Scharmer, B. V. Gudiksen, D. Kiselman, M. G. Löfdahl, L. H. M. R. van der Voort, “Dark cores in sunspot penumbral filaments,” Nature (London) 420, 151–153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

R. F. Stein, Å. Nordlund, “Solar surface magneto-convection and dynamo action,” in SOLMAG 2002: Proceedings of the Magnetic Coupling of the Solar Atmosphere Euroconference, ESA SP-505, H. Saway-Lacoste, ed. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002), pp. 83–89.

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Scharmer, K. Bjelksjo, T. K. Korhonen, B. Lindberg, B. Petterson, “The 1-meter Swedish solar telescope,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Sánchez Almeida, “Modulation scheme for the polarimeter for the SST,” Tech. Rep. (Instituto Astrofysicas Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife, 1994).

D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, S. Tomczyk, A. P. Skumanich, R. B. Dunn, J. A. Scheunke, K. V. Streander, T. W. Leach, C. W. Chambellan, H. K. Hull, L. B. Lacey, “The Advanced Stokes Polarimeter: a new instrument for solar magnetic field research,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE1746, 22–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. Martínez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sánchez Almeida, V. González, A. Cruz-Lopéz, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paez, J. J. Díaz, O. Feeney, V. Sánchez, G. Scharmer, D. Soltau, “LPSP and TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories,” in High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 184 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, T. Rimmele, R. Raddick, K. S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–272.

C. U. Keller, J. W. Harvey, M. S. Giampapa, “SOLIS: an innovative suite of synoptic instruments,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 194–204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Sankarasubramanian, D. F. Elmore, B. W. Lites, M. Sigwarth, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Hegwer, S. Gregory, K. V. Streander, L. M. Wilkins, K. Richards, C. Berst, “Diffraction limited spectro-polarimeter—phase I,” in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE4843, 414–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. U. Keller, “Polarimetry with the ATST,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 31–44.

C. U. Keller, “Instrumentation for astrophysical spectropolarimetry,” in Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry, J. Trujillo-Bueno, F. Moreno-Insertis, F. Sánchez, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002), pp. 303–354.

P. H. Seagraves, D. F. Elmore, “Use of Mueller and non-Mueller matrices to describe polarization properties of telescope-based polarimeters,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE2265, 231–238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, C. U. Keller, F. Hill, M. Penn, B. Goodrich, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, J. Oschmann, M. Warner, “Science objectives and technical challenges of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” in Current Theoretical Models and High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, Vol. 286 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, A. A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2003), pp. 3–22.

E. N. Parker, Cosmical Magnetic Fields (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1979).

J. O. Stenflo, Solar Magnetic Fields: Polarized Radiation Diagnostics, Vol. 189 of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass., 1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Power spectra of image motion measured at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) at the National Solar Observatory (Sunspot, New Mexico) and at the McMath-Pierce West Auxiliary (W.A.) Telescope on Kitt Peak. The data of von der Luhe were presented by Lites.5 The other data have not been previously published.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic optical layout for the modulation schemes considered here. Light from the telescope enters the polarimeter from the left and is registered in the two detectors at the right. In the case of the single rotating-retarder scheme, the second retarder is absent.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of one cycle of a time-dependent modulation and demodulation scheme—the smoothly rotating retarder case studied by Lites.5 The abscissa shows the phase angle of the retarder relative to a given reference direction, and the time span plotted shows just one half of a complete rotation of the retarder. The histograms shown correspond to integrations of counts over the time intervals shown, and the sinusoidal curves show the outputs for constant values of (fictitious) pure Stokes parameters Q, U, and V measured at two detectors, x and y. One complete measurement consists of a series of repetitions of such cycles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarimeter cross-talk response matrices [| ri ′(ν)|2] plotted as a function of frequency for the continuously rotating retarder used in the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter (ASP). The total integration time is 1 s, and the read time is 0.11 s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarimeter cross-talk response matrices [| ri ′(ν)|2] plotted as a function of frequency for the balanced scheme of Sánchez Almeida (JSA) (see Table 1). The total integration time is 1 s, and the read time is 0.11 s.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized cross-talk values C ri [Eq. (10)] as a function of cycle period for the ASP (single rotating retarder) with von der Lühe’s (see Lites5) residual image motion power spectrum. An integration time of 10 s was assumed. The format of the plot follows Lites,5 except that the abscissa values are half of those plotted by Lites.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized cross-talk values C ri [Eq. (10)] as a function of cycle period for the modulation scheme of Sánchez Almeida (JSA) (two LCVRs) by use of von der Lühe’s (see Lites5) residual image motion power spectrum. An integration time of 10 s was assumed.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized cross-talk values C ri [Eq. (10)] as a function of cycle period for Sánchez Almeida’s (JSA’s) double LCVR measurement scheme by use of the nontip-tilt-corrected image motion power spectrum measured by Rimmele at the DST. An integration time of 10 s was assumed.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as Fig. 8 except that the tip-tilt-corrected image motion power spectrum measured by Rimmele at the DST was used. JSA, J. Sánchez Almeida.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Same as Fig. 9 except that the rotating retarder and ASP demodulation scheme were used.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Computed intensities I from the magnetoconvection simulation, modeled for a typical region of the quiet Sun. The raw data (top left) were convolved (top right) with a Gaussian function representative of the resolution limit of the ATST. The lower left panel shows |∇I|/|I| computed from the convolved image. The region enclosed in a white box shows a representative strong internetwork magnetic field element whose signal-to-noise ratio properties are estimated in Table 2.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Same as Fig. 12 except that data are shown for Stokes V. The same figures for Q and U are similar to those modeled for a typical region of the quiet Sun.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Computed, convolved intensities I from the magnetoconvection simulation (top left), time scales |I/(dI/dt)| (top right), and the distribution of time scales (bottom left). Time scales were computed from simple differences between similar data taken 30 s before and after the image shown. Only those values with significantly large values of dI/dt were included in the time-scale plot and histogram.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Same as Fig. 13 except that data are shown for Stokes V. The same figures for Q and U are similar to those modeled for a typical region of the quiet Sun. Time scales for variation of Q, U, and V are nearly an order of magnitude smaller than those for I; and Q and U have median values of log10(time scales) of 1.6 and 1.5, respectively. Unlike Fig. 13, only those regions with significant values of both V and dV/dt were included in the time-scale plot and histogram.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Examples of Polarimeter Setups Examined Herea

Tables Icon

Table 2 Cross-Talk Values {Riβ i[0|H̃ri′(ν)|2PN(ν)dν]1/2} and Signal-to-Noise Ratios for a Typical Magnetic Elementa

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

|I|>|V|>|Q, U|.
IM=OS.
S=DIM=DOS.
Six, y; t=Rix, y; t,
Six, y; t=Rix, y; t.
Six, y; tRix, y; t+Rix, y; t · st,
SiRi1+|Ri|¯|Ri| σNt,
=Ri1+βiNt,
0 PNνdν=1.
σri2=Riβi20 |H˜riν|2PNνdν,
Cri=0 |H˜riν|2PNνdν1/2
σri=RiβiCri,
NDLphotons=EBλTdλωDLt π4 D2,
=π16 EBλTdλλ2t,
Nphotons=1.1×107E0.05 B6302ÅT5000 Kdλ22 mÅ×px arcsec0.01622D400 cm2t10 s.
Si=Si0+dSdt δt
1Si0dSdt δt13, or δtT3.

Metrics