Abstract

The multidirectional asymmetrical microlens-array light-control film (MAMA-LCF) is developed for enhancing the image brightness and contrast ratio of various reflective liquid-crystal displays. By use of index-matching material, the interface reflection is greatly reduced. Through optimized designs, the surface-scattering effect is also suppressed; thus the contrast ratio is much enhanced. From experimental results, the MAMA-LCF leads to a ∼1.5× gain in brightness over the MgO standard white and a 15:1 contrast ratio for the reflective color super-twist nematic liquid-crystal display, 2.8× MgO and a 23:1 contrast ratio for the polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal, and 2.8× MgO and a 13:1 contrast ratio for the cholesteric liquid-crystal display. Potential applications of this low-cost plastic thin film for reflective liquid-crystal displays are foreseeable.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. T. Wu, D. K. Yang, “Overview of reflective displays,” in Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2001), pp. 1–31.
  2. I. Fukuda, E. Sakai, Y. Kotani, M. Kitamura, T. Uchida, “A new achromatic reflective STN-LCD with one polarizer and one retardation film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3, 83–87 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. J. Cornelissen, J. H. M. Neijzen, F. A. M. A. Paulissen, J. M. Schlangen, “Reflective direct-view LCDs using polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) and dielectric reflectors,” in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1997), pp. 144–147.
  4. D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid-crystal polymer-gel dispersions: reflective display applications,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1992), pp. 759–761.
  5. Z. J. Lu, J. L. West, X. Y. Huang, D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, “Surface-modified reflective cholesteric displays,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), pp. 172–175.
  6. T. Uchida, T. Nakayama, T. Miyashita, T. Ishinaba, “A novel reflective LCD for high resolution color display,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), pp. 599–602.
  7. Y. Itoh, S. Fujiwara, N. Kimura, S. Mizushima, F. Funada, M. Hijikigawa, “Influence of rough surface on the optical characteristics of reflective LCD with a polarizer,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 221–224.
  8. F. J. Ko, H. P. D. Shieh, “Brightness and contrast enhancement of reflective liquid crystal displays by microlens array light control film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2647–2650 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. P. Huang, J. J. Chen, F. J. Ko, H. P. D. Shieh, “Multidirectional asymmetrical microlens array light control film for improved image in reflective color liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 646–651 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. R. Fowles, “The vectorial nature of light,” in Introduction to Modern Optics, 2nd ed. (Holt, Rinehart Winston, New York, 1975), pp. 40–46.
  11. G. T. Valliath, Z. A. Coleman, J. L. Schindler, R. Polak, R. Akins, K. Jelley, “Design of hologram for brightness enhancement in color LCDs,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1139–1143.
  12. C. J. Wen, D. L. Ting, C. Y. Chen, L. S. Chuang, C. C. Chang, “Optical properties of reflective LCD with diffusive micro slant reflectors (DMSR),” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 526–529.

2002 (1)

Y. P. Huang, J. J. Chen, F. J. Ko, H. P. D. Shieh, “Multidirectional asymmetrical microlens array light control film for improved image in reflective color liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 646–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

F. J. Ko, H. P. D. Shieh, “Brightness and contrast enhancement of reflective liquid crystal displays by microlens array light control film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2647–2650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

I. Fukuda, E. Sakai, Y. Kotani, M. Kitamura, T. Uchida, “A new achromatic reflective STN-LCD with one polarizer and one retardation film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3, 83–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Akins, R.

G. T. Valliath, Z. A. Coleman, J. L. Schindler, R. Polak, R. Akins, K. Jelley, “Design of hologram for brightness enhancement in color LCDs,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1139–1143.

Chang, C. C.

C. J. Wen, D. L. Ting, C. Y. Chen, L. S. Chuang, C. C. Chang, “Optical properties of reflective LCD with diffusive micro slant reflectors (DMSR),” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 526–529.

Chen, C. Y.

C. J. Wen, D. L. Ting, C. Y. Chen, L. S. Chuang, C. C. Chang, “Optical properties of reflective LCD with diffusive micro slant reflectors (DMSR),” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 526–529.

Chen, J. J.

Y. P. Huang, J. J. Chen, F. J. Ko, H. P. D. Shieh, “Multidirectional asymmetrical microlens array light control film for improved image in reflective color liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 646–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L. C.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid-crystal polymer-gel dispersions: reflective display applications,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1992), pp. 759–761.

Chuang, L. S.

C. J. Wen, D. L. Ting, C. Y. Chen, L. S. Chuang, C. C. Chang, “Optical properties of reflective LCD with diffusive micro slant reflectors (DMSR),” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 526–529.

Coleman, Z. A.

G. T. Valliath, Z. A. Coleman, J. L. Schindler, R. Polak, R. Akins, K. Jelley, “Design of hologram for brightness enhancement in color LCDs,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1139–1143.

Cornelissen, H. J.

H. J. Cornelissen, J. H. M. Neijzen, F. A. M. A. Paulissen, J. M. Schlangen, “Reflective direct-view LCDs using polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) and dielectric reflectors,” in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1997), pp. 144–147.

Doane, J. W.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid-crystal polymer-gel dispersions: reflective display applications,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1992), pp. 759–761.

Z. J. Lu, J. L. West, X. Y. Huang, D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, “Surface-modified reflective cholesteric displays,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), pp. 172–175.

Fowles, G. R.

G. R. Fowles, “The vectorial nature of light,” in Introduction to Modern Optics, 2nd ed. (Holt, Rinehart Winston, New York, 1975), pp. 40–46.

Fujiwara, S.

Y. Itoh, S. Fujiwara, N. Kimura, S. Mizushima, F. Funada, M. Hijikigawa, “Influence of rough surface on the optical characteristics of reflective LCD with a polarizer,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 221–224.

Fukuda, I.

I. Fukuda, E. Sakai, Y. Kotani, M. Kitamura, T. Uchida, “A new achromatic reflective STN-LCD with one polarizer and one retardation film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3, 83–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Funada, F.

Y. Itoh, S. Fujiwara, N. Kimura, S. Mizushima, F. Funada, M. Hijikigawa, “Influence of rough surface on the optical characteristics of reflective LCD with a polarizer,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 221–224.

Hijikigawa, M.

Y. Itoh, S. Fujiwara, N. Kimura, S. Mizushima, F. Funada, M. Hijikigawa, “Influence of rough surface on the optical characteristics of reflective LCD with a polarizer,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 221–224.

Huang, X. Y.

Z. J. Lu, J. L. West, X. Y. Huang, D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, “Surface-modified reflective cholesteric displays,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), pp. 172–175.

Huang, Y. P.

Y. P. Huang, J. J. Chen, F. J. Ko, H. P. D. Shieh, “Multidirectional asymmetrical microlens array light control film for improved image in reflective color liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 646–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishinaba, T.

T. Uchida, T. Nakayama, T. Miyashita, T. Ishinaba, “A novel reflective LCD for high resolution color display,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), pp. 599–602.

Itoh, Y.

Y. Itoh, S. Fujiwara, N. Kimura, S. Mizushima, F. Funada, M. Hijikigawa, “Influence of rough surface on the optical characteristics of reflective LCD with a polarizer,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 221–224.

Jelley, K.

G. T. Valliath, Z. A. Coleman, J. L. Schindler, R. Polak, R. Akins, K. Jelley, “Design of hologram for brightness enhancement in color LCDs,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1139–1143.

Kimura, N.

Y. Itoh, S. Fujiwara, N. Kimura, S. Mizushima, F. Funada, M. Hijikigawa, “Influence of rough surface on the optical characteristics of reflective LCD with a polarizer,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 221–224.

Kitamura, M.

I. Fukuda, E. Sakai, Y. Kotani, M. Kitamura, T. Uchida, “A new achromatic reflective STN-LCD with one polarizer and one retardation film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3, 83–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ko, F. J.

Y. P. Huang, J. J. Chen, F. J. Ko, H. P. D. Shieh, “Multidirectional asymmetrical microlens array light control film for improved image in reflective color liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 646–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Ko, H. P. D. Shieh, “Brightness and contrast enhancement of reflective liquid crystal displays by microlens array light control film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2647–2650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kotani, Y.

I. Fukuda, E. Sakai, Y. Kotani, M. Kitamura, T. Uchida, “A new achromatic reflective STN-LCD with one polarizer and one retardation film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3, 83–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. J.

Z. J. Lu, J. L. West, X. Y. Huang, D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, “Surface-modified reflective cholesteric displays,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), pp. 172–175.

Miyashita, T.

T. Uchida, T. Nakayama, T. Miyashita, T. Ishinaba, “A novel reflective LCD for high resolution color display,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), pp. 599–602.

Mizushima, S.

Y. Itoh, S. Fujiwara, N. Kimura, S. Mizushima, F. Funada, M. Hijikigawa, “Influence of rough surface on the optical characteristics of reflective LCD with a polarizer,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 221–224.

Nakayama, T.

T. Uchida, T. Nakayama, T. Miyashita, T. Ishinaba, “A novel reflective LCD for high resolution color display,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), pp. 599–602.

Neijzen, J. H. M.

H. J. Cornelissen, J. H. M. Neijzen, F. A. M. A. Paulissen, J. M. Schlangen, “Reflective direct-view LCDs using polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) and dielectric reflectors,” in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1997), pp. 144–147.

Paulissen, F. A. M. A.

H. J. Cornelissen, J. H. M. Neijzen, F. A. M. A. Paulissen, J. M. Schlangen, “Reflective direct-view LCDs using polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) and dielectric reflectors,” in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1997), pp. 144–147.

Polak, R.

G. T. Valliath, Z. A. Coleman, J. L. Schindler, R. Polak, R. Akins, K. Jelley, “Design of hologram for brightness enhancement in color LCDs,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1139–1143.

Sakai, E.

I. Fukuda, E. Sakai, Y. Kotani, M. Kitamura, T. Uchida, “A new achromatic reflective STN-LCD with one polarizer and one retardation film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3, 83–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schindler, J. L.

G. T. Valliath, Z. A. Coleman, J. L. Schindler, R. Polak, R. Akins, K. Jelley, “Design of hologram for brightness enhancement in color LCDs,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1139–1143.

Schlangen, J. M.

H. J. Cornelissen, J. H. M. Neijzen, F. A. M. A. Paulissen, J. M. Schlangen, “Reflective direct-view LCDs using polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) and dielectric reflectors,” in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1997), pp. 144–147.

Shieh, H. P. D.

Y. P. Huang, J. J. Chen, F. J. Ko, H. P. D. Shieh, “Multidirectional asymmetrical microlens array light control film for improved image in reflective color liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 646–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Ko, H. P. D. Shieh, “Brightness and contrast enhancement of reflective liquid crystal displays by microlens array light control film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2647–2650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ting, D. L.

C. J. Wen, D. L. Ting, C. Y. Chen, L. S. Chuang, C. C. Chang, “Optical properties of reflective LCD with diffusive micro slant reflectors (DMSR),” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 526–529.

Uchida, T.

I. Fukuda, E. Sakai, Y. Kotani, M. Kitamura, T. Uchida, “A new achromatic reflective STN-LCD with one polarizer and one retardation film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3, 83–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Uchida, T. Nakayama, T. Miyashita, T. Ishinaba, “A novel reflective LCD for high resolution color display,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), pp. 599–602.

Valliath, G. T.

G. T. Valliath, Z. A. Coleman, J. L. Schindler, R. Polak, R. Akins, K. Jelley, “Design of hologram for brightness enhancement in color LCDs,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1139–1143.

Wen, C. J.

C. J. Wen, D. L. Ting, C. Y. Chen, L. S. Chuang, C. C. Chang, “Optical properties of reflective LCD with diffusive micro slant reflectors (DMSR),” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 526–529.

West, J. L.

Z. J. Lu, J. L. West, X. Y. Huang, D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, “Surface-modified reflective cholesteric displays,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), pp. 172–175.

Wu, S. T.

S. T. Wu, D. K. Yang, “Overview of reflective displays,” in Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2001), pp. 1–31.

Yang, D. K.

S. T. Wu, D. K. Yang, “Overview of reflective displays,” in Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2001), pp. 1–31.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid-crystal polymer-gel dispersions: reflective display applications,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1992), pp. 759–761.

Z. J. Lu, J. L. West, X. Y. Huang, D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, “Surface-modified reflective cholesteric displays,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), pp. 172–175.

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

I. Fukuda, E. Sakai, Y. Kotani, M. Kitamura, T. Uchida, “A new achromatic reflective STN-LCD with one polarizer and one retardation film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3, 83–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

F. J. Ko, H. P. D. Shieh, “Brightness and contrast enhancement of reflective liquid crystal displays by microlens array light control film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2647–2650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Huang, J. J. Chen, F. J. Ko, H. P. D. Shieh, “Multidirectional asymmetrical microlens array light control film for improved image in reflective color liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 646–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

G. R. Fowles, “The vectorial nature of light,” in Introduction to Modern Optics, 2nd ed. (Holt, Rinehart Winston, New York, 1975), pp. 40–46.

G. T. Valliath, Z. A. Coleman, J. L. Schindler, R. Polak, R. Akins, K. Jelley, “Design of hologram for brightness enhancement in color LCDs,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1139–1143.

C. J. Wen, D. L. Ting, C. Y. Chen, L. S. Chuang, C. C. Chang, “Optical properties of reflective LCD with diffusive micro slant reflectors (DMSR),” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 526–529.

H. J. Cornelissen, J. H. M. Neijzen, F. A. M. A. Paulissen, J. M. Schlangen, “Reflective direct-view LCDs using polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) and dielectric reflectors,” in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1997), pp. 144–147.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid-crystal polymer-gel dispersions: reflective display applications,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1992), pp. 759–761.

Z. J. Lu, J. L. West, X. Y. Huang, D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, “Surface-modified reflective cholesteric displays,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), pp. 172–175.

T. Uchida, T. Nakayama, T. Miyashita, T. Ishinaba, “A novel reflective LCD for high resolution color display,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1995), pp. 599–602.

Y. Itoh, S. Fujiwara, N. Kimura, S. Mizushima, F. Funada, M. Hijikigawa, “Influence of rough surface on the optical characteristics of reflective LCD with a polarizer,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 221–224.

S. T. Wu, D. K. Yang, “Overview of reflective displays,” in Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2001), pp. 1–31.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Panel configuration of a reflective display laminating a light-control film and (b) unidirectional AMA-LCF modified as a multidirectional AMA-LCF for collecting and redirecting multiple ambient illuminations. LC, liquid crystal; LCF, light-control film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Estimated reflective light efficiency of a reflective LCD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic plot of the system configuration of the MAMA-LCF on the (a) reflective color STN-LCD, (b) PDLC display, and (c) two-surface rubbed Ch-LCD. PET, polyethylene terephthalate; ITO, indium tin oxide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured reflectivity (left part) and photographs (right part) of the dark-state images of the (a) bare STN, (b) STN-A, and (c) STN-B.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured results of the dark-state reflectance of the (a) PDLC-A and (b) Ch-LCD-A.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured (a) reflectivity and (b) CR of the reflective color STN-LCD as a function of viewing angle under illumination from -30°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured (a) reflectivity and (b) CR of the reflective PDLC as a function of viewing angle under illumination from -30°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured (a) reflectivity and (b) CR of the reflective Ch-LCD as a function of viewing angle under illumination from -30°.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sample photographs of the (a) color STN-LCD, (b) PDLC, and (c) Ch-LCD. The displays with MAMA-LCF clearly show much better image quality. TN, twist nematic.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Configuration of Test Panels

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of the Reflective Color STN, PDLC, and Ch-LCD Used

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of Conventional Image-Enhanced Components Used for Reflective Displays

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rs=|rs|2=|cos θ-n2-sin2 θ/cos θ +n2-sin2 θ|2,
Rp=|rp|2=-|n2 cos θ+n2-sin2 θ/n2 cos θ +n2-sin2 θ|2.
Rtotal=IisRs2+IipRp2/Iis2+Iip2,
Rtotal=Rs2+Rp2/2.

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