Abstract

We report new, near-normal-incidence, transmission grating efficiency results at selected extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths between 4.5 and 30.5 nm for two transmission gratings, one with a period of 200 nm and the other with a period of 400 nm. These gratings consist of opaque gold bars separated by open spaces that have been produced by photolithography techniques commonly used to produce electronic components. The gold bars and the open spaces are nominally of the same width. Both gratings have a thickness of 470 nm. The transmission efficiency at the central, first, and, when possible, second order of diffraction was measured. In addition, guided-wave phenomena at nonnormal angles of incidence, as well as transmission differences depending on which side of the grating was illuminated, were investigated. The observed guided-wave effects allow one to selectively enhance the transmission of the grating at desired wavelengths, as is realized with a blazed reflection grating.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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